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THE 


LIVES 


OF 


THE  PURITANS: 


CONTAINING 


A  BIOGRAPHICAL  ACCOUNT  OF  THOSE  DIVINES  WHO 
DISTINGUISHED  THEMSELVES  IN  THE  CAUSE 


OF 


)aeIip)U0  Hitiettp, 


FROM  THE  REFORMATION  UNDER  QUEEN  ELIZABETH, 

TO  THE  ACT  OF  UNIFORMITY, 
IN  1662. 


BY    BENJAMIN    BROOK. 


IN  THREE  VOLUMES, 


^>0^^>^i^>^^<^>^^>^>^^^ 


VOL.  III. 


He,  being  dead,  yet  speaketh. — Hebrews. 

Many  of  the  Paritans  were  men  of  great  erudition,  deep  viewi  of 
religion,  and  unquestionable  piety;  and  their  writings  contain  a  mine  of 
wealth,  in  which  any  one,  who  will  submit  to  some  degree  of  labour,  will  flad 
himself  well  rewarded  for  his  pains. — Wilberforce. 


ILonOon: 

PRINTED  FOR  JAMES  BLACK, 

TORE-STREET,  CO?  ENT-AARDiw' 


'  m 


I  « 
>    4- 


1813. 


•       .    •  •  • 

.  -      *      •  ■         » 

«  •     •  •     .    •        *  . 


^r.*'.\  ^   '•.^  ^    .* 


•  ■  • 


*  •       •    ■         a 

•  •••    •         •. 

•  .    ■  ■    • 


I  • 


■  »  • »      • 

•  ••■••      « 
••••§•#        • 


i  ■  « 


CONTENTS  OF  VOL.  Ilf. 


John  Dod •••• 

Thamas  Lj^diat 

IVilliaiiiTwisse 

Jeremiah  Barroaghs 
Francis  Corn  well  •• 
Thomas  Collier  •  • . . 

Philip  IVindy 

Thomas  Moore 

John  Darance 

John  Batchelor 

Jphn  Greene  • 

John  Price 

Mr.  Symonds  '. 

Joseph  Symonds .... 

Henry  Barton 

Henry  Wilkinson  .. 
Thomas  Coleman  .  . . 
Ephraim  Paget. .... 
Thomas  Hooker  •  • . . , 

John  Saltmarsh 

Herbert  Palmer  .  • . . 

Robert  Balsom 

Thomas  Edwards  .  • . 

John  White 

Peter  Smart 

Richard  Blackerby  t . 

Thomas  Temple 

John  jVilkinson 

John  Geree  t tt# 


FAGE 

1 

6 
12 
18 
S5 
87 
90 
31 


ib.     \ 


S2 
34 

37 
38 
39 
40 
59 
60 

64 

70 

75    I 

79    \ 

88 

88 

90 

96 
100 
101 
108 


PAIIB 

Thomas  Shepard.... 103 

Saraoel  Crook , lOT 

Francis  Woodcock 109 

Edward  Symonds 110 

Andrew  Wyke 118 

Henry  Tozer ib» 

Christopher  Lore   115 

Peter  Saxton 139 

George  Walker 140 

John  Vicars 14S 

Patrick  Yoong 145 

Daniel  Rogers 140 

John  Cotton...' 15t 

William  Lyford 161 

John  Lathorp •  •  •  168 

William  Gouge 165 

Thomas  HiU    170 

Thomas  Wilson 178 

Natkaniel  Ward 188 

Robert  Abbot ib. 

John  Spifsbury  18S 

Cnthbert  Sydenham 184 

William  Erbery 185 

Jeremiah  Whitaker ItO 

William  Strong IM 

Thomas  Gaiaker,  j  an 

Samuel  Bolton.. 

John  Morcot •• 884 

JothnaHoyle  •« 


CONTKNTS. 


AnilreN'  reme Mn 

AlPMnJrr  firiMi livN 

JchnOralle SW 

Hklmrd  Vlnr* VW 

Ila|[b  Rnblnxtn XT'B 

John  Anffi 8M 

IUI)ih  Koblnwin JUf7 

NndHlnlrl  linden    SWf 

Jcrom  Tarner U I 

Meplwn  MidIuII lb. 

Timothy  Arnilajte Sifil 

a)lnW»rkn>w. SS5 

TbOBIM  YoBM  ■■•.. lb. 

Jvfen  Prndiiri'n 96A 

J*lln(iir»rd SST 

ft)4ba><l  Cnpcl SM 

ium  Noyr* yol 

Edward  BTifht SIM 

Bebm  Hack. va 

tUphrn  rfame MS 

tUmntdtUirbu 9M 

Jtmrt  RrBnrnrd 9HK 

Thaprn*  HIabR Sffl 

J«hn  JaiH-wn; )nl 

Jain  Unxtr; 9WI 

Jabn  (;iinblrdrn W1 

J«hn  FrMt ib. 

HB(h  l'.*aM SKI 

Otadiah  H«il|twlck WA 

William  Nandlirooke Ml 

Min  Urvi-rlj «0K 

Wllllan  (^Irr SMI 

^hn  Uvr) .Wl) 

TtMmaa  (ioiMlwlH ib. 

bberi  Hani 9(19 

Ohrlilaf hrr  f'nkr -ftm 

JMp    I'aiitidiEi-  311 

■ydfanh  lynpHD 31S 

■obert  Dlanlry .114 

John  Atrnwinltb aift 

VMarBulkly 3I« 


Hamiirl  Jarnmb .1ID 

ThoinluCBKIaii .WO 

llrnr;  fjun.d-r Klf 

Cliorlei  iierlff au 

John  Ib>|;<Ti 380 

Mnrjtan  Unyd 3KD 

Ktlward  Bitrbrr 330 

Jnhn  Caniir Jjli 

llMkirt  Ruurr 341 

WIIJ  iiMl  lHyir 34S 

PrlrrHlnTj 317 

Kdsiirdl^rfi..... 310 

llBuli  Pbi,™ 350 

John  fhiry sgp 

llriiiy   tVliHIlrlrf 373 

Adnnlrau  Hyfliild ai4 

l^indnnlliw  .IcMop an 

Henry  Di-nne 8TS 

franrU  Taylor SSO 

Kvnn  Howru 3S1 

Waller  CradMk US 

WI1linin.T«rrFry SSA 

l^hrlitophrr  mnchwood  ...  3W 

»llll«niT4jlr>r S90 

Jnhn  Jonirt 3t| 

PraiiMhid  KarrhonB SBfl 

John  i«y 403 

J»bn  Hiniptan 4(U 

JobnKirlillr 411 

Bciuamin  Co* ,  lb. 

JahD  Nnrlun 4I9 

Hamurl  Mirmnan 481 

HnmuH  KInnr 48S 

Tboma*  I'alinnt 485 

VVilllam  ThuinpioD 486 

Nnmui'l  Oolr 41t 

Juhu  WILun 4.11 

Alirnhnm  Chrare 4.'U 

Klrhnril  Mather 440 

ZccliariubNymn.... 44A 

Jobn  I}BfcD|Hirt ib. 


CONTENTS. 


Cterlct  Cbannccy 451 

JotanAUen 466 

namai  GranthBai  ........  ib. 

TfaomuLoBib 461 

diver  Bowlii 466 

AhD.Fuk 468 

n<H>"«  Parker iM 

P«lerHabar1 471 

SuDUd  Wbillng 418 

John  WWIwrlsbl 4T8 

Soger  ffmiams..... 4TT 

JotanSherman  4B8 

Tlfoniai  Cobbel 48S 

John  BlllDt         484 

Haaiera  Kao]}y 4B1 

Jobs  Ward fiOO 

ADDENDA. 

Mr.Allen 502 

Hr.  BroUeiby ib. 

Mr.  Evans ib. 

Hr.Fiis 503 

Dngb  Boolbe ib, 

Tbomai  Greihop 504 

James  Rosier ib. 

Dr.  Penny ib, 

Ur.Sparrow ib. 

Mr.  Wabh 505 

Mr.FDlwer ib, 

Mt.  Lolrlh   ib. 

Jobn  BroHD ib. 

Qavid  Tliickiienny. . . .. 506 

Edward  Chapman ib. 

fialpliLever        507 

William  Dretrel ib. 

Jobn  ^aih ib. 

Mr.Eram 608 

JUcbard  Prond ib. 

JohnHoabe ib. 

Jwepb  Nicboli 509 

J«haUwiiwii ib. 


milian  Fleming ib. 

Jamea  GiKwell ik. 

JahD  Hopkim 610 

Thamns  FBrmr ib. 

JohnOiPnbridgi: ib. 

Ml.  Harsnel ib. 

Nirholai  WmramsoD 611 

Hr.  Gibion Ib. 

Blr.  Horrockf ib, 

Sampion  SbeOeld   ib. 

lUcbard  GardiDCT &1S 

Mr   Kendal  ib. 

Ezekkl  Culvernell lb. 

Mr.  Bembere 513 

George  Xfwion ib. 

John  Allison        ..........  )k 

William  Bonme 614 

William  ^;tbDnt ib. 

Mr.  Adersler Ibi 

Ht.  B.  Bridcer lb. 

Tbomai  Newhonie 516 

Ttiomai  Edmnndi ib. 

Stephen  Goagfae ib. 

Robert  ClesTer 5IS 

Robert  Maodeiill ib. 

John  WilkinHin ib. 

John  Morton   ^-^  511 

Mr,  Hubbard ib. 

Jobn  Yates    ih. 

John  Frewen 518 

Francis  Bright ib. 

Mr   Udney         ib. 

Samuel  Blacklock 619 

Mr,  Bradslreel Ih. 

Mr,  Crowder 686 

Samael  SkelloD lb. 

Humphrey  Barnel  ....■•••  ib. 

Mr    Brodet         591 

Aicbard  Demon. .V ib. 

Jobn  Vincent ib. 

Jaka  Tralk ,.. ib. 


VUl 


CONTENTS. 


PAGB 

Adam  Blackman    •• 68t 

Thomas  Warren ib. 

William  Herriofton  ib. 

Nicholai  Beard flSS 

William  Green    ib. 

William  Powell ib. 

WiUiamKent ftS4 

Mr.  Da? eniih ib. 

Mr.  Barret    ib. 

Mr.  Salisbory M5 

Mr.  Jeifryet ib. 

Henry  Page    5S6 

Ralph  Smith ib. 

Ephraim  Hewet. •••......  ib. 

Dr.  Jenningson     ....•..••  ib. 

John  Jemmet  •  •  •  • •  fi9T 

John  Stooghton  •••.....«.  ib. 

Mr.  Borchell ib. 

TbomaiiSeott i  5S8 

WillUm  Maditerd ib. 

Mr.  Cooper     589 


FA6B 

Edmund  Small ib. 

Mr.  Smith ib. 

John  Spencer ib. 

Hannibal  Gammon 630 

Mr.  Wainwright ib. 

John  Sims tb. 

John  Foxcroft 691 

Ralph  Blarsden  ib. 

Nicholas  Darton ib. 

Henry  Roborongh ib. 

Abraham  Pdrson 639 

Howcl  Vanghan   ib. 

Robert  MatOB ib. 

Peter  Pmdden 63S 

Robert  Booth ib. 

Walter  Rosewell 084 

Thomas  Ball    ib. 

Stanley  Gower ib. 

Henry  Flint 635 

James  Sicklemore ib. 

Afpshdix ••  5ST 


CONTENTS   OF   THE   NOTES. 

Acoriowanecdoteof  Bishops  Neale  and  Andrews     2 

The  occasion  of  the  civil  war 3 

Accoont  of  the  famous  John  Selden  9 

Archbishop  UsBer  tamely  submitted  to  Archbishop  Laud 15 

Bodies  dug  up  after  the  restoration   • 16 

Account  of  the  Earl  of  Warwick IS 

A  popish  book  dedicated  to  Archbishop  Laud 49 

Mrs.  Burton  committed  to  prison 44 

Warrant  for  apprehending  H.  Burton lb. 

to  the  warden  of  the  Fleet 45 

A  rurioui  anecdote  of  Bastwick's  litany ib. 

Sentence  against  Bastwick  and  Prynne 47 

darendon'i  character  of  Archbishop  Land   « .  49 

The  paring  of  H.  Burton'sears 50 

The  people  at  Cof  entry  and  Chester  prosecuted 61 


CONVSMTS.  a 

PASS 

Aecomit  of  William  PryBiie 5f 

■■               the  portrait  of  Arckbitbop  Laad  mad  H.  Barton 8S 

A  corioai  anecdote  of  Archbtihop  Abbot Yi 

Gomnfttee  ofreHftonolfeiBlfetoLaad , 81 

A£coiiiit  of  the  iDROYBtloni  of  Dr.  Ootim ...••..••  01 

Mn.  Smart's  letter  to  her  hBifoaad     ...« tS 

,  Sir  Edward  Lakenor  a  friend  to  the  tioncoiiformisti    M 

Anecdotes  of  BIflhop  Nelle  101 

Mr.  Gibbons  beheaded  on  Towerohill    1S5 

Dr.  Grey*B  opinion  of  C.  Love ••••« 137 

Soldiers  threatening  to  shoot  Dr.  Manton    ••••^ 138 

A  cnrions  aneedote  of  George  Walker. J •• 140 

Dr.  Grey's  frivolons  reasoning    •••••• 148 

Account  of  the  Alexandrian  maanscript  « •  •  /• • ••• .  148 

The  Iklse  accusation  of  John  Cotton 154 

The  Mayor  of  Amndcl  prosecntcd...*....^ 165 

Dr.  Tnck*s  severe  usage 177 

Bishop  Kennet's  character  of  the  tryers.. 186 

Account  ofthe  assembly's  annotations  # •• 811 

■  '                 massacre  in  Ireland  .^ ••... 886 

Earl  of  Essex 883 

Anecdote  of  Dr.  Heylln  and  Bishop  Williams •  848 

Dr.  Grey's  insiooatlon  of  S.  Marshall 849 

Account  of  Lady  Brown's  piety 851 

»    ■  the  flfth  monarchy-men ••.•••• 857 

■  — William Janeway 2T8 

Warrant  for  apprehending  Thomas  Cawton 381 

Account  of  Castell*8  Lexicon  Heptaglotton 388 

— —  the  monthly  lectures  in  Yorkshire  348 

Archbishop  Matthews 343 

—— —  Sir  Henry  Vane .* 348 

Anecdote  of  Bishop  Montaigne   •• « M> 

Account  of  Thomas  Peters ,, ••••••«. • 353 

Waller's  plot 356 

■  — Mrs.  Peters  ••••••••» • 368 

Bishop  Bedell  favoured ibe  union  of  protestants 370 

King  Charles's  schismatical  remark «« t« 38$ 

Warrant  to  the  keeper  of  Newgate*  •  •  • •  •  • • ^  398 

Oliver  Cromwell  an  enbmy  to  persecution • •  416 

Two  anecdotes  of  Oliver  Cromwell •••••# ib. 

Account  of  the  infamous  Titus  Oates   ••• • 487 

TOL.  III.  b 


X  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Ptablic  difpatatloM  mn  relis'ioD  to  be  difcooBleasaced 4311 

Arebbiibop  Ncile  tmagbl  tbe  people  to  pny  for  tbe  dead 440 

Dr.  Merrick  tbreateoed  by  ArcbbUbop  Lud 45iS 

Aaecdotei  of  two  penecated  brotben ^ 487 

If n.  HotcbiMOD  baoifbed  and  Budered   476 

Tbe  aoMUCIflc  leiiftb  of  ladiaa  woidf 488 

OraBger'i  ccmare  of  two  books  OB  eoacroreny   500 

Accowit  of  tbe aatbor'i  If S.  aathoritiei 639,510 


THE 


LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 


John  Dob,  A.M.-^Tki8  celebrated  divine  was  born  al 
Shotwich  in  Cheshire,  about  the  year  1549y  was  the  youngeat 
of  seventeen  children,  and  educated  in  JesUs  college^ 
Cambridge;  where  he  continued  nearly  sixteen  years,  rad 
was  chosen  fellow  of  the  house.  During  his  abode  in  the 
university,  he  became  thoroughly  convinced  of  his  sins, 
betook  himself  to  deep  humiliation,  and  earnestly  sought  the 
blessings  of  pardon  and  peace  through  Jesus  Christ;  which, 
to  his  unspeakable  comfort,  he  at  last  obtained.  While  at 
Cambridge  he  was  particularly  intimate  with  Drs.  Fulke, 
Chadderton,  Whitaker,  and  others,  who  held  their  weekly 
meetings  for  prayer  and  expounding  the  scriptures.  In  die 
year  I6l5y  a  divioe  of  the  same  name,  and  no  doubt  the 
same  person,  was  elected  proctor  of  the  university %•  Having 
received  an  invitation  to  become  pastor  at  Hlinwell  in 
Oxfordshire,  he  left  the  university,  and  entered  upon  the 
stated  exercises  of  the  christian  ministry.  In  this  situatioo 
he  preached  frequently,  catechized  the  youth,  and  united 
with  others  in  a  weekly  lecture  at  Banburj.  Hb  labours  at 
Hanwell  were  numerous,  and  most  extensively  useful.  It  is 
observed,  that  hundreds  of  souls  were  at  this  place  converted 
under  his  ministry  .f  He  was  about  thirty  years  old  when  he 
first  settled  at  Hanwell,  and  remained  there  about  twen^ 
years,  where  he  had  twelve  children  by  his  first  wife,  the 
daughter  of  Dr.  Nicholas  Bound.  After  her  death  he  took, 
a  second  wife,  and  was  married  by  his  old  fiiend  Dr.  William 
Gouge. 

Mr.  Dod's  great  popularity  and  usefulness  in  the  abov^ 
situation,  roused  the  envy  of  several  neighbouring  ministers, 
who,  though  they  seldom  preached  themselveS|  would  not 

*  Faller*8  Hiit.  of  Camb.  p.  1S9. 
f  ClarlL'i  Lire*  anntxed  lo  bit  Martyralof  !•,  p.  168, 169. 
VOL.  ni.  ^ 


2  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

allow  their  people  to  go  and  hear  him ;  and  for  the  singular 
crime  of  multitudes  flocking  to  his  ministry,  he  was  several 
times  questioned  in  the  bishops'  courts.*  In  addition  to 
this,  bemg  exercised  with  some  other  trials,  he  was  induced 
to  consult  Mr.  Greenham,  his  excellent  father-in-law.  lliis 
reverend  divine,  after  hearing  his  complaints,  said,  ''  Son, 
son,  when  affliction  lieth  heavy,  sin  lieth  light;"  and  gave 
Mr.  Dod  such  suitable  advice,  that  he  had  abundant  cause 
to  bless  God  for  it,  and  found  it  of  excellent  use  all  tlie 
rest  of  his  days.  However,  he  was  at  length  suspended 
from  his  ministry  at  Hanwell  by  Dr.  Bridges,  bishop  of 
Oxford.  Being  driven  from  his  affectionate  and  beloved  ~ 
people,  he  preached  a  short  time  at  Fenny  Compton  in  . 
Warwickshire,  llien  accepted  an  invitation  to  Canons  Aahby 
in  Nbrdiamptonshire.  In  the  latter  situation  he  was  treated 
with  pecidial*  kindness  by  Sir  Erasmus  Dryden,  a  gentleman 
of  great  learning  and  piety ;  but  he  did  not  contmue  long 
witfaoiit  molestation.  For,  upon  the  complaint  of  Bishop 
Neile,f  he  was  silenced  by  the  archbishop.t 

Though  this  excellent  divine  was  cast  aside,  he  did  not 
remain  idle.  When  his  efforts  of  public  usefulness  were  set 
aside,  he  went  about  from  house  to  house,  giving  private 
instructions;  and  by  his  pious  discourse  and  holy  deport- 
ment, he  was  nearly  as  useful  as  when  he  enjoyed  hb  public 
munistry.^  He  was  particularly  desirous  of  a  more  pure 
reformation  of  the  church,  and  therefore  united  with  his 
brethren  in  subscribing  the  **  Book  of  Discipline.^'!  He 
con^ued  under  the  above  suspension  several  years.  But 
Qn.  the  accession  of  King  James,  Sir  Richard  Knightly 

1  procured  him  his  liberty;  and  he  renewed  his  ministerial 
abours  at  Fausley  in  Northamptonshire,  where  he  continued, 
in  great  reputation  and  usefulness,  all  the  rest  of  hb  days. 

*  Clark's  Lives  annexed  to  Marty rologie,  p.  170. 

f  Bhhop  Neile  of  Durham  and  Bishop  Andrews  of  Winchester,  attend- 
iai^  upon  King  James,  had  the  following  conversation  with  him :  His 
majesty,  Always  intent  upon  his  prerogative,  aslced  the  bishops,  **  My 
lortlSf  eannet  I  take  my  subjects*  money  when  I  want  it,  without  all  this 
fonmility  in  parliament?"  The  Bishop  of  Durham  readily  answered, 
*^  Gdd' forbid,  sir,  but  you  should ;  yon  are  the  breath  of  our  nostrils*'* 
Upon  this  the  king  turned,  and  said  to  the  Bishop  of  Winchester,  **  Well, 
my  lord,  what  say  yon?"  ^*  Sir,"  replied  the  bishop,  **  I  have  no  skill  to 
judge  of  parliamentary  cases."  The  king  answered,  *'  No  put  oifs,  my 
lord ;  answer  me  presently."  **  Then,  sir,"  said  he,  **  I  think  it  lawful 
for  y*a  to  take  ray  brother  Neile's  money,  for  be  oflTers  it.'*  Thii 
plcamntry  afforded  great  entertainment  to  the  company. — JBiog.  Britan. 
vol.  i.  p.  185.    Edit.  1778. 

?  Clark's  Lives  annexed  to  Martyrologie,  p.  170. 
Faller'f  Worthier  pact  i.  p..  181.        ||  Neal's  Puritanfi  vol.  i.  p.  423. 


DOD.  9 

m 

Here,  also,  he  felt  the  iron  rod  of  the  prc^Iates ;  and,  as  iii 
the  three  former  sitoations,  he  was  for  a  time  suspended  from 
his  public  ministry.* 

Mr.  Dod  was  a  pattern  of  patience.  He  bore  his 
numerous  trials  with  great  meekness  of  spirit  and  holy 
resignation  to  the  will  of  God.  He  used  to  say,  *^  Sanctified 
afflictions  are  spiritual  promotions/'  In  the  sixty-third  year 
of  his  age,  he  laboured  under  extreme  bodily  affliction,  and 
was  brought  to  the  very  brink  of  the  grave :  but  when  the 
physician,  who  gave  a  check  to  his  complaint,  told  him  he 
had  then  some  hope  of  his  recovery,  die  good  old  man 
replied,  "  You  think  to  comfort  me  by  what  you  say ;  but 
you  make  me  sad.  It  is  the  same  as  if  you  had  told  onid 
who  had  been  sorely  weather-beaten  at  sea,  and  was  expect^ 
ing  to  enter  the  deSired  haven,  that  he  must  return  to  sei^ 
to  be  tossed  by  fresh  winds  and  waves."  Having  a  comfort- 
able assurance  of  heaven,  he  was  desirous  to  leave  th^ 
world,  and  to  **  be  with  Christ."  And  as  he  enjoyed  much 
divine  consolation  in  his  own  mind ;  so,  in  numerous  remark- 
able instances,  he  administered  the  same  to  others. 

This  venerable  divine  used  to  say, ''  I  have  no  reason  to 
complain  of  any  cr6ss^,  because  they  are  the  bitter  fruit  of 
my  sin.  Nothing  shall  hurt  us  but  sm ;  ahd  that  shall  not 
hurt  us,  if  we  can  repent  of  it.  And  nothing  can  do  ua 
good  but  the  love  and  favour  of  God  in  Christ;  and  that 
we  shall  have  if  we  seek  it  in  good  earnest.  Afflictions  are 
God's  potions,  ^hich  we  may  sweeten  by  faith  and  prayer; 
but  we  often  make  them  bitter,  by  putting  into  God's  cup 
the  ill  ingredients  of  impatience  and  unbelief.  There  is  no 
affliction  so  small  but  we  shall  sink  under  it,  if  God  uphold 
us  not :  and  there  is  no  sin  so  great  but  we  shall  commit  it^ 
if  God  restrain  us  not.  A  man  who  hath  the  spirit  of 
prayer  hath  more  than  if  he  hath  all  the  world.  And  no 
man  is  in  a  bad  condition,  but  he  who  hath  a  hard  heart  and  ' 
cannot  pray." 

During  the  civil  wars,f  when  some  of  the  king's  party 
came  to  his  house,  and  threatened  to  take  away  his  life,  this 
heavenly  divine,  with  holy  confidence  replied,  "  If  you  do, 
you  will  send  me  to  heaven,  where  I  long  to  be ;  but  yon 

*  FaUer's  Worthies,  part  i.  p.  1^« 

i*  The  first  ill  blood  between  Kin|^  Cliarles  and  kit  Ml\|ectt,  wklck 
afterwards  ]ed  to  all  the  horrors  of  civil  war,  was  occasioned*  by  cJi# 
severe  proceedings  in  the  high  commission  court,  and  the  cmel  censnres  la- 
the star«chamber ;  in  both  of  which  the  coor^  clergy  were  allowed  tao 
much  power.— J3<0j^.  BriUm,  fol.  i.  p.  372. 


»  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

ctn  do  nothing  except  God  ffive  you  leave." '  When  they 
broke  open  hb  chests  and  cuMKMurds,  and  canied  away  what 
^ey  pleased,  his  only  complaint  was,  The  Lordgave,  and 
the  Lord  hath  taken  atDay ;  blessed  be  the  name  ofthe  Lord. 
When  they  came  a  second  time,  he  was  confineq  to  his  bed 
|>y  sickness ;  but  though  they  cut  away  the  curtains  from  hisr 
bed,  and  took  the  pillow-cases  from  under  his  head,  he  uttered 
not  a  murmuring  word.*    Comii^  a  thkd  time,  and  havings 
taken  most  of  the  linen  and  household  stu£f,  and  brought 
them  into  the  room  in  which  the  good  old  man  sat  warmmg 
himself  by  the  fire ;  he,  during  their  absence  to  search  for 
more,  took  a  pair  of  sheets,  and  put  them  under  the  cushion 
on  which  he  sat,  greatly  pleasii^  hiniself,  after  they  were 
gone,  that  he  had  plunder^  the  plunderers,  and,  by  a  lawful 
robbery,  saved  so  much  of  his  own  property  .f 
.    Mr.  Dod  was  exceedingly  beloved,  though  not  without  his 
enemies.    These,  out  of  malice,  stigmati^  him  Faith  and 
Repentance;  because  he  was  constantly  recommending  these 
two  things*    He  was  a  person  of  great  moderation;  and 
when  he  was  questioned  about  subscription  and  the  cere- 
monies, he  was  always  e<]^ually  ready  to  give  his  opinion,  and 
cautious  in  giving  his  advice.     He  urged  all  who  desired  his 
opinion  upontheib  points,  to  take  heed  against  being  influenced 
by  the  example  or  arguments  of  others,  but  to  look  to  God 
and  his  holy  word  for  direction.     He  used  to  ask  them 
whether  ^ey  could  su£fer  in  that  cause  aloney  if  all  others 

.  were  deadi    Though  he  was  a  strict  nonconformist,  and  bore 

J  bb  share  of  sufferings  in  the   cause,  he  was  of  a  most 

^  liberal  spirit,  and  loved  all  who  loved  Christ. 

As  old  age  and  afilictions  came  upon  him,  he  usually 
compared  himself  to  Sampson  when  his  hair  was  cut ;  saying, 
''  I  rise  in  the  morning  as  Sampson  did,  and  think  I  wUI  go 
fordi  aa  at  other  times  \  but,  alas !  {  soon  find  an  alteration : 
I  mustvStoop  to  old  age,  wluch  hath  dipt  mv  hair,  and  taken 
away  my  strength.     But  I  am  not  afraid  to  look  death  in  the 

,  face.  I  can  say,  death,  where  is  thy  sting  ?  Death  cannot 
hurt  me.  To  a  wicked  man  death  is  unwelcome ;  but  to  a 
child  of  God,  who  hath  laboured  and  suffered  much,  death 
is  welcome,  that  he  may  rest  from  his  labours."  During  \m 
faist  sickness  he  was  exercised  with  most  grievous  pains,  but 
was  eminently  supported  and  comforted  in  the  exercise  of 
.  fiutfa  and  patience.  He  wrestled  hard  with  Satan,  and  at  last 
overcame.    He  longed  to  be  with  Christ,  and  his  desire  was 

*  Clark'i  IdTCi,  p.  174, 175.        f  Fuller's  Cborch  Hiit.  b.  x\.  p.  S90. 


]x>D.  a 

•    •  •    - 

gnmtfd.  His  last  words  were,  I  d^e  to  be  dissolved  amd 
to  he  )mth  Christ.  He  finished  his  course,  and  recetved  llMi 
crown  of  r^hteousness,  in  the  year  1645,  aged  mnety-MX 
years,  when  his  remains  were  interred  in  Fansley  church. 

Dr.  Lloyd  gives  the  following  account  of  tms  vtfmMo 
divine: — '<  Mr.  Dod/'  says  he,  ''had  no  ddigfat  &i  con- 
tradiction, nor  could  he  find  in  his  heart  to  disturb  the  peace 
of  the  church.     He  was  so  far  from  it,  that,  as  I  have 
frequently  heard  fipom  his  grandchild  and  others,  when  some 
thought  ttieir  dissents  ground  enough  for  a  war,  he  declared 
himself  against  it,  and  confirmed  odiers  in  their  allesiance : 
he  professed  to  the  last  a  just  hatred  of  that  horrid  rebellion."* 
The  celebrated  Archbishop  Usher  had  tfie  highest  opinion  of 
him,   and    said,    ''  Whatever   some   affirm  of  Mr.  Dod^s 
strictness,  and  scrupling  some  ceremonies,  I  desire  that  when 
i  die  my  soul  may  rest  with  his."    Wood  styles  ban  ^  a 
learned    and    godly    divine.^f      Fuller    denominalei    him 
''  patien^   liumble,  meek,    and   chaatable ;    an    excellent 
scholar,  especially  in  Latin  and  HebraiMr,  and  exceedingly 
profitaUe  m  conversation.    He  was  a  good  chymist,  to 
extract  gold  out  of  other  men's  lead;  and  however  looae 
were  the  premises  of  other  men's  discourse,  piety  was  alwajjss 
his  unforced  conclusion.''^    He  is  classed  lunoi^  die  learned 
writers  of  Jesus  college,  Cambridge.^    Echard  calls  hiln  **  i| 
learned  decalogist,  an  exquisite  Hebrician,  and  a  moat  pioui 
and  hospitable  divine ;"  and  says,  **  he  was  highly  valued  hf 
all  good  men."!    Granger  observes,  **  diat  in  learning  he  was 
excelled  by  few,  and  in  unaffected  piety  by  none.    .If odii^g 
was  ever  objected  to  this  meek  and  humble  man  bat  his 
being  a  puritan."    His  sayings  have  been  often  printed,  and 
are  still  tp  be  seen  pasted  on  the  walls  of  cottages.    An  old 
woman  in  his  neighbourhood,  he  adds,  told  him,  ^  that  she 
would  have  gone  mstracted  for  the  loss  of  her  husband,  if  she 
bad  been  witfiout  Mr.  pod's  sayings  in  her  house.'t 

It  is  recorded  of  Mr.  Dod,  that  one  evening,  being  late  in 
his  study,  his  mind  was  strongly  impressed,  though  he  could 
assign  no  reason  for  it,  to  visit  a  gentleman  of  his  acquaint^ 
ance,  at  a  very  unseasonable  hour,  !^f  ot  knowing  the  design 
of  Providence,  he  obeyed  and  went.  When  he  came  to  the 
house,  after  knocking  a  few  times  at  the  door,  the  gentleman 
himself  came,  and  inquired  whether  he  wanted  him  upon  any 

*  Biog.  BritaD.  vol.  vii.  p.  4809.        f  Wood^t  Athens,  vol.  f .  p.  758. , 
i  F«ll€r*8  VITofftHiet,  part  i.  p.  181.^Cburch  Hist.  b.  zt  p.  89D. 
S  Fuller*!  Hist,  of  Cam.  p.  86.      I  Echard's  Hilt,  of  Eng .  ?ol.  ii.  p.  545. 
I  GraofeKi  Biog.  Hist,  f ol.  i.  p.  370. 


6  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

iHurtituhur  business.  Mr.  Dod  having  answered  in  the 
liegAtive^  and  sign^ed  diat  he  could  not  rest  till  he  had  seen 
jMoOf  the  gentleirian  replied,  ^*  O,  sir,  you  are  sent  of  God  at 
this  Very  hour ;  for  I  was  just  now  going  to  destroy  myself," 
mtid  immediately  pulled  the  halter  out  of  his  pocket,  by  which 
he  had  intend^  to  commit  the  horrid  deed.  Thus  the 
mischief  was  prevented.* 

It  is  observed  of  Mr.  Dod,  that  a  person  being  once 
enraged  at  his  close  and  awakening  doctrine,  picked  a 
quarrel  with  hiin,  smote  him  in  the  face,  and  dashed  out  two 
of  his  teeth.  This  meek  and  lowly  servant  of  Christ, 
without  taking  the  least  offence,  spit  out  the  teeth  and  blood 
into  hia  hand,  and  siiid,  '^  See  here,  you  have  knocked  out 
two  of.  my  teeth,  without  any  just  provocation ;  but  on 
condition  I  might  do  your  soul  good,  I  would  give  you  leave 
to  dash  out  all  the  rest."+  Thus  Mr.  Dod  was  not  overcome 
pf^vil,  but  overcome  evil  with  good.  % 

.  Mr.  Timothy  Dod,  ejected  in  1662,  was  his  son,  and 
imitated  the  amiable  virtues  of  his  excellent  father .j;  Old 
lif  r.  Dod  Was  commonly  called  the  Decalogist,  because  he 
^fid  Mr.  Robert  Cleaver,  another  puritan  minister,  published 
"  An  Ei^sition  of  the  Ten  Conmiandmcints,"  1635.  They 
also  published  ^  The  Patrimpny  of  Christian  Children ;" 
and  were  authors  of  '*  Ten  Sermons  to  fit  Men.  for  the 
Worthy  Receiving  of  the  Lord's  Supper."  Mr.  Dod,  it  is 
said^  was  the  au^or  of  that  singular  and  well-known  little 
Sermon^  on  ithe  word  Malt.  Bishop  Wilkins  passes  a  high 
encomium  upon  hb  sermons,  with  those  of  other  learned 
divines.^ 


Thomas  Lydiat,  A.  M.— This  celebrated  scholar  was 
bQrn  at  Alkrington,  or  Okertpn,  near  Banbury,  in  Oxford- 
shire, eaiiy  in  the  year  1572,  and  educated  first  at  Winchester 
school,  then  at  New  College,  Oxford,  where  he  was  chosen 
fellow.  A  disposition  to  learning  distinguished  him  from 
childhood,  in  consequence  of  which  his  parents,  who  lived  in 
wealthy  circumstances,  des^ned  him  for  a  scholar,  and 
placed  him  at  the  university  under  the  tuition  of  Dr.  (after- 
wards Sir  Henry)  Marten.  He  signalized  himself  by  intense 
application  to  his  studies,  and  became  almost  a  prodigy  in 
good  literature,  especially  in  logic,  mathematics,  astronomy, 

•  Flavel't  Worlu,  ▼©!.  U.  p.  9S%\    Edit.  1797.      +  Ibid.  vol.  t.  p.  470. 
■   i  Palmer's  I<)[odcod.  Mem.  vol.  iii.  p.  30. 
S  Discourse  on  Preachio;,  p.  8S,  83. 


LYDIAT.  7 

the  learned  languages,  and  divinity.  His  desire  to  enter 
upon  the  ministerial  function  was  opposed  by  a  defective 
memory  and  an  imperfection  of  utterance;  and,  as  the* 
statutes  of  the  college  required  him,  after  a  certain  time,  to 
enter  upon  those  studies  more  immediately  connected  with 
the  clerical  profession,  or  resign  his  fellowship,  he  chose  die 
latter,  and  retired  to  a  smafl  patrimonial  property  at  his 
native  place.  He  there^  diuii^  seven  years,  employed 
himself  in  completing  literary  designs  which  he  had  formed 
while  resident  at  the  university ;  and  he  first  made  himself 
known  to  the  learned  world  by  publishine,  in  1605,  a  work 
entitled,  "  Tractatus  de  variis  Annorum  Formis."  Of  this 
he  published  a  defence,  in  I6079  against  the  arrogant 
censures  of  Joseph  Scaliger ;  and  he  ventured  directly  to 
attack  that  proud  dictator  of  literature  in  his  **  Emendatio 
Temporum  ab  Initio  Mundi  hue  usque  Compendio  facta, 
contra  Scaligerum  et  alios,"  1609*  ibis  learned  work  was 
dedicated  to  Henry,  Prince  of  Wales,  who  appointed  him 
his  chronologer  and  cosmograplier,  and  would  no  doubt 
have  been  a  liberal  patron  to  him,  as  he  was  to  men  of 
science  in  general,  had  not  his  auspicious  commencements 
been  cut  short  by  an  untimely  death. 

At  the  above  period,  Dr.  Usher,  afterwards  the  celebrated 
archbishop,  being  on  a  visit  to  England,  became  acquainted 
with  Mr.  Lydiat,  whom  he  persuaded  to  accompany  him  to 
Ireland,  where  he  procured  him  apartments  in  Dublin 
college.  A  community  of  studies  was  doubtless  the  prin- 
cipal inducement  for  Usher  to  desire  liis  company ;  and  it  is 
highly  probable  that  he  derived  assistance  from  him  in  his 
own  chronological  labours.*  Mr.  Lydiat  is  said  to  have 
contuiued  about  two  years  in  Ireland,  though  the  time 
cannot  be  exactly  ascertained.  It  appears,  however,  from 
letters  in  Parr's  Collection,  that  he  was  in  Ireland  in  16 10, 
and  that  he  was  returned  to  England  in  August,  I6I 1.  From 
the  same  authority  we  also  learii,  that  there  had  been  a  design 
of  settling  him  in  the  public  school  at  Armagh.  He  had 
many  friends,  among  whom  were  the  lord  deputy,  and  the 
chancellor  of  Ireland,  who  jointly  promised  to  ao  great  thin^n 
for  him ;  but  were  prevented  by  his  coming  to  England, 
and  returning  no  more  to  that  country.f 

There  is  a  circumstance  connected  with  Mr.  Lydiat's  visit 
to  Irdand  which  is  involved  in  considerable  obscurity.  It  k 
asserted  in  thie  notes  to  the  life  of  Usher,t  that  soon  after 

•  AikiD's  LiTes  of  Seidell  and  Usher,  p.  402. 

i  Wood*i  Atiieiise  Ozoo.  woU  ii.  p. 46.      i  B'lOf;.  Britan,  f oh  vi.  p.  40(ST« 


8  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

his  return  be  entered  into  the  conjugal  connexioii,  and  married 
Usher's  sister ;  for  which  fact  the  only  authority  given  is^  the 
alleged  subscription  of  **  your  loving  brother-in-law"  to  some 
of  Usher's  letters.  In  reality,  however,  these  letters  are  only 
'signed  **  your  loving  friend  and  ftro^Aer/'  which  last  appella- 
tion Usher  bestows  upon  others  of  his  correspondents  :  nor 
is  there  foun4i  either  in  th^  letters  between  them,  or  in  the 
several  lives  pf  the  primate,  the  least  hint  of  such  connexion^. 
Indeed,  it  is  not  apparent  from  any  recorded  incidents  of  Mr. 
Lydiafs  life  th^t  he  was  n^furi^d  at  all.  Yet,  on  the  other 
himd,  Mr.  Heqry  Biiggs,  in  a  letter  to  Usher,  dated  in  1610, 
says,  '^  I  pray  you  salute  from  me  your  brother,  Mr.  Lydiat,' 
which  expression  can  scarcely  imply  any  thing  else  than  a 
real  relationship,  for  he  was  not  then  a  clergyman.  In  that 
case,  however,  he  must  hs^v^  been  married  before  h^s  return 
to  England,* 

Whatever  schemes  might  have  been  formed  for  his  settle- 
ment in  Ireland,  they  were  rendered  abortive  by  his  acceptance, 
though  not  without  much  hesitation,  of  the  rectory  of 
Okerton,  of  which  his  father  was  patron.  Though  he  entered 
upon  the  pastoral  office  with  considerable  reluctance,  he 
sedulously  performed  its  duties,  and  continued  in  this  situation, 
with  some  mtemiptions,  to  the  end  of  his  days.  During  the 
first  twelve  years,  he  wrote  and  preached  more  than  siv 
hundred  sermons  on  the  htanony  of  the  Gospels^  In  the 
mean  time  he  was  also  employed  in  several  works  of  profound 
erudition,  but  which  were  probably  limited  to  a  few  readers ; 
for,  instead  of  producing  any  pecuniary  compensation  to 
their  author,  they  sunk  all  his  patrimony  in  the  expense  of 
printing.  Being,  moreover,  involved  in  the  debts  of  a  near 
relation  for  whom  he  had  unadvisedly  become  a  surety,  he 
was  arrested  and  thrown  into  prison  at  Oxford,  whence  h^ 
was  removed  to  the  Eang's-bench.  The  confinement  of 
such  a  man  was  undoubte<uy  felt  as  a  disgrace  to  letters;  and 
by  the  contributions  of  Sir  William  BosMrell,  an  eminent 
patron  of  learned  men,  of  Usher,  Laud,  and  some  others,  he 
at  lei^th  obtained  his. liberation.  The  famous  Selden,  who 
fi'equlsntly  extended  his  bounty  to  literary  merit  in  distress, 
absolutely  refused  to  lend  his  aid  on  this  occasion,  in  resent- 
ment of  a  slight  pffered  him  by  Lycfiat,  who,  in  some  annota- 
tions which  he  published  on  the  Arundel  Marbles,  had 
mentioned  him  with  no  oth^r  epithet  than  that  of  *^  ap 
industrious  author."    Whatever  offence  there  might  be  in 

*  Aikio'fl  Lives  of  Selden  aod  Usbcr,  p.  403, 404. 


LYDIAT.  9 

this  want  of  civility,  Selden  would  certainly  have  sbewn  n 
greater  and  more  pious  mind  in  forgiving  it»* 

Mr.  Ljdiati  soon  after  he  was  restored  to  liberty,  pre- 
sented a  petition  to  King  Charles,  requesting  his  protection 
and  pati^nage  in  an  intended  voyage  to  the  East,  for  tli0 
purpose  of  collecting  valuable  manuscripts.  The  project 
displayed  his  zeal  for  the  service  of  learning,  but  the  ensuini^ 
political  troubles^  prevented  any  attention  being  paid  to  hit 
applicatioD/  Though  he  was  a  man  of  low  stature,  and 
ramer  insignificant  m  appearance,  he  was  a  person  of  n 
ffreat  mind  and  of  uncommon  learning.  He  pulled  die 
Teamed  Chiistopher  Clavius,  the  whole  college  of  mathema^ 
ticians,  and  even  that  Goliah  of  literature,  Joseph  Scaliger 
himself;  who,  when  he  found  himself  outstripped,  scorn- 
fully st^matized  Mr.  Lydiat  with  being  a  beggarly j  beardleu 
priest.  He  was,  nevertheless,  highly  esteemed  by  the  most 
learned  men  at  home  and  abroad.  Sir  Thomas  Chaloner 
and  other  celebrated  scholars,  vnth  those  mentioned  above^ 
were  among  his  familiar  acquaintance.  The  virtuosi  beyond 
..sea  wjere  pleased  to  rank  him  with  the  celebrated   t<oid 

• 

*  Mr.  JohD  Selden  was  sometiines  styled  **  the  great  dictator  of  learnlof 
jof  the  English  nation/'  whom  Grotius,  his  antagonist,  calls  **  the  glory 
^of  his  coantry  |'*  an4  Sir  Matthew  Hale,  **  a  resolved  and  serious  christian.*' 
,He  was  a  man  of  as  eztensiye  and  profound  emdition  as  any  of  his  timef 
wd  was  thoroughly  skilled  in  every  thing  relating  to  his  own  professloa  of 
the  law  {.  bat  the  principal  bent  of  his  stodies  was  to  saicrcd  abd  protee 
antjqaify. .  The  greater  part  of  his  works  are  on  uncommon  sulgecti* 
Like  a  man  of  genius,  be  was  not  content  with  walking  in  the  beaten  tmck 
of  learning,  but  was  concerned  to  strike  out  new  paths,  and  ei^arge  the 
territories  of  science.  Towards  the  close  of  life,  he  owned,  that,  oat  of  the 
numberless  Tolufnes  he  had  read  and  digested,  nothing  stuck  so  close  to  hb 
heart,  or  gave  him  such  solid  satisfaction,  as  the  single  passage  of  Paul  ia 
ills  epistle  to  Titus,  ii.  11—14.  He  died  in  the  year  ItUMf  when  th* 
celebrated  Archbishop  Usher  preached  his  funeral  sermon,  and,  withoM 
.jscruple,  declared  *'  that  he  himself  was  scarcely  worthy  to  carry  his  bookt 
after  him.'*  Mr.  Selden  was  author  of  many  learned  publications,  among 
which  was  *'  The  History  of  Tithes ;"  for  which,  in  1618,  he  wasconveoei 
before  the  high  commission,  and  required  to  subscribe  a  degrading  recaata^ 
^ion.  Afterwards,  at  an  audience  of  King  James,  at  the  time  when 
Montague  was  preparing  a  confutation  of  this  work,  the'  worthless  and 
arbitrary  ^ou^ch  stem^  forlwde  him  to  make  any  reply,  saying,  *^  If 
you  or  any  of  your  friends  shall  write  agaiast  this  confutation,  I  will 
^Ibrow  you  into  pri^o."  He  was  a  valuable  member  of  the  long  parliftp 
Tnent,  and  one  of  the  lay  members  who  sate  with  the  assembly  of.  dt vines. 
In  tlpeir  debates  he  spoke  admirably,  and  confuted  divers  of  themia  tMr 
:own  learning.  Sometimes,  when  they  cited,  a  text  of  scripture  to  prote 
their  ^ssertlofi,  be  would  tell  thep,  ^^  Perifapf  }p  your  little  pocket  Bibles 
v^ith  gilt  leaves,"  which  they  would  ofleil  poll  out  and  tread,  **  tho 
translation  may  be  thus,  bat  the  Gvcak  or  Hebrew  signifies  thus  and  thus  t*' 
and  so  would  silence  them. — Oramger'M  Biog,  Hist,  vol.  ii.  p.  92t.— 
MkifCt  Lives  of  Selden  and  Vsktr^  p.  96,  S87.— fcltctic  Rewiewy  vol.  vlii. 
p.  20^.—Whia»cke'9  Mem.  p.  Tl .    Bdit.  17S9. 


JO  UVES  OF  THE  FTUTANS. 


Bkmi  mi  Mr*  Jmtfh  Mtie-,  md  wlm  ther  foood  tint 

Ik;  IttJaofcif^r  preftmienty  dier  nid  that  FiigliAmen  (fid 

ttcit  deitfTve  mkdk  prat  sdholarv,  since  tbej  made  so  fitde  of 

dbm.    ^TWiM^  tlicj  have  wronged  his   memory/'  sajs 

FflJkr,  ^  wfco  have  rtpreaeated  him  as  an  anabaptist:  jet 

1m  was  dhafectcd  to  the  dUdpUme  and  aramomes  of  die 
c1mvc(  ;^*  OB  wlkfc  accovDt  he  isy  with  justicey  dasaed  anioii|r 

Mr*  \j9Sa/L  thoufifa  opposed  to  the  ecclenastical  dis- 
dfdbe  12ro;»o»»,  <i^^^  of  lojal  Dnndples,  »>d 
dweovcrad  fait  zeal  in  the  ntyJL  cause ;  for  which,  upon  the 
eommtoceneat  ^  the  ci%il  war,  he  was  a  considerable 
JO&srer  from  the  porliameiit^s  army.  His  own  statement 
to  Sir  Wiiltam  Compton,  ^orernor  of  Banbury  castle,  affirms 
dbat  hit  rectory  was  foiv  times  piUaged,  and  himself  reduced 
to  so  gieat  a  want  of  coounon  necessaries,  diat  he  could  not 
change  his  linen  for  a  quarter  of  a  year,  without  borrowii^  a 
sUrl«  He  was  also  twice  carried  away  to  prison,  and  was 
crtidly  used  by  the  scdcfiers  for  refusii^  their  demands  of 
tooaey,  for  d^mding  his  books  and  papers,  and  for  his  bold 
speeches  in  finrour  of  the  royal  cause.  From  this  and  other 
carctnnstaoces^  it  appears  that  his  mannerB  were  not  con- 
ciliating, aad  that,  to  a  scholar's  ^orance  of  the  world,  he 
jCMiied  the  bhmtneas  of  an  independent  character.  Of  his 
confident  and  sanguine  disposition,  a  judgment  may  be 
formed  from  a  passage  in  one  of  his  letters  to  Usher.  After 
expre9siog  a  hope  that  his  learned  friend  would  in  the  end 
assent  to  the  truth  of  what  he  had  delivered  concerning  the 
beginning  and  conclusion  of  Daniel's  serenty  weeks,  and  all 
the  dependencies  thereon,  he  says,  **  For  certunly,  how  weak 
soerer  I,  the  restore  and  publisher  diereof,^  am,  yet  it  is 
strong  and  wiU  prevail ;  an<C  notwithstanding  mine  obscure 
estate,  in  due  time  the  clouds  and  mists  of  errors  being  dis^ 
persed  aad  vanished,  it  will  shine  forth  as  bright  as  the  clear 
tun  at  noon-tide.'^f 

This  learned  man  finished  his  painfrd  life,  and  died  in 
indigence  and  obscurity  at  Okerton,  April  3,  1646,  aged 
seventy-four  years.}  Though  be  obtained  considerable  repu- 
tation among  learned  men  at  home  and  abroad;  yet  his 
fame  is  so  &r  obliterated,  even  in  his  own  country,  that 
it  is  probable  few  English  readers  have  known  to  whom 
Dr.  Johnson  refers  in  hb  *'  Vanity  of  Human  Wishes,'* 

•  Fuller*!  Wortbiei,  part  if.  p.  SS8. 
.    i  Aiklo*sUveflorSel4eiisiidUiher,  P/40T. 
t  Wodd'f  AtbeoB  0»>n.  ? ol.  ii.  p.  46—48. 


LYDIAT.  11 

where,  as  a  warning  against  the  enthusiastical  expectations 
of  the  young  scholar,  he  says/ 

If  dreams  yet  flatter,  once  Rg^ain  attend ; 
Hear  Lydiaf s  life,  and  Galilio's  end. 

Wood  says,  **  he  was  a  man  possessed  of  some  excellen* 
cies ;  yet  he  set  too  high  a  value  on  his  own  performances, 
and  for  many  years  spent  an  idle  and  obscure  life.^f  Echard 
denominates  him  '^  a  man  of  a  great  soul  and  incomparable 
learning,  particularly  in  mathematics,  antiquities,  la^^uagea 
and  divimty;"  and  adds,  ''  that  he  ,was  admired  by  the 
greatest  scholars  of  the  age/*t  Kennet  styles  him  '^thal 
master  of  astronomy  and  mathematics,  who,  besides  his 
admired  works  in  print,  left  twenty-two  volumes  of  manu- 
scripts, as  rarities,  in  the  hands  of  Dr.  John  Lamphire/'t 
Mr.  Lydiat'a  remains  were  interred  by  the  side  of  his 
father  and  mother  in  the  chancel  of  Okerton  church,  where 
a  monumental  inscription  was  afterwiutb  erected,  of  which 
the  following  is  a  translation :) 

Sacred  to  the  Memory 
of  Thomas  Lydiat,  rector  of  Okerton, 
an  accomplbhed  divine  and  niathematidaB» 
^  whose  tomb  was  erected 

at  the  expense  of  New  College,  Oxford, 
in  memory  of  so  great  a  scholar. 
He  was  bom  in  1573, 
and  died  in  1640. 

His  WoaKs. — 1.  Tractatus  de  variis  annomm  fonnis,  10O6y— 
2.  Prelectio  Astronomica  de  naturi  coeli  &  conditionibus  elemento> 
rum,  1005. — 3.  Disqnisitio  physiolog^ca  de  origine  fontiam,  1005.-— 
4.  Defentio  tractatus  de  variis  annorum  formis  contra  Joseph! 
Scatigeri  objectionem,  1007. — 5.  Examen  Canonum  Chronologic 
Isagbgicorum,  1007. — 10.  Explicatio  temporum  ad  initio  mondi  hoe 
usque,  compendio  facta,  contra  Scaligerum  &  alios,  1009.-7.  Ex- 
plicatio &  additamentum  argumentorum  in  libello  emendationis  tea- 
porum  compendio  faetae,  de  nativitate  Christi  &  ministerio  in  terris, 
1013. — 8.  Soils  &  liunae  periodus,  seu  annus  magnus,  1020. — ^9.  De 
anni  Solaris  mensmi  Epistola  Astronomica,  ad  Hen.  SaYilinm, 
1020. — 10.  Numerus  aureus' melioribus  lapillis  insig^tus  factusq; 
Gemmens,  &c.,  1021. — 11.  Canones  Chronologici,  nee  non  series 
summorum  magistratunm  &  trlumphorum  Romanorum,  1075.— 
|2.  Lstten  to  Archbishop  Usher,  printed  in  his  Life,  1080. 

•  AlkiB*i  Uvet,  p.  406. 
'    f  Wood's  Hist,  et  Antiq.  1.  ii.  p.  149. 
"  Ecliard*8  Hist,  of  £og.  vol.  ii.  p.  56S. 
Kennet'e  Chronicle,  p.  764. 
Wood's  Hilt,  et  Aatiq.  1.  ii.  p.  149. 


12  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

'  William  Twisse,  D.D.— -This  iUustrious  dSmnt  was 
born  at  Spenham-Landy  near  Newbury,  in  Berkriiirey  about 
the  year  157^^  and  educated  first  at  Winchester  school,  dien 
in  New  College,  Oxford,  where,  he  was  chosen  fellow.  He 
spent  sixteen  years  at  the  university;  and,  by  a  most  intense 
-applicaton,  obtained  an  extraordinary  knowledge  of  logic, 
philosophy,  and  divinity.  His  profound  erudition  appeared 
m  his  public  lectures  and  learned  disputations,  but  especially 
in  correcting  the  works  of  the  celebrated  Bradwardine,  then 
published  by  Sir  Henry  Savile.  He  took  his  various  degrees 
^ith  universal  applause.  He  was  an  admired  and  popular 
preacher,  and  greatly  followed  both  by  the  collegians  and 
townsmen. 

He  continued  in  his  beloved  pursuits  at  the  university,  till 
his  brilliant  talents  and  profound  literature  excited  very 
public  attention.     His  uncommon  fame  reached  the  court  of 
'King  James,  who  chose  him  to  be  chaplain  to  Lady  Elizabeth, 
^B  about  to  leave  her  native  country  and  go  to  the  Palatine* 
He  cheerfully  complied  with  the  appointment,. and  accom- 
panied the  pious  young  priivcess  to  the  foreign  court;  and^ 
to  moderate  her  grief,  and  adnUBister  comfort  te  her  troubled 
mind,  upon  her.  painful  separation    from  her  friends^  he 
expounded   spme   portion  of  scripture  to  her  every  day. 
He  dwelt  much  upon  the  great  uncertaiuty  of  life,  and  the 
importance  of  a  smtable  preparation  for  death;  and,  from 
his  appropriate  instructions  and  admonitions,  she  derived 
that  signal  advantage  by  which  she  was  enabled  to  endure 
die  greatest  adversi^  with  undaunted  courage.    This  amiablq 
princess  was  ex^cbed  with  many  trials  very  soon  after  heir 
arrival.     For,  presently  after  she  was  crowned  Queen  of 
Boheniia,  she  was  forced  to  flee  from  the  country  and  to 
live  an  e^e  all  the  rest  of  her  days.     She  bore  these  tribu- 
lations with  christian  magnanimity.    This  is  represented  as 
the  eflect  of  the  doctor's  excellent  instructions,  who  taught 
her,  '*  That  Divine  providence  ordereth  all  die  estates  and 
conditions  of  all  men,  according  to  his  own  good  pleasure, 
and  for  the  eternal  advantage  of  his  people:"  as,  Rom'^ 
yiii.  28.     ''We  know  that  all  things  work  together  for  good, 
to  them  that  love  God,  to  them  who  are  the  caU^  according 
to  his  purpose."*  He  did  not,  however,  continue  veiy  long  at 
the  court  of  the  Palatine,  but  was  called  bac|c  to  JSngUod. 
His  return  was  the  occayion  of  deep  r^ret  both  to  the 
prince  and  princess,  which  was  particularly  expressed  at  die 

«  Park's  LWei,  last  vol.  part  i.  f».  1%  U. 


TWKSE.  ..  18 

limft  of  his  deptrtufe.  Upbn  hb  lanival  in  his  native  coontryv 
lie  took  his  final  leave  <^  the  qoyiti  and  devoted  himself  to 
thoise  profound  studies  by  iivhich  he  published  to  the  woiU 
thoie  learned  works  which  \vill'b^  the'aditiiradon  of  learned 
and  (NOUS  men  to  the  latest  posterity. 

Dn  Twis$e^  about  the  same  time^  became   curate   of 
Newbtury^  near  the  plaice  of  his  birth^  where,  by  his  ex* 
emptary  life  and  useful  preaching,  he  gained  a  most  die* 
tinguished  reputation.    In  this  retured  situation,  which  was 
exactly  suited  to  his  wishes,  he  lived  in  great  p«ice  and 
comfort ;  and  being  secluded  from  the  world,  his  time  waa 
wholly  devoted  to  his  studies  and  the  spiritual  advantage  of 
his  flockv     He  never  sought  after  worldly  riches,  or  aspired 
after  ecclesiastical  preferment,  but  modestly  refused  them 
when  they  were  offered.    He,  indeed,  often  congratulated  him- 
self that  he  was  in  so  low  a  condition,  and  so  little  exposed  to 
the  alluring  temptations.    He  often  professed  how  greatly  he 
Twas  iudeb^d  to  divine  goodness,  for  having  placed  him  id 
j  so  mean  and  obscure  a  place,  where  he  was  pVeserved  frooi 
V.  aspiring  after  worldly  preferment.     No  man  ever  sought 
more  industriously  to  obtain  ecclesiastical  promotion  than 
he  sought  to  avoid  it.    Hence,  when  he  was  offered  the 
provostship  of  Winchester  college,  and  warmly  entreated  to 
accept  it,  he  as  warmly  contended  against  it,  though  it  waa 
a  post  of  considerable  pecuniary  interest.    He  preferred  hit 
studies,  and  the  ministry  of  the  word,  to  any  idle  or  honour- 
able post ;  and  worldly  interest  had  but  little  influence  on 
his  mind.     Also,  when  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  laid  a 
prebend  at  his  feet,  he  politely  thanked  his  lordship,  but 
modestly  declined  accepting  it.     The  Ejurl  of  Warwick 
promised  to  confer  upon  him  a  more  valuable  living  than 
that  of  Newbury,  which  at  first  he  agreed  to  accept,  pro- 
vided the  people  of  his  charge  could  be  furnished  with  a 
suitable  pastor.      He  accordingly  >\'aited  upon  the  Arch- 
bishop Of  Canterbury,  requesting  his  favourable  approbation, 
and  was  kindly  received.    His  lordship  granted  all  that  he 
requested,  uid  observed,  that  he  would  make  mention  of 
hii|i  to  the  king  as  a  pious  and  learned  divine,  and  no  puritan. 
Dr.  Twisse  was,  however,  sagacious  enough  to ,  see  the 
snares  that  were  laid  for  him ;  and  therefore,  without  making 
any-furdlier  application,  he  returned  to  Newbury,  resolvii^ 
not  to  exchanse  his  curacy  for  any  other  situation.   Also  the 
states  of  Fiieuand  invited  him  to  the  professor's  chair  in  the 
university  of  Franeker ;  and  he  was  pressed,  to  accept  a  pro- 
fessor's place  at  Oxford;  but  he  refused  them  both.    He 


14  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 


was  ttMe  conceraefd  for  his  beloved  studies,  and  minis^ 
lerial  usefidnessy  dian  for  all  the  splendour  and  emolument 
of  a  university. 

Upon  the  publication  of  the  Book  of  Spoits,  our  learned 
divine  refused  to  read  it,  and  ventured  to  declare  his  opinioil 
decidedly  against  it:  he,  nevertheless,  escaped  better  than 
many  of  his  brethren,  who,  for  so  doing,  were  suspended 
from  their  ministry,  driven  out  of  the  kingdom,  or  cast  into 
prison.      He  viraS  a  persion   of  great  moderation,  yet  as 
decidedly  against  the  use  of  the  superstitious  ceremonies  as 
the  entouragement  of  profane  sports.*    His  refusal  to  read 
die  book  did  not  pass  unnoticed  at  coivt;  but  when  King 
James  heard  of  it,  he  commanded  the  bishops  not  to  molest 
him.     His  majesty,  indeed,  very  well  knew,  that,  though 
Dr.  Twisse  lived  m  low  circumstances,  and  in  an  obscure 
situation,  his  fame  was  so  great  in  all  the  reformed  churches, 
diat  their  lordships  coula  do   nothing  against  him  which 
would  not  be  a  public  reproach  to  themselves.    It  was,  after 
all,  no  small  llisparagement  to  them,  and  to  the  church  to 
which  they  belonged,  that  so  eminently  pious  and  learned  a 
divine  should  live   vnthout    preferment.     The    celebrated 
Dr.  Prideaux  said,  **  The  bishops  do  very  little  consult  their 
own  credit,  in  not  preferring  Dr.  Twisse,  though  against  his 
wishes,  to  some  splendid  ecclesiastical  dimity;  by  which, 
though  they  despair  of  drawing  him  to  meir  party,  they 
might  take  off,  or  mollify,  the  popular  envy,  and  not  hear 
themselves  exposed  to  scorn  by  the  curate  of  Newbury." 
During  the  civil  wars.  Prince  Rupert,  coming  to  Newbury, 
entertained  our  divine  very  courteously,  and  made  him  many 
honourable  promises,  if  he  would  turn  against  the  parlia- 
ment, write  in  defence  of  the  royal  cause,  and  live  among  the 
king's  party :  but  Dr.  Twisse  very  wisely  and  politely  de- 
clined me  royal  invitation.f 

He  obtained  uncommon  celebrity  firom  the  books  which 
he  published,  especially  upon  points  of  controversy.  Here 
hb  talents  and  erudition  were  employed  upon  his  favourite 
subjects  without  restraint,  and  vnth  extraordinaiy  success. 
^  Among  his  antagonists  were  Dr.  Thomas  Jackson,  Mr.  Henry 
Mason,  and  Dr.  Thomas  Godwin,  who  was  a  person  of 
great  learning,  especially  in  antiquities;  but  is  said  to  have 
been  more  fit  to  mstruct  grammarians  than  to  contend  with 
a  logician  like  Dr.  Twisse.  He  next  encountered  Mr.  John 
Goodwin,  the  celebrated  advocate  for  Arminianism,  whom 

»  Mede*8  Works,  p.  845,  846. 

f*  Clark*!  LiTes,  last  toI.  part  i.  p.  14—17, 


TWISSSE.  |5 

he  is  said  to  have  refuted  with  great  leanung  add  ju^^ent^ 
Hb  next  contest  was  with  Mr.  John  Cotton,  a  divme  vdiom 
he  highly  esteemed,  and  whom  he  treated  with  great  gen^ 
tieness.  He  learnedly  refuted  Dr.  Potter's  ^  Survey  of  die 
New  Platform  of  Predestination.''*  He  treated  Dr.  Heylin 
according  to  his  deserts,  in  defence  of  the  morality  of  the 
sabbath.  He  also  successfully  contended  with  tfie  famous 
Arminius  and  others,  in  defence  of  tfie  doctrines  of  graced 
His  answers  to  Dr.  Jackson  and  Arminius,  uid  his  "  rachet 
of  God's  Love,"  when  first  published,  were  aD  suppressed 
by  the  arbitrary  appointment  of  Bishop  Laud.f 

In  the  year  1640,  Dr.  Twisse  was  chosen  one  of  the 
sub-committee,  to  assist  the  committee  of  accommochtioil 
appointed  by  the  house  of  lords  to  consider  the  innovations 
introduced  into  the  church,  and  to  promote  a  more  pure  re- 
formation  4  In  the  year  1643,  he  was  nominated,  by  an 
order  of  the  parliament,  prolocutor  to  the  assembly  of 
divines.  On  account  of  his  great  modesty,  he  repeatedly 
declined  the  appointment,  but  was  at  lei^th  prevailed  upon 
to  accept  the  ofHce.  The  learned  assembly  was  opened 
July  1,  1643,  when  Dr.  Twisse  preached  to  botfi  houses  of 
parliament,  in  Henry  the  seventh's  chapel.  **  In  his  sermon,'* 
Says  Fuller,  '^  he  exhorted  his  learned  auditory  to  a  fiuthftil 
discharge  of  their  dut}%  and  to  promote  the  glory  of  God 
and  the  honour  of  his  church ;  but  he  was  sorry  that  ihef 
wanted  the  royal  assent.  He  hoped,  however,  that  in  due 
time  it  might  be  obtained,  and  that  a  happy  union  would  b^ 
procured  between  the  king  anci  parliament.'*^ 

Dr.  Twisse,  on  account  of  his  age  and  manifold  in- 
firmities, was.  not  able  to  attend  upon  the  concerns  of  the 
assembly ;  but,  in  a  few  months,  was  taken  ill,  fidling  down 
in  the  pulpit  to  rise  no  more.  He  had  been  long  grieved 
to  behold  the  disagreement  between  the  king  and  the  par- 
liament, which,  he  said,  would  prove  fatal  to  both;  and 
he   often    wished    that   the   fire  of  contention   might   be 

•  Toplady's  Historic  Proof,  to],  i.  p.  68. 

f  About  the  lame  time.  Dr.  George  Down  ham,  bishop  of  Derry  fa 
Ireland,  pnblished  a  book  against  the  Arminiaosi  upon  which,  Bisliop 
Laud  procured  the  suppression  of  all  the  copies  sent  to  England ;  and,  not 
satisfieid  with  this,  he  caused  a  letter  to  be  sent  to  Archbishop  Usher,  coai* 
manding  the  same  proceeding  against  the  book  in  Ireland.  The  pious  and 
learned  primate  tamely  yielded  to  the  superior  power  of  this  arbitrafy 
prdate  i  issued  his  warrant  for  the  seisurei  of  all  the  remaining  copies  oif 
Downham's  work ;  and  signiied  that  he  should  '*  take  order  that  aothlBf 
should  be  hereafter  published  contrary  to  his  migesty*s  sacred  diractloa,**— » 
i»f:i|wie*«CmiM)«0fiie,p.  171,  179. 

i  Kingdom's  MS.  Collec.  p.  900. 

S  Fnller's  Church  Hist.  b.  zi.  p.  199. 


16  LITBS  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

extidgui^hedy  though  it  were  at  the  price  of  his  own  blood.*. 
When  he  fell  down  in  tfie  pulpit^  he  was  carried  to  his 
lodgings  and  laid  upon  his  bed^  where  he  languished  about 
a  twelvemonth.  During  hb  long  illness,  multitudes  of  jpersoos 
resorted  to  him,  who  witnessed  his  exemplaiy  futh  and 
patience.  In  the  civil  wars,  he  had  been  driven  from  his 
curacy  and  the  people  of  his  charge,  at  Newbury,  and 
deprived  of  all  his  property  by  the  royd  forces;  so  mat,  in 
the  time  of  his  sickness,  when  certain  persons  were  deputed 
from  the  assembly  to  visit  him,  they  reported,  **  ibat  he  was 
veiy  sick,  and  in  great  straits.*'.  The  parliament,  having 
taken  his  case  into  consideration,  passed  ah  order,  Decem- 
ber 4,  1645,  for  one  hundred  pounds  to  be  given  him  out 
of  the  public  treasmy.f  Nearly  the  last  words  that  Dr.Twisse 
uttered,  were,  ^'  I  shall  at  length  have  leisure  enough  to 
follow  my  studies  to  all  eternity ;"  and  died  July  20,  1646, 
aged  seventv-one  years.  The  whole  house  of  commons,  and 
the  assembly  of  divines,  paid  their  last  respects  to  his  me« 
mory  by  following,  in  one  sorrowful  procession,  his  mortal 
remains  to  the  grave ;  when  Dr.  Robert  Harrb  preached 
his  funeral  sermon  from  Joshua,  i.  2.,  Moses  my  servant  is 
dead.  He  was  buried  in  Westminster  abbey,  where  his 
body  quietly  rested  till  the  restoration,  when  the  humane, 
the  Uberaly  and  the  enlightened  Charles  ordered  his  bones 
to  be  dug  up,  together  with  the  bodies  of  many  other 
persons,  eminent  in  church  and  state;  and  thrown  into  apit 
digged  on  purpose  in  St.  Margaret's  chufch-yard.t    Tne 

»  ciark*8  Liyest  p.  17.  f  W^bitlocke's  Mem.  p.  189. 

X  One  of  those  illustrioits  penotis,  whose  body  siiffeTed  this  shamefol 
indifnity^  was  the  valiant  Admlirai  Blake,  trbose  name  was  a  terror  to  the 
tneniies  of  Britain ;  who  raised  tbf  naval  reputation  of  his  country  to  a 
higher  pitch  than  any  of  his  predecessors,  and  whose  services  to  the  English 
nation  will  be  a  monament  if  his  renown  as  durable  as  time.  The  following 
H  a  list  of  some  of  the  persons  to  whose  bodies  this  malevolence  was  offieretdl^ 
«n  the  18th  and  Hth  of  September,  1661.  Others  woold  probably  have 
ihared  the  same  fate ;  but  the  thing  was  so  indecent,  and  drew  so  genentl 
an  odium  on  the  governnient,  that  a  stop  was  put  to  any  farther  pro- 
ceedings : 

l^izabeth  Cromwell,  mother  of  William  Stroud,  esq.  M.  P. 

Oliver,  lord  protector,  Humphrey  Mackworth,  colonel, 

Elizabeth  Clay  pole,  her  daughter,  Dennis  Bond,  esq. 

Robert  Blake,  admiral,  Thomas  May,  esq.  the  historian, 

John  Pym,  esq.  M«  P*  John  Mildrum,  colonel. 

Dr.  Isaac  Dorislaus,  Colonel  Boscaweo, 

Sir  William  Constable,  colonel,  Doctor  William  Twisse,  prolocutor, 

Edward  Pophara,  admiral,  Stephen  Marshall,  presby.  divine, 

Richard  Dean,  admiral,  William  Strong,  indepea.  divine. 

Grimg€T'9  Biog,  Hiit.  vol,  iii.  p,  8O.-*Fro0d*«  Aihtnm  0x9n.  vol,  i» 
p.  886, 


TWISSE,  17 

refined  barbarity  and  contemptible  meanness  of  these  pro- 
ceedii^Sy  might  have  been  expected  amongst  untutored 
jNivagedy  rather  than  from  a  monarch  bred  up  in  all  the 
refinements  of  the  English  court. 

Though  Dr.  IVisse  died  in  necessitous  circumstances,  the 
parliament,  after  his  death,  voted  a  thousand  pounds  to  be 
given .  to  his  children,  out  of  the  public  treasury  ;•  but,  on 
account  of  the  national  confusions,  it  is  doubtful  whether 
it  was  ever  paid.  Mr.  Clark  says,  ^*  he  was  much  admired 
for  his  great  learning,  subtle  wit,  exact  judgment,  great 
mtegrity,  pleasing  behaviour,  and  his  exemplary  modesty', 
piety,  h^mility  and  self-denial.^f  Fuller  denommates  him, 
*^  a  chvine  of  great  abilities,  learning,  piety,  and  moderation.i 
Wood  says,  *'  his  plain  preaching  was  esteemed  good ;  his 
solid  disputations  were  accounted  better ;  but  his  pious  life 
was  reckoned  best  of  all."  The  most  learned  of  his  adver- 
saries confessed  that  there  was  nothing  extant  more  accurate 
and  fiill  upon  the  Arminian  controversy,  than  what  is  con- 
tained in  his  works.  All  writers  against  Arminianism  have 
made  honourable  mention  of  his  works,  and  have  acknow- 
ledged him  to  have  been  the  mightiest  man  in  those  contro- 
versies that  the  age  produced.^  He  was  succeeded  at  New- 
bury by  Mr.  Benjamin  Woodbridge,  who  was  afterwards 
ejected  in  l662.|| 

His  Works. — 1.  A  Discovery  of  Dr.  Jackson's  Vanities,  1631. — 
2.  Yindiciae  Gratiae,  Potestatis  et  Providcntiae  Dei,  1632. — 3.  Dis- 
sertatio  Scientia  Medii  tribus  libris  absoluta,  1639. — 4.  Dissertiones, 
1639.— 5.  Of  the  Morality  of  the  Fourth  Commandment,  1641.— 

6.  A  Treatise  of  Reprobation,  in  Answer  to  Mr.  John  Cotton,  1646. — 

7.  Aniinadvertiones  ad  Jacobi  Arminii  Collat  cum  Frank.  Junio  et 
Joh.  Arnold  Corvin,  1649. — 8.  De  Predestinatione  et  Gratia,  1649. — 
9.  The  Doabting  Conscience  Resolved,  1652. — 10.  The  Riches  of 
€k>d's  Love  onto  the  Vessels  of  Mercy,  consistent  with  his  absolate 
hatred  or  reprobation  of  tiie  Vessels  of  Wrath,  1653. — 11.  Two 
Tracts  in  Answer  to  Dr.  li.  (Hammond)  1653.— 12.  The  Synod  of 
Ddrt  and  Ares  reduced  to  Practice,  with  an  Answer. — 13.  The 
Scriptures  Sufficiency  to  determine  all  matters  of  Faith. — 14.  The 
Christian  Sabbath  defended  against  the  cr>'ing  Evil  of  these  1  imes 
of  the  Antisabbatarians  of  our  Age. — 15.  Fifteen  Letters,  published 
in  Mede's  W  orks. — ^He  also  left  numerous  manuscripts  behind  him. 

^  Whitlocke*s  Mem.  p.  S91.  f  Clark's  Lives,  p.  IS,  14, 18. 

1  Fu11er*8  Worthies,  part  i.  p.  96. 

%  Wood's  Athente  Oxod.  vol.  ii.  p.  40, 41. 

I  FUmer*8  Noncon.  Mem.  vol.  i.  p.  290. 


VOL.  HI  C 


0 

ih  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Jeremiah  BuRRotGHs,  A.M.  — This  very  amiable 
divine  was  born  in  the  year  1599>  and  educated  at  Cambridge^ 
but  was  obliged  to  quit  the  university,  and  afterwards  die 
kingdom,  on  account  of  nonconformity.  After  he  liad 
finished  his  studies  at  the  university,  he  entered  upon  the 
ministerial  work,  and  was  chosen  colleague  to  Mr.  Edmund 
Calamy  at  Bury  ^t.  Edmunds.*  In  the  year  1631,  he 
became  rector  of  Titshall,  in  the  county  of  Norfolk; 
but .  upon  the  publication  of  Bishop  Wren's  articles  and 
injunctions,  in  1636,  he  was  suspended  and  deprived  of  his 
living.f  He  sheltered  himself  for  some  time  under  the 
hospitable  roof  of  the  Earl  of  Warwick  ;t  but^  on  account 
of  the  intolerant  and  oppressive  proceedings  of  die  ecclesias- 
tical ,julers,  the  noble  earl  at  length  found  it  was  impossible 
to  protect  him  any  longer ;  and  shortly  after,  to  escape  the 
fire  of  persecution,  he  fled  to  Holland,  and  settled  at 
Rotterdam,  where  he  was  chosen  teacher  to  the  congrega- 
tional church,  of  which  Mr.  William  Bridge  was  pastor.j^ 
After  his  suspension,  he  is  charged  with  attempting  to  bribe 
the  bishop's  chancellor,  by  an  offer  of  forty  pounds;  and 
going  beyond  seas,  aiid  returning  disguised  in  a  soldier's  habit, 
with  many  libellous  pamphlets,  when,  it  is  said,  the  sentence 
of  deprivation  was  pronounced  against  him  for  noitresidence.| 
Of  this  circumstance,  however,  Mr.  Edwards  gives  a  very 
different  account.  He  says,  "  that  Mr  Burroughs,  for  some 
speeches  spoken  agakist  the  Scotch  war,  in  company  not  to  be 
trusted,  for  fear  fled  in  all  haste  to  Rotterdam ;"  at  which  he 
very  much  stumbled.^  Mr.  Burroughs,  in  his  animadversibii 
upon  this  misrepresentation,  observes  as  follows :  **  Had 
Mr.  Edwards  been  willing  to  have  conferred  with  me  about 
this,  as  I  desired,  before  he  printed,  I  should  have  so  ftdly 
satisfied  him  about  my  going  out  of  the  kingdom,  that  he  could 
never  have  stumbled,  nor  have  caused  others  to  stumble. 
How  does  he  know  there  were  speeches  delivered,  for  fea»  of 
which  I  fled  ?  It  may  be  there  was  only  an  accu3ation.  In 
his  bold  assertion  there  is  held  forth  to  the  world,  at  leas^ 
some  indiscretion  in  me,  that  I  should  speak  words  of  a  hi^h 

*  Calamy's  Account,  vol.  ii.  p.  5. 

-t-  Blomefield's  Hist,  of  Norfolk,  vol.  i.  p.  138. 

t  This  noble  person  was  a  great  friend  and  patron  of  the  perseciited 

guritaus,  and  one  of  their  constant  hearers.    He  was  not  content  with  only 
earinfr  long  sermons  in  the  congregation,  but  would  have  them  repeated  ia 
his  own  house.— Grander'*  Biog,  HUt,  vol.  ii.  p.  116. 
^  Edwards^s  Antapologia,  p.  18,  19. 
II  Wren's  Parental  ia,  p.  96. 
1  Edwards's  Antapologia,  p.  16. 


BURROUGHS.  19 

nature^  in  company  not  to  be  trusted.  I  am  so  fully  clear  in 
that  business,  that  I  wiped  off  before  my  lord  of  Warwick 
v^hatsoever  might  have  seemed  indiscretion,  not  by  mine  own 
assertion  only,  but  by  the  testimony  of  two  gentlemen,  being 
fdl  t)ie  company,  besides  the  accuser,  who  were  present  whil^ 
we  discours^ed  of  that  matter.  The  truth  is,  there  were  no 
such  speeches ;  there  was  only  some  accusation  of  speeches. 
What  man  can  free  himself  from  accusation?  This 
ung^ierous  accuser  afterwards  recanted,  and  expressed  his 
great  s9n;ow  for  having  aspersed  the  character  of  our  pious 
and  worthy  divine.* 

Mr.  Burroughs  replies  to  the  charge  that  he  fled  in  all 
haste  to  Rotterdam,  by  saying,  ^^  It  was  four  or  five  months 
after  this  accusation  before  i  went  to  Rotterdam.  Had  not 
the  prelatical  faction  been  incensed  against  me,  for  standing 
out  against  their  superstitions,  I  should  have  ventured  to  have 
stood  to .  what  I  had  spoken,,  for  all  I  said  Mas  by  way  of 

auery,  affirming  nothing.  I  knew  how  dangerous  the  times 
^en  were.  I  knew  what  the  power  of  the  prelatical  party 
at  that  time  Mras,  who  were  extremely  incensed  against  me. 
A  man's  innocency,  then,  could  not  be  his  safety.  A  mere 
accusation  was  enough  then,  to  cause  me  to  provide  for  my 
security.  I  was,  by  Bishop  Wren,  deprived  of  my  living  in 
Norfolk,  in  which,  I  believe,  I  endured  as  great  a  br^mt  as 
almost  any  of  those  who  stayed  in  England;  though  Mr. 
Edwards  is  pleased  to  say,  we  fled  that  we  might  be  safe 
upon  the  shore,  while  our  brethren  were  at  sea  in  the  storm. 
I  believe  neither  he,  nor  scarcely  any  of  our  presbyterian  ^ 
brethren,  endured  a  harder  storm  at  sea,  than  I  did  before  I 
went  out  of  England.  Yet,  I  bless  God,  he  stirred  up  noble 
friends  to  countenance  and  encourage  me  in  my  sufferings ; 
for  which  I  will  not  cease  to  pray  that  the  blessing  of  God 
may  be  upon  them  and  their  families.  For  some  months  I 
lived  with  my  lord  of  Warwick,  with  whom  I  found  much 
undeserved  love  and  respect,  and  was  in  the  midst  of  as  great 
encouragements  to  stay  in  England,  as  a  man  deprived,  and 
under  the  bishop's  rage,  could  expect ;  when  I  set  myself  in 
as  a  serious  a  manner  as  ever  I  did  in  my  life,  to  examine  my 
heart  about  my  staying  in  England ;  whether  some  carnal 
respects,  that  countenance  I  had  from  divers  noble  friends, 
ffae  offers  of  livings,  did  not  begin  to  prevail  too  far  with  me. 
My  spirit  was  much  troubled  with  these  thoughts.  Why  do  I 
sjp[  bnger  in  England,  where  I  cannot  with  peace  enjoy 

•  Barrouj^Ks's  VindicatioD,  p.  18, 21 .    Edit.  1646. 


90  LIVES  OF  THE  PUEITANS. 

-  •  . 

^NrliAt  my  soul  longs  after  f  Did  I  not  formerly  think,  diat  If 
evei-  God  took  foe  clearly  from  my  people,  1  would  halt^n 
to  be  where  I  might  be  fr'ee  from  such  mixtures  in  Ood'n 
worship,  without  wringing  my  conscience  any  more  I  Why 
do  I,  therefore,  now  stay  ?  Am  I  not  under  temptation  P  God 
knows  these  were  the  sad  and  serious  workings  of  my  spirit; 
«nd  these  workings  were  as  strong  as  ever  I  felt  diem  in 
my  life. 

'^  While  I  was  thus  musing,"  says  Mr.  Burroughs,  **  thus 
troubled  in  my  spirit,  and  lifting  up  my  heart  to  God  to 
help  me,  and  set  me  at  liberty,  leaning  upon  my  chamber 
window,  I  spied  a  man,  in  a  citizen's  habit,  comii^  in  the 
court-yard  towards  my  chamber;  and  upon  his  coming  near^ 
I  knew  him  to  be  formerly  a  citizen  of  Norwich,  but,  at  that 
time^  one  of  the  church  at  Rotterdam.  When  this  man 
came  near  to  me,  he  told  me  that  he  came  lately  from 
Rotterdaln ;  and  that  he  was  sent  there  by  the  church  to  give 
me  a  call  to  join  with  Mr.  Bridge  in  the  work  of  the  Lor^  in 
that  church.  When  I  heard  him  say  this,  I  stood  awhile 
amazed  at  the  providence  of  God;  mat,  at  such  a  time,  a 
messenger  should  be  sent  to  me  upon  such  an  errand.  JVfy 
heart,  God  knows,  exceedingly  rejoiced  in  this  call.  I 
presently  told  the  man  I  saw  God  much  in  it,  and  dared  not 
m  the  least  to  gainsay  it.  My  heart  did  much  close  with  itj 
yet  I  desired  to  see  the  hand  of  God  a  little  further.  I 
required  him  to  return  my  answer  to  the  church,  with  a 
desire,  that,  as  most  of  them  knew  me,  they  should  give  me 
their  call  under  their  own  hands;  Uien  there  would  be 
nothing  wanting,  but  I  should  be  theirs;  and  thus  we 
parted."* 

Mr.  Burroughs,  having  vindicated  his  own  character  against 
the  aspersions  of  his  adversaries,  fiirther  observes,  that, 
**  after  this  I  hoped  all  would  blow  over^  when  my  lord  of 
Warwick,  falling  sick  in  London,  sent  for  me,  and  I  came 
up  to  him  and  continued  with  him  about  three  weeks,  going 
finely  up  and  down  the  city.  My  lord  knew  all  the  busi- 
ness, and  made  no  question  but  all  was  over.  Being  now^ 
as  I  hoped,  set  fr.ee  from  my  accuser,  the  messenger  from 
Rotterdam  ctane  to  me  again,  with  an  answer  to  what  I  had 
desired,  shewing  me  how  the  church  there  had  assemblec^ 
and  had  sent  a  call  to  me  in  writing,  under  the  hands  of  the 
elders,  with  many  other  hands,  in  the  name  of  the  church ; 
on  which  we  agreed  upon  the  day  when,  and  the  place 

«  Borroughs'fi  Viodicatioo,  p,  18^21. 


BURROUGHS.  21 

where,  we  should  meet  in  Norfolk,  to  make  a  full  condu- 
sioQ  and  prepare  for  our  voyage/'* 

Our  divine  has  thus  favoured  us  with  a  circumstantial 
account  of  his  invitation  to  Rotterdam.  Upon  his  arrival, 
he  was  cordially  received  by  the  church;  and  he  continued 
^  zealous  and  faidifiil  labourer  several  years,  gaining  a  very 
bigh  reputation  among  the  people.  After  the  commence- 
ment of  the  civil,  war,  wbep  the  power  of  the  bishops  was 
set  aside,  he  retufued  to  Eq^land,  says  Ghraqger,  '^  not  to 
preach  sedition,  but  peace;  for  which  he  earnestly  prayed 
and  Iaboured."t 

Mr.  Burroughs  was  a  person  highly  honoured  and  es- 
teemed, aqd  he  soon  became  a  most  popular  and  admired 
preacher.  After  his  return,  his  popular  taleuts  and  great 
worth  presently  excited  public  attenton,  and  he  was  chosen 
preacher  to  the  congregations  of  Stepney  and  Cripplegate, 
Xiondon,  then  accounted  two  of  the  largest  congregations  in 
£iu;land.  Mr.  Burroughs  preached  at  Stepney  at  seven 
o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  Mr.  William  Oreenhill  at  three 
in  the  afternoon.  These  two  persons,  stigmatized  by  Wood  as 
notorious  schismatics  and  independents,  were  called  in  Step- 
ney pulpit,  by  Mr.  Hugh  Peters,  one  the  morning  star,  the 
other  th^  evenifig  star  of  Stepney. t  Mr.  Burroughs  was  chosen 
9ne  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  and  was  one  of  the  dissenting 
brethren,  but  a  divme  of  great  wisdom  and  moderation.  He 
united  with  his  brethren,  Messrs.  Thomas  Goodwin,  Philip 
Nye,  William  Bridge,  and  Sydrach  Sympspn,  in  publidiing 
their  '^  Apologetics!  Narration,"  in  defence  of  their  own  dis- 
tinguishing sentiments.  The  authors  of  this  work,  who  had 
been  exiles  for  religion,  tq  speak  in  th^  own  language^ 
^  consulted  die  scriptures  without  any  prejudice.  They  con- 
**  sidered  tiie  word  of  God  as  impartially  as  men  of  flesh  and 
**  blood  are  likely  to  dp,  in  any  juncture  of  time ;  the  place 
''  they  went  to,  the  condition  they  were  in,  and  the  company 
''  they  were  with,  affording  no  temptation  to  any  bias.'' 
They  assert,  that  every  church  or  congregation  has  su£Bcient 
power  within  itself  for  the  regulation  of  religious  govern- 
ment, and  is  subject  to  no  external  authority  whatever.  The 
principles  upon  which  they  founded  their  church  govern- 
ment, were,  to  confine  themselves  in  every  thing  to  what 
flie  scriptures  prescribed,  without  paying  any  regard  to  the 
opinions  or  practice  of  men ;  nor  to  tie  themselves  down  so 

•  BniToiighs's  Yindication,  p.  88. 

-f  GraoKer^s  Biog.  Hist.  vol.  U.  p.  193, 194. 

t  Wood*!  AthcDiB,  fol.  ii.  p.  113, 


28  LIVES  OP  THE  PURITANS. 

strictly  to  their  present  resolutions^  as  to  leave  no  room  for 
alterations  upon  a  further  acquaintance  with  divine  trudi. 
They  steered  a  middle  course  between  Presbyterianism  and 
Brownism:  the  former  they  accounted  too  arbitrary,  the 
latter  too  rigid ;  deviating  from  the  spirit  and  simplicity  of 
the  gospel.*  These  are  the  general  principles  of  the  inde^ 
pendents  of  the  present  day. 

^  Mr.  Burrong^s,  in  conformity  with  the  above  principles, 
united  with  his  brethren  in  writing  and  publishing  their 
^  Reasons  against  certain  Propositions  concerning  Presby* 
terial  Government."f  In  the  year  1645,  he  was  chosen  one 
of  the  committee  of  accommodation,  and  was  of'  great 
service  in  all  their  important  deliberations.^  He  was  a 
divine  of  great  piety,  candour,  and  moderation ;  and  during 
their  debates,  he  generously  declared,  in  the  name  of  the 
independents,  **  That  if  their  congregations  might  not  be 
exempted  from  the  coercive  power  of  the  classis;  and  if 
they  might  not  have  liberty  to  govern  themselves  in  their 
own  way,  so  long  as  they  behaved  themselves  peaceably 
towards  the  civil  magistrate,  they  were  resolved  to  suffer,  or 

Si  to  some  other  part  of  the  world,  where  they  might  enjoy 
eir  liberty.  But,"  said  he,  "  while  men  think  there  is  nd 
way  of  peace  but  by  forcing  all  to  be  of  the  same  mind^ 
while  they  think  the  civil  sword  is  an  ordinance  of  Ood  td 
determhie  all  controversies  in  divinity;  and  that  it  must 
needs  be  attended  with  fines  and  imprisonment  to  the  dis- 
obedient; while  they  apprehend  there  is  no  medium  between 
a  strict  uniformity  and  a  general  confusion  of  all  things : 
while  these  sentiments  prevail,  there"  must  be  ^  base  sub- 
jection of  men's  consciences  to  slavery,  a  suppression  of 
much  truth,  and  great  disturbances  in  the  christian  world.''§  [ 
After  his  return  from  exile,  he  never  gathered  a  separate 
congregation,  nor  accepted  of  any  parochial  betiefice,  but 
continued  to  exhaust  his  strength  by  constant  preaching^ 
and  other  important  services,  for  the  advantage  of  the  church 
of  God.  He  was  a  divine  of  a  most  amiable  and  peaceable 
spirit ;  yet  he  had  some  bitter  enemies,  who,  to  their  owi^ 
disgrace,  poured  upon  him  their  slander  and  falsehood* 
Mr.  Edwards,  whose  pen  was  mostly  dipped  in  gall,  pours 
upon  him  many  reproachful  and  unfounded  reflections.  He 
charges  Mr.  Burroughs,  and  some  others,  with  having  held  a 

♦  Biog.  Britan.  vol.  il.  p.  620. 

+  Reasons  of  Dissenting  Brethren,  p.  40, 133, 192. 

{  Papers  of  A.ccoin.  p.  13. 

^  Bnrroughs's  Vindicatioo,  p.  SO.^Neal*s  Paritans,  toI.  iu.  p.  286. 


BUBBOUGHS.  jSS 

meetmg  with  one  Nichols,  a  man  of  vile  and  daj^erous 
sentiments :  whereas  Mr.  Burroughs  thus  declared, ''  i  know 
no  such  man  as  this  Nichols.  I  never  heard  there  was  such 
a  man  in  the  world,  till  I  read  it  in  Mr.  Edwards's  book.  I, 
to  this  day,  know  of  no  meeting  about  him,  or  any  of  his 
opinions,  either  intended,  desired,  or  resolved  upon;  much 
less  that  there  was  any  such  meeting."*  What  he  thus 
declared  under  his  own  hand,  he  afterwards  proved  from  the 
most  correct  and  substantial  evidence,  casting  all  the  re- 
proach upon  the  false  statement  of  his  bitter  adversary .t 

This  peevish  and  bigotted  writer,  indeed,  warmly  censures 
Mr.  Burroughs  for  endeavouring  to  propagate  his  own  senti- 
ments upon  church  discipline;  and  even  for  pleading  the 
cause  of  a  general  toleration.  But  our  pious  divine, 'with 
his  usual  christian  meekness,  repelled  the  foolish  chai^ges, 
proved  his  own  innocence,  and  exposed  the  rancour  of  his 
enemy .(  Being  charged  with  conformity  in  the  time  of  the 
bishops,  he  says,  **  Though  I  did  conform  to  some  of  the  old 
ceremonies,  in  which  I  acknowledge  my  sin ;  I  do  not  cast 
those  things  off  as  inconvenient  or  discountenanced  by  the 
state  only,  but  as  sinful  against  Christ ;  yet  I  think  there  can 
]iardly  be  found  a  man  in  that  diocese  where  I  was,  that  was 
so  eyed,  who  conformed  less  than  I  did,  if  he  conformed  at 
^1.  As  for  the  new  conformity,  God  kept  me  from  it;  and 
my  sin  in  the  old  makes  me  be  of  a  more  forbearing  spirit 
towards  those  who.  now  differ  from  me.  I  see  now  what  I 
did  not ;  and  I  bless  God  I  saw  it  before  the  times  changed : 
and  others,  even  some  who  scorn  at  new  light,  must  acknow- 
ledge they  see  now  what  a  while  since  they  saw  not.  Why 
then  should  they  or  I  fly  upon  our  brethren,  because  they  see 
not  what  we  think  we  see?  O,  how  unbecoming  is  it  for 
such  who  conformed  to  old  and  new  ceremonies,  now  to  be 
harsh  and  bitter  in  the  least  degree  against  their  brethren, 
who  differ  from  them,  when  they  differ  so  much  from  what 
they  were  not  long  since  themselves !  Some  of  them  know 
I  loved  them  as  brethren,  when  they  conformed  to  what  I 
could  not,  but  was  suspended  for  refusing  it.  Let  me  have 
the  same  love  from  them  as  brethren,  though  I  cannot  now 
conform  to  all  they  now  do."§ 

Mr.  Edwards  and  old  Mr.  John  Vicars  were  his  most 
bitter  and  fririous  enemies.     The  latter  he  addressed  in  the 

*  Edwards's  Gangrasna,  part  i.  p.  25.    Third  £dU.~-part  ii.  p.  71 . 
+' Borroughs*s  YiDdicatioo,p.  5—8. 

X  Edwards^s  Antapologia,  p.  S16. — Gangraena,  part  i.  p.  78.  ii.  80.— 
BorroQghs's  Vindicatioo,  p.  5—12.  S  It>i^-  P«  17, 18. 


M  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

language  of  meekness  bnd  conciliation,  as  follows :  **  I 
reverence^  and  teach  others  to  reverence  old  age ;  but/'  says 
he,  ''  it  must  know  there  are  many  infirmilies  attending  it ; 
and  is  fitter  for  devotion,  than  for  matters  of  contention.  If 
Mr.  Vicars  had  told  me  some  experience  of  the  work  of 
God  upon  his  soul,  or  of  the  good  providence  of  God 
towards  his  people  and  himself,  I  should  have  diligently 
observed  it,  and,  1  hope,  I  might  have  got  good  by  it.  But^ 
oh,  how  unbecoming  old  age  is  that  spirit  of  contention  which 
appears  in  his  books !  If  he  think  those  places  he  has  cited 
will  serve  his  turn,  surely  his  skill  in  presbytery  is  not  great. 
My  pen  was  running  into  a  hard  expression,  but  I  will  not 
provoke  tlie  old  man :  vet  I  must  be  plain  with  hina.  How 
uncomely  is  it  for  an  old  professor  of  piety  and  religion,  to 
be  found  jeering  and  scorning  at  piety  and  religion  P  Who 
would  have  thought  that  ever  Mr.  Vicars  should  have  lived 
to  that  day  f  llie  chief  scope  of  his  bopk  is  to  cast  dirt  upon 
the  apologists.  Certainly  the  spirit  of  the  man  is  much 
altered  from  what  he  once  seemed  to  be.  Is  it  becoming 
the  ffravity  and  wisdom  of  old  a^e  to  charge  his  brethren 
publiciy,  of  unworthy  double  dealmg,  and  of  unfaithfulness  i 
The  Lord,  I  hope,  will  cause  Mr.  Vicars  to  see. cause  to  be 
humbled  for  this/** 

When  Mr.  Burroughs  and  his  brethren  were  stigmatized  as 
schismatics,  he  discovered  his  great  mildness  and  forbearance. 
**  I  profess,  as  in  the  presence  of  God,"  says  he,  '^  thirt  upon 
die  most  serious  examination  of  my  heart,  I  find  in  it,  diat 
were  my  judgment  presbyterial,  yet  I  should  preach  and 
{dead  as  much  for  the  forbearance  of  brethren  differing  firom 
me,  not  only  in  their  judgment,  biit  in  their  practice,  as  I 
have  ever  done.  Therefore,  if  I  should  turn  presbyterian,  I 
frar  I  should  trouble  Mr.  Ed^vards  and  some  others  mcxe 
than  I  do  now:  perhaps  my  preaching  and  pleading  for 
forbearance  of  dissenting  brethren  would  be  of  more  force 
dian  it  is  now  A 

Dr.  Grey,  who  has  called  our  divine  ^  an  ignorant,  factious, 
and  schismaticml  minister,**  has  certainly  imitated  too  modi, 
hi  rancour  and  misivpreseiitatioD,  die  examjde  of  his  pie- 
decessors^  Mr.  Baxter,  who  knew  his  great  worth,  aaid|, 
^^  if  aD  die  episcopahaiis  had  been  like  Archbishop  Usher; 
all  dK  Presbyterians  like  Mr.  Stiraheii  MaishaU;  and  aD  the 
sadepesdeats  like  Mr.  Jeraaiah  Barroughs,  die  breaches  of 
the  church  wo«ld  soob  have  heea  healed.*    The  last  solject 


r.9i»ak  ^mi.|^i4. 


CORNWELL.  IS 

Mr.  Burroughs  preached  upon^  which  he  also  piliblishedy  was 
his  '^  Irenicum/'  or  an  attempt  to  heal  the  divisions  among 
'christians.  His  incesssuit  labours,  and  his  grief  for  the 
distractions  of  the  times,  are  said  to  have  hastened  his  end. 
He  died  of  a  consumption,  November  14,  1646,  in  the  fortjf- 
seventh  year  of  his  age.  Granger  says,  '^  he  was  a  man  of 
learning,  candour,  and  modesty,  and  of  an  exemplary  and 
irreproachable  life."*  Fuller  has  classed  him  among  the 
learned  writers '  of  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge.t  Dr. 
Williams  says,  that  his  "  Exposition  of  Hosea"  is  a  pleasing 
specimen,  to  shew  how  the  popular  preachers  of  his  time 
applied  the  scriptures,  in  their  expository  discourses,  to  the 
various  cases  of  their  hearers. t  He  published  several  of  his 
writings  while  he  lived,  and  his  fhends  sent  forth  many 
others  after  his  death,  most  of  which  were  highly  esteemed 
by  all  pious  christians. 

His  Works. — 1.  Moses's  Choice,  1641. — 2.  Sion's  Joy,  a  Sermoa 

§  reached  to  the  Honofirable  House  of  Commons,  at  their  public 
'hanksgiving,    Sept.  7,    1641—1641.-3.  An  Exposition    of  the 
Prophesy  of  Hosea,  1648. — 4.  The  Lord's  Heart  opened,  1643. — 

6.  A  Vindication  of  Mr.  Burroughs,  against  Mr.  Edwards  his  fool 
aspersions,  in  his  spreading  Gangraena,  and  his  angry  Antapologia: 
concluding  with  a  brief  Declaration  what  the  Independents  would 
have,  1646.—^.  Irenicum,  to  the  Lovers  of  Truth  and  Peace,  1646. — 

7.  Two  Treatises:  The  first,  of  Earthly mindedness;  the  second,  of 
Conyersing  in  Heaven  and  Walking  with  God,  1640^ — 6.  An  Exposi- 
tion upon  4y  5,  6,  and  7th  Chapters  of  Hosea,  1650. — 9.  An  Exposi* 
tion  upon  8  and  9th  Chapters  of  Hosea,  1650. — 10.  The  rare  Jewel 
of  Christian  Contentment,  1650. — 11.  Gospel  Worship,  1650. — 
1%  Gospel  Conversation,  1650.— 13.  The  Evil  of  Evils:  or,  the. 
exceeding  Sinfulness  of  Sin,  1654.— 14.  The  Saints  Treasury,  1654.-— 
15.  Three  Treatises,  of  Hope,  of  Faith,  and  of  the  Saints  Walk  by 
Fakh,  1655. — 16.  Reconciliation,  or  Christ's  Trumpet  of  Peace,  165.. 
17.  The  Saints  Happiness,  1660.— 18.  A  Treatise  of  Holy  Courage 
in  Evil  limes,  1661.^-19.  True  Blessedness  consists  in  Pardon  of 
{Sin,  1668.— 20.  Four  useful  Discourses,  1675, 


Francis  CoRNWELLy  A.  M. — ^This  person  was  educated 
at  Emanuel  college,  Cambric^e,  and  afterwards  beneficed 
at  Orpington  in  Kent.  During  the  intolerance  of  Archbishop 
Ijaudy  having  refused  to  wear  the  surplice,  to  kneel  at  th^ 
sacrament,  and  use  the  sign  of  the  cross  in  baptism,  he  was 
cast  into  prison.  His  companion  in  Maidstone  gaol  was 
Mr.  Wilson  of  Otham,  near  that  place,    About  this  time^  he 

•  Granger's  Biog.  Hist.  vol.  ii.  p.  193. 

^  Jailer's  Hist,  of  Camb.  p.  147* 

%  ^iUiasM'i  CliristUn  Preacher,  fi.  499. 


96  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

espoused  the  sentiments  of  the  baptists,  and  became  a 
zealous  advocate  in  the  cause.    In  1643^  he  publicly  avowed 
Ills  principles,  and  wrote  in  defence  of  tliem.     In  1644,  in 
a  visitation  sermon  preached  at  Cranbrook  in  Kent,  from 
Mark  vii.  7>  before  the  ministers  of  those  parts,  he  took  the 
liberty  of  freely  and  fully  declaring  his  sentiments  upon  the 
subject  of  baptism,    lliis  very  much  startled  some  of  the 
clergy  present,  and  offended  others.    The  matter  was,  there- 
fore, debated  among  them,  and  the  arguments  in  favour  of 
antipaedobaptism   were    strongly    urged    by   Mr.  William 
Jeffery  of  Seven-oaks,  who  had  baptized  Mr.  Comwell,  and 
to  whom  he  referred  them.    The  debate  was  carried  on  till 
Mr.  Christopher  Blackwood,  one  of  the  ministers,  desired 
them  to  desist  at  that  time ;  for  he  had  taken  dowii  the 
sermon  in  short-hand,  and  would  return  an  answer  in  prints 
which  he  hoped  would  be  to  the  satisfaction  of  them  all. 
His  advice  being  adopted,  it  was  agreed  to  postpone,  for 
the  present,  the  discussion  of  the  question,  to  re-examine  the 
point  in  dispute,  and  to  bring  their  collections  together  at 
the  next  meeting,  which  was  to  be  within  a  fortnight.     In 
the  mean  time,  Mr.  Blackwood,   as  our  author  obser\'es, 
studied  the  question  with  great  diligence  and  close  attention. 
The  impression  made  on  his  mind  was  very  different  from 
what  was  expected.     As  he  studied  the  subject,  he  began  to 
suspect  his  own  opinions ;  presently  changed  his  sentiments ; 
and,  when  they  met,  he  produced  his  arguments  against 
infant  baptism.     His  papers  being  left  with  the  ministers  for 
their  examination,  and  waiting  some  time,  and  receiving  no 
answer  to  his  arguments,  he  published  them  vnth  corrections 
and  enlargements .• 

Mr.  Cornwell,  soon  after  this,  withdrew  from  the  estab- 
lished church.  He  disapproved  of  national  and  parochial 
churches ;  and  taught,  that  a  church  ought  to  consist  <^ 
such  only  as  professed  repentance  from  dead  works,  and 
fi^ith  in  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  were  baptized  by  immer- 
sion, and  upon  their  believing,  which  he  thought  was  the 
pattern  of  the  first  churches  in  Judea.  He  soon  gathered  n 
church  in  Kent,  which  was  formed  upon  this  plan,  and  to 
which  he  was  pastor  to  the  day  of  his  death.  He  was  sucr 
ceeded  in  the  same  place  and  office  by  his  son.  It  reflects 
great  honour  on  Mr.  Cornwell's  memory,  that  he  was  a 
zealous  opposer  of  persecution  and  an  imposed  uniformity. 
He  wrote  against  the  ordinance  of  parliament  that  was  made 

♦  Crosby's  Baptists,  ▼ol.  i.  p.  344— 84T.— Ncal*»  Puritans,  vol.  it. 
p.  632'-634. 


COLLIER.  SJr 

to  silence  aU  preachers  who  had  not  received  episcopal  or 
jMresbyterian  ordination,  or  who  should  preach  any  thing 
contrary  to  the  articles  of  faith,  and  the  directory  of  public 
worship,  set  forth  by  the  assembly.  He  maintained,  that 
all  who  profaibitefd  any  minbter  from  preaching  the  gospd 
Ifreely,  acted  like  the  Jews  of  old,  who  cast  the  blind  man 
out  of  the  temple,  for  confessing  that  Jesus  was  the 
Christ.* 


;  His  Works. — 1*  A  Vindication  of  the  Royal  Commuunon  of  Kii  _ 
Jesus,  1643. — 2.  A  Description  of  the  Spiritual  Temple;  or,  iho 
Difference  between  the  Christian  and  Antichristian  Church,  1646.-^ 
8.  A  Conference  between  Mr.  John  Cotton  and  the  Elders  of  New 
England,  1646. — 4.  Two  Queries  worthy  of  Consideration, 


'  Thomas  Collier  was  a  minister  of  the  baptist  persua- 
ision,  a  person  of  great  cfiligence,  moderation  and  usefulness, 
and  a  sufferer  in  the  evil  times  m  which  he  lived.  Edwards 
denominates  him  a  great  sectary,  and  a  man  of  great  power 
among  them ;  who  had  emissaries  under  him,  whom  he  sent 
abroad  into  various  parts  of  the  country.  He  preached 
some  time  in  the  island  of  Guernsey,  where  he  had  many 
converts ;  but  his  cruel  persecutors  would  not  allow  him  to 
enjoy  peace.  They  banished  him  and  many  of  his  followers 
from  die  place,  and  cast  them  into  prison  at  Portsmouth ; 
'but  how  long  diey  remained  under  confinement,  we  are  not 
infontied.-f-  On  account  of  his  incessant  labours  and  exten- 
sive usefulness,  he  is  represented  by  his  adversaries  as  havii^ 
done  much  hurt  at  Lymington,  Hampton,  Waltham,  and  dl 
along  the  west  country.  "  This  Collier,"  says  my  author, 
^*  is  a  great  sectary  in  the  west  of  England,  a  mechanical 
fellow,  and  a  great  emissary,  a  dipper,  who  goes  about 
Surrey,  .Hampshire,  and  those  counties,  preaching  and 
dipping.  About  a  fortnight  ago,  on  the  Lord's  day,  he 
preached  at  Guildford  in  the  meeting-place,  and  to  the 
company  of  one  old  Mr.  Close,  an  independent  minister, 
who  hath  set  up  at  Guildford,  and  done  a  great  deal  of 
mischief,  having  drawn  away  many  of  the  well-meaning 
people  from  the  ministry  of  other  godly  ministers.  There 
tiiis  Cdllier  exercised ;  and  it  was  given  out  in  the  coimtry, 
that  he  was  a  rare  man;  and  the  people  came  firom  the 
towns  about  to  hear  him.  This  fellow,  m  his  circuit,  at  an 
texercise  where  he  was  preaching  to  many  women  for  rebap- 

«  Crosby's  Baptists,  vol.  i.  p.  348,  S49. 
f  Edwards's  Gangrsna,  part  iiu  p.  41. 


S8  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

dzation  and  dippiug,  made  use  of  that  scripture  to  that 
purpose :  And  in  that  day  seven  women  shaU  take  hold  of 
4me  manj*  isuc.* 

In  the  year  1645,  Mr.  Collier  came  forwards  in  viniUca* 
tion  of  his  sentiments^  and  published  a  work,  entitled^ 
*'  Certain  Queries,  or  Points  now  in  Controversy,  Examined  ;*^ 
in  which,  after  vindicating  his  own  views  of  christian  bap- 
tism, he  maintains,  that  magistrates  have  no  power  whatever 
to  establish  church  government,  or  to  compel  any  j^rsons 
bjr  any  human  power,  to  observe  the  government  of  Christ.  ^  In 
discussing  the  power  of  the  civil  magistrate  in  ecclesiastical 
matters,  he  gives  his  advice  to  the  parliament  to  use  tlieir 
utmost  endeavours  to  promote  a  further  reformation  of  th« 
church ;  for  the  attainment  of  which,  he  recommends  them 
**  to  dismiss  that  assembly  of  learned  men,  who  are  now 
called  together  to  consult  about  matters  of  religion ;  because 
he  cannot  conclude  that  God  hath  any  thing  for  them  to  da^ 
and  he  knows  no  rule  in  the  hook  of  God  for  such  sm 
assembly.  '  He  also  recommends  them  to  go  forwards  io 
subduing  their  auti^hristian  enemies^,  so  far  as  by  civil  law  th^j 
had  power.  He  then  concludes  by  recommending  the  parr 
liament  to  give  the  kingdom  to  the  saints;  by  which  ia 
meant,''  says  h^,  '^  not  only  an  external  kingdom,  but  the 
spiritual  kingdom  and  goverpment  of  the  church  of  Christ.^f 

The  year  following,  two  of  Mr.  Collier's  letters,  addressed- 
to  his  religious  friends,  were  intercepted,  and  published  te 
the  world.  As  they  discover  his  piety  and  usefrilness,  and 
contain  a  sufficient  answer  to  all  the  impious  clamour  of 
Mr,  Edwards's  scurrilous  pen,  it  will  be  proper  to  insert 
them.  The  first,  dated  from  Guildford,  April  20,  1646,  is 
addressed  ^^  To  the  Saiuts  ip  th^  o^der  and  fellowship  of 
the  gospel  at  Taunton ;"  the  preamble  to  which  is,  "  Your 
dear  brother,  Thomas  Collier,  desireth  the  increase  of  grace; 
and  peace  from  God  the  Father,  and  from  our  Lord  Jesue 
Christ ;"  and  is  as  follows  :t 

*'  Dear  brethren  and  sisters, 

"  I  have  not  had  an  opportunity  of  writing  unto 
you  until  now,  although  my  spirit  hath  been  up  to  the  Lord 
for  you  continually,  llie  Lord  hath  manifested  his  presence 
with  me  exceedingly  in  my  journey.  I  desire  the  Lord  to. 
raise  up  your  hearts  in  mankfulness.  He  hath  gathered 
saints  in  Pool  by  me.  Fourteen  took  up  the  ordinance  at 
once;  there  is  like  to  be  a  great  work;  and  I  confinaeq 

♦  Edwards's  Gangraena,  part  ii.  p.  122. 

f  Ibid,  part  iii.  p.  27—29.  %  I^>d*  P*  ^1* 


COLLIER. 

the  ehurdies  in  other  fdaces.  I  am  not  yet  got  to  far  m 
London ;  but  I  shall,  t  expect,  to-monrow.  Dearly  beloved, 
my  desire  and  prayer  to  our  Fadier,  on  your  behalf,  is,  that 

Jrour  souls  may  be  satisfied  widi  his  fulness,  that  you  may 
ive  above,  and  then  you  shall  not  vi^ant  comfort.  My  ex* 
hortation  to  you  is,  to  wait  upon  the  Lord,  in  his  own  way, 
and  not  to  look  forth  into  the  world.  There  is  bread  enough 
in  your  Father's  house,  where  be  hath  promised  his  presence. 
Though  you  seem  to  want  gifts,  yet  you  shall  not  want  the 
wesence  of  your  Father,  your  Jesus,  if  you  wait  upon  him. 
jlliere  ate  two  brethren  I  suppose  will  visit  you  frovi 
Hampton;  brother  Sims  and  brother  Row,  whom  I  desire 
you  to  receive  as  from  the  Lord.  The  unlimited  power  of 
the  presbyterians  is  denied  them,  of  li^hich  you  shall  hear 
more  shortly.  I  desire  to  be  remembered  to  all  my  kind 
fHends  with  you,  and  at  present  rest 

'^  Your  dear  brother  in  the  &ith  and  fellowship  of  the  gospel, 

**  Thomas  Collieb.'' 
In  a  note  to  the  above  letter,  Mr.  Collier  says,  '^  I  shall 
see  you  as  speedily  as  possible."  His  second  letter  breadies 
the  same  pious  feelings,  and  is  also  addressed  ''  To  th« 
Saints  in  the  order  and  fellowship  of  the  gospel."  It  if 
dated  from  London,  May  2,  1646,  and  is  as  follows  :* 
^  My  dear  ones  in  the  Lord  Jesus, 

**  I  sahite  yon,  desiring  Him  who  is  our  head 
and  husband,  our  life  and  liberty,  our  all  and  in  all,  to 
gather  up  our  souls  more  abundantly  into  the  glorious 
unity  and  fellowship  of  the  Son  of  God;  that  you  may. 
not  live  upon  these  lower  things,  which  are  but  instru- 
ments to  convey  light  and  love  unto  us :  I  mean,  even  ordi- 
nances, or  the  like ;  which  indeed  are  but  as  a  shell  without 
the  kernel,  further  than  we  enjoy  Christ  in  diem.  My  dear 
ones,  you  are  in  my  heart  continually,  and  my  desire  is  to 
be  with  you  as  sooti  as  possibly  I  can,  to  impart  some 
Spiritual  gifts  unto  you,  and  to  enjoy  fellowship  in  Jesus 
Christ  vndi  you.  But  what  is  this?  you  are  upon  the  heart 
of  Christ;  nay,  engraven  upon  his  hand,  and  shall  be  had 
in  everlasting  remembrance  before  him.  I  am  much  in 
hasie  at  present,  the  post  coming  forth  of  tovm,  only  I  hav^ 
sent  you  diese  few  Imes,  and  two  books  here  enclosed,  as  a 
remembrance  of  my  love.  I  desire  to  be  remembered  to  all 
my  dear  fiieittls  widi  you,  and  at  present  rest  and  remain 

'*  Your  dear  brother  in  the  faith  and  fellowship  of  the  gospel^ 

"  Thomas  Collier. 

•  Edwardf^f  Gaagraas,  part  Hi,  p.  6S. 


»  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Mr^  Collier  was  author  of  sevenJ  other  pieces,  ia  addition 
to  the  one  we  have  mentioiied,  whiqh  were  probably  4)n  the 
cpntroversies  ,of  the  day.  But  at  what  place  or  places  he 
ftli^wards  preached,  or  when  he  died,  we  are  not  inprmed.  . 

Philip  Tandy  was  a  nunister  in  Ae  establish^  church^ 
but  afterwards  joined  the  brethren  of  the  ^teparation,  and 
^espoused  the  sentiments  of  the  bs^ptists,  observioff  the  seventh 
day  a3  the  christian  s^ibbath.  He  was  remarl^Iy  zealous  to 
promote  hi^  own  views  of  divine  prutk,  and  appears  to  ha¥e 
been  a.  person  of  great  abilities  and  piety.  Edwards  deno- 
minates him  ^'  a  great  sectary,"  who  had  been  at  York  smd  in 
the  northern  parts,  propagfiting  his  sentiments.  While  he 
was  in  the  north,  he  held  a  disputatioi)  concerning  bis 
opinions,  with  a  pious  and  learned  minister  of  York.  The 
debate  was  carried  on  by  letters,  in  one  of  which  Mr.  Tandy 
remarks  as  follows:  "  Let  us  lay  aside  tradition,  custom, 
the  reputation  of  learning,  and  all  selfish  respects ;  and  let  us 
speak  and  write  so  as  knowing  that  we  must  shortly  give  an 
account  to  Jesus  Christ  foi:  all  that  we  build,  whether  it  be 
hay  or  stubble,  gold  or  wood.  For  my  part,  I  am  confident, 
that,  within  a  few  years,  I  shall  see  him  whom  my  soul  loveth, 
and  much  will  it  go  to  my  heart,  if  I  either  oppose  a  truth, 
or  maintain  an  error.  Sir,  let  us  look  about  us :  the  vail  is 
not.  yet  taken  off.  In  something  most  good  men  have  been 
blinded.  It  may  be  in  this  for  one.  It  is  good  to  be  tenderly 
jealous.  Pardon  me,  that  I  thus  exhort  you.  I  see  so  many 
temptations  that  sti'ongly  invite  even  godly  men  to  contend 
for  paedobaptism,  and  so  far  do  I  see,  also,  into  the  mystery 
of  antichrist's  sitting  in  the  temple  of  God  as  God,  thfit  { 
cannot  but  give  a  caution  to  the  godliest  man  upon  earth, 
who  undertakes  the  defence  of  this  practice."  Mr.  Tandy 
undertook,  in  his  next  letter,  to  vindicate  his  own  views  ojf 
baptism  and  the  fourth  commandment  concerning  the  sabbath; 
to  vi4iich  the  minister  mentioned  above  wrote  a  large  and  fiiU 
reply, .  in  which;^  it  is  said,  he  confuted  him  in  all  the 
particulars  contained  in  his  letter.*  It  doQS  not  appear  Bit 
what  place  Mr.  Tandy  preached,  or  when  he  died,  but  he 
was  living  in  the  year  1646. 

.    *  Edwards's  Gangrasoa,  part  iii.  p.  64—59.. 


TANDt—T.  MOORE^DURANCE.  Sl 

THOMtAs  Moore  was  a  zealous  and  active  preacher 
athotig  the  separatists  during  the  civil  wars.  Edwsurds  calk 
him  "  a  great  sectary  and  manifestarian/*  who,  in  his  opinion, 
did  much  hurt  in  Lincolnshire^  in  some  parts  of  Norfolk  and 
C!ambri(]^eshire.  He  obtained  great  fame  at  Boston,  Ljnne 
and  Hollandji  at  which  places  he  had  many  followers,  who 
accompanied  him  fix>m  place  to  place,  attending  upon  his 
niinistiy.  He  did  not  confine  his  labours  to  buildings  that 
were  consecrated;  but,  without  distinction  of  places,  he 
preached  in  houses,  and  in  all  places  wherever  the  people 
were  disposed  to  assemble.  It  is  observed,  that  he  sund  his 
followers  refused  to  keep  days  of  public  festing  and  dianks- 
giving,  in  the  .time  of  civil  wars  ;  "  because,''  says  my  audior, 
**  diey  will  not  give  thanks  to  God  for  one  man  killing 
aiK)ther.''  On  account  of  his  opinions  and  practice,  he  was 
shamefully  persecuted  by  the  presbyterian  mimsters  and  odiers 
of  a  bigotted,  party  spirit.  At  Boston  he  was  questioned  by 
Colonel  King,  governor  of  the  tovm,  when  he  was  cast  into 
prison  for  keeping  a  conventicle  in  the  night  season.  It  doc» 
not,  however,  appear  how  long  he  remained  under  the  malice 
and  power  of  his  persecutors,  nor  what  afterwards  became  of 
faim^  only  he  was  living  in  the  year  1646.* 


John  Durance  was  a  zealous  and  popular  preacher  of  the 
independent  denomination.  Edwards  says,  **  he  was  formerly 
an  apprentice  to  a  washball-maker  in  Lombard-street,  London, 
and  afterwards  became  a  preacher  without  being  ordained ; 
yea,  after  preaching  some  years,  he  presumed,  without  ordina- 
tion, to  baptize  and  administer  the  Lord's  supper."  This 
was  certainly  a  dreadful  crime  in  the  opinion  of  this  bigotted 
writer.  He  often  preached  at  Sandwich  in  Kent,  but  lived  at 
Canterbury,  where  he  gathered  a  separate  church,  and  dis- 
pensed the  word  and  ordinances  of  the  gospel.  The  author 
mentioned  above,  with  a  view  to  reproach  his  memory,  gives 
the  following  curious  account  of  him :  "  There  is  one 
"Master  Durance,  a  preacher  at  Sandwich  in  Kent,  a  bold  con- 
ceited man,  and  an  independent,  who,  since  the  beginning  of 
ifais  parliament,  was  ^a  washing-ball  maker,  or  seller  of  wash- 
ing-balls, here  in  I^ndon,  but  now  turned  preacher ;  and 
being' never  ordained  minister,  hath  consecrated  himself  to  be 
one  of  the  priests  of  the  high  places.  Among  many  high 
affected  strains  of  new  light,  and  strange  expressions,  which 

*  Edwardi's  Gangrsoa,  part  ii.  p.  86.  Hi.  90. 


92  .  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

the  man  uses  in  his  sermons  and  prayers^  to  get  himself  the 
name  of  such  a  rare  man,  these  are  some :  he  prayed  to  tb« 
Trinity  to  take  care  of  these  three  kingdoms;  God  the 
Pather  to  take  care  of  one,  God  the  Son  of  the  second,  and 
God  the  Holy  Ghost  of  the  third  kingdom."  This  author 
charges  Mr.  Durance  with  having  prayed  publicly  in  th« 
church  at  Sandwich,  *^  that  the  king  might  be  brought  up  in 
chains  to  the  parliament"  He  also  observes,  that,  after  his 
preaching  at  Canterbury,  he  hath  the  use  of  a  great  room  near 
the  cathedral,  where  many  resort  to  him,  and  *^  he  takes 
occasion  to  build  them  up  in  independency."  Although  he 
preached  regularly  every  week  at  Canterbury  and  Sandwich, 
he  would  have  done  the  same  also  at  Dover;  but  he  was 
opposed  by  the  godlj/  ministers  of  the  town,  who  wrote  up  to 
London  against  him,  and,  by  this  means,  prevented  him  from 
going  thither.  This  shews  his  great  zeal  and  diligence,  and 
their  extreme  bigotry  and  intolerance.  Mr.  Edwards,  one  of 
the  most  bitter  enemies  to  toleration,  further  chai*ges  him  with 
saying,  after  the  surrender  of  Oxford  to  the  parliament, 
*^  diat,  notwithstanding  this,  there  would  be  no  peace  till 
there  was  a  general  liberty  of  conscience  in  England."  A 
dreadful  crime  was  this  in  the  eyes  of  this  bigotted  writer! 
Mr.  Durance  lived  in  one  of  the  prebendaries  houses  in 
Canterbury ;  and,  after  preaching  on  the  Lord's  day  in  one  of 
ibe  churches,  he  preached  and  administered  the  ordinancet 
of  the  gospel  to  his  own  church,  in  his  own  house,  in  the 
evening.  How  long  he  continued  in  this  situation,  or  when 
he  died,  we  are  not  able  to  learn ;  but  he  was  living  in  the 
year  1646.*  v 


John  Batchelor  was  a  divine  of  the  independent  deno- 
mination, who  lived  some  time  at  Rotterdam  in  Holland, 
where  he  was  probably  driven  by  the  Laudian  persecution^ 
Several  of  his  letters,  dated  from  this  place  in  September^ 
1S41,  expressive  of  the  liberal  sentiments  of  the  independents^ 
wer^  afterwards  printed.t  He  soon  after  r^eturned  to  hid 
native  country,  and  became  a  chaplain  in  the  army;  on  which 
account,  and  on  account  of  his  views  of  church  govemmeu^ 
Edwards  has  classed  him  among  *^  the  notorious  sectariesp 
and  tliose  who  smell  of  the  army."^  He  was  an  avowed 
advocate  for  liberty  of  conscience,  and  a  universal  toleration, 
for  which  he  has  incurred  the  hot  displeasure  and  indignatioB. 

*  Edward8*8  Ganj^raena,  partii.  p.  124,  144.  iii.96,97. 

f  £dwards*»  Antapologia,  p.  39.  t  GaognBoa,  part  iii.  p.  266. 


BATCHEI^OR.  !  3B 

^  thU  censorious  writer.  About  the  year  1643,  he  was 
appomted,  with  several  other  learned  divines,  one  of  tfat 
licensers  of  the  press,  for  books  in  divinity.  In  this  office  he 
discovered  his  generous  sentiments,  by  giving  his  public  sane* 
tion  to  all  publications  which  were  founded  on  the  broad  and 
liberal  principles  of  christian  freedom  and  a  toleration  of  all 

Srties.  This  was  sure  to  incur  the  indignant  censure  of 
r.  Edwards,  who  gives  the  following  amusing  account  of 
him: 

**  Master  Batchelor,"  says  he,  "  is  the  licenser-general  of 
books,  not  only  of  independent  doctrines,  but  of  books  for  a 
toleration  of  all  sects,  and  against  paedobaptism."*  What  a 
shocking  crime  was  this  in  the  opinion  of  this  bigotted  and 
intolerant  writer !  In  another  place  he  says,  **  There  is  one 
Master  John  Batchelor,  licenser-general  of  the  sectaries' 
books,  and  of  all  sorts  of  wicked  opinions,  who  hath  been  a 
man-midwife  to  bring  forth  more  monsters  begotten  by  die 
de^,  and  bom  of  the  sectaries,  wiihin  tliis  three  last  years, 
than  ever  were  brought  into  the  light  in  England  by  all  the 
former  licensers,  the  bishops  and  their  chaplains,  for  fourscore 
years.  He  hath  licensed  books  pleading  for  ail  sorts  of 
sectaries:  as,  seekers,  antinomians,  anabaptists,  antiscrip-f' 
turists,  arians,  antitrinitarians,  questionists,  and  all  bias-' 
phemers.  This  is  apparent  by  his  licensing  that  late  i^icked 
pamphlet,  called,  ^  Some  modest  and  humble  Queries  con* 
ceming  a  printed  Paper,  entitled, '  An  Ordinance  presented  to 
die  Honourable  House  of  Commons.' 

*^  This  Master  Batchelor  hath  licensed  several  pamphlets 
for  a  toleration;  yea,  not  only  for  a  limited  toleration  of  some 
sects  and  opinions,  as  anabaptists  and  independents ;  but  for 
a  universal  toleration  of  all  consciences  and  opinions,  as  maj 
be  seen  in  Walwin's  book  licensed  by  him:  yea,  he  hath 
licensed  unlicensed  books  printed  before  he  was  bom,  as  a 
pam{Alet,  entitled, '  Religious  Peace,'  made  by  one  Leonard 
Busher,  and  printed  in  16 14;  wherein  there  is  a  pleading 
for  a  toleration  of  papists,  jews,  and  all  persons  differing  in 
religion ;  and  that  it  may  be  lawful  for  them  to  write,  dispute, 
confer>  print  and  publish,  any  matter  touching  religion,  lliat 
the  wickedness  of  Master  Batchelor  may  the  more  appear,  I 
desire  the  reader  to  observe  these  following  particulars : — He 
gives  not  a  bare  imprimatur  to  this  book  of  Busher's,  but 
gives  his  imprimatur  with  a  special  recommendation  in  these 
words :  *  This  useful  treatise,  entitled.  Religious  Peace,  long 

*  GaDfTOim,  part  i.  p.  88. 
YOL.  HI.  P 


\ 


M  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

lince  presented  by  a  citizen  of  London  to  King  Jame»  and 
the  kigh  court  of  parliament  then  sitting,  I  allow  to  be 
reprinted;  and  so  to  some  of  Saltmarsh's  books,  Smoak  in 
the  Temple;  Groans  for  Liberty;  Reasons  for  Unity;  Love 
-and  Peace.  In  the  reprinting  Busker's  book  for  general 
toleration,  he  made  some  material  alterations,  and  wrote  in 
the  margins  of  such  places  in  the  book  where  some  special 
passages  were  for  toleration,  that  they  should  be  printed  in 
a  larger  letter,  no  doubt  that  the  reader  might  better  obsenre 
them." 

This  intolerant  author  also  adds :  **  John  Batcfaelor  treads 
in  the  steps  of  some  licensers  who  went  before  him.  The 
man  hath  justified  and  acouitted  the  former  licensers, 
Dr.  Baker,  Dr.  Bray,  Dr.  Hayward,  Ur.  Weeks,'  and  the 
rest  of  that  race,  who,  in  the  point  of  licensing,  were  saints 
to  him.  He  hath  licensed  such  books  and  things,  that  I 
am  confident  none  of  them  durst  have  done,  for  fear  the 
people  would  have  risen  up  and  torn  them  in  pieces ;  and 
certainly  the  people  would  never  have  borne  with  such 
books  in  the  bishops'  days.  If  any  man,  before  the  sittiiq^ 
of  this  parliament,  had  written  or  licensed  such  books,  he 
would  without  doubt  have  been  questioned  and  proceeded 
against  by  this  parliament.  This  Batchelor  is  such  a  des- 
perate licenser,  that  nothing  now  in  that  kind  can  stick  widi 
him,  having  swallowed  down  those  wicked  ^  Queries'  upon 
the  ordinance  against  heresies  and  blasphemies;  and,"  says 
my  author,  ^^  I  am  afraid  that  if  the  devil  himself  should 
make  a  book,  and  give  it  the'  title,  *  A  Plea  for  Liberty  of 
Conscience,  with  certain  Reasons  against  Persecution  ior 
Religion,'  and  bring  it  to  Mr.  Batchelor,  he  would  license 
it,  not  only  with  a  bare  imprimatury  but  set  before  it  the 
commendations  of  a  useful  treatise,  a  sweet  and  excellent 
booky  making  for  love  and  peace  among  brethren.*'* 

Such  are  the  reproaches  cast  upon  our  divine,  who  wae 
greatly  celebrated  for  christian  moderation,  liberty  of  con- 
science, and  free  inquiry.  He  was  living  in  1646;  but 
where  he  preached,  or  when  he  died,  we  have  not  been  able 
to  ascertain. 


John  Greene  had  a  principal  hand  in  raising  a  baptist-, 
congregation  in  Crutched-friars,  London,  in  the  year  1639, 
and  was  chosen  to  the  office  of  minister.f    He  was  by  trade 

•  £dward8*8  Gangraena,  part  iii.  p.  102— 105* 
f  Crosb>'i  Baptists,  toU  iiK  p.  86, 48. 


GREENE.  S5 

^  felt-maker  of  hat-maker,  but  he  became  a  zealous  and 
popular  preacher.  In  the  year  1641,  there  was  published 
It  quarto  pamphlet,  entitled,  "  The  Brownists'  Synagogue ; 
br,  a  late  Discovery  of  their  Conventicles,  Assemblies,  and 

S'  laces  of  meeting ;  where  they  preach,  and  the  manner  of 
leir  praying  and  preaching;  with  a  relation  of  the  names, 
^aces,  and  doctrines  of  those  which  do  commonly  preach. 
The  chief  of  which  are  these:  Greene,  the  felt-maker; 
Marler,  the  button-maker ;  Spencer,  the  coachman ;  Rogers, 
the  glover :  which  sect  is  much  increased  of  late  within  this 
city.  A  kingdom  divided  cannot  stand."  In  this  work, 
Greene  and  Spencer  are  called  the  two  arch-separatists^ 
sind  are  said  to  be /^accounted  as  demi-gods,  who  were  here 
and  every  where."  It  shews  the  manner  of  their  worship, 
which  we  extract,  because  it  gives  some  idea  of  the  spirit  of 
the  times,  and  proves  that  the  voice  of  slander  could  not 
attribute  any  improper  conduct  to  them  in  their  public 
assemblies.  "  In  the  house  w'here  they  meet,"  it  is  said, 
"  there  is  one  appointed  to  keep  the  door,  for  the  intent  to 
sive  notice,  if  there  should  be  any  insurrection,  warning  may 
be  given  them.  They  do  not  flock  together,  but  come  two 
or  diree  in  a  company ;  and  all  being  gathered  together,  die 
mail  appointed  to  teach  stands  in  the  midst  of  the  room,  and 
His  audience  gather  about  him.  The  man  prayeth  about  the 
space  of  half  an  hour;  and  part  of  his  prayer  is,  that  those 
i/^hich  conie  thither  to  scoff  and  laugh,  God  would  be 
pleased  to  turn  their  hearts ;  by  which  means  tliey  think  to 
escape  undiscovered:  His  sermon  is  about  the  space  of  an 
hour,  and  then  doth  another  stand  up,  to  make  the  text  more  , 
plain ;  and  at  the  latter  end  he  entreats  them  all  to  go  home 
severally,  lest  the  next  meeting  they  should  be  interrupted 
by  those  which  are  of  the  opinion  of  the  wicked.  They 
seem  very  steadfast  in  their  opinions,  and  say,  rather  jthan 
turn,  they  will  bum."* 

During  the  above  year  came  forth  another  pamphlet, 
entitled,  "  New  Preachers,  New ;"  in  the  epbtle  to  which, 
the  writer,  addressing  Mr.  Greene,  says,  "  Do  not  these 
things  come  firom  proud  spirits,  that  he,  (Mr.  Spencer,)  a 
horse-keeper,  and  you,  a  hat-maker,  will  take  upon  you  to 
be  ambassadors  of  God,  to  teach  your  teachers,  and  take 
upon  yoii  to  be  ministers  of  the  gospel  in  these  days  of 
light.  Consider,  1  pray  you,  that  our  JLord  would  not  have 
had  the  ass,'  (Matt.  xxi.  3,)  if  he  had  not  stood  in  need  of 


36  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

him.  Now  the  truth  is,  the  church  hath  no  need  of  such  ai 
TOU;  an  unlearned^  self-conceited  hat-maker.  It  is  true,  that, 
in  the  beginning  of  Queen  Elizabeth's  reign,  the  popish 
priests  and  friars  being  dismissed,  there  wa»  a  scarcity  for 
the  present  of  learned  men;  and  so  some  tradesmen  were 
permitted  to  leave  their  trades,  and  betake  themselves  to  the 
ministry ;  but  it  was  necessity  that  did  then  constrain  them 
80  to  do.  But  thanks  be  to  God,  we  have  now  no  such 
necessity;  and  therefore  this  practice  of  you  and  your 
comrades  casts  an  ill  aspersion  upon  our  good  God,  that 
doth  furnish  our  church  plentifully  with  learned  men ;  and 
it  doth  also  scandalize  our  church,  as  if  we  stood  in  need  of' 
such  as  you  to  preach  the  gospel.  This  you  call  preaching, 
or  prophesying ;  and  thus,  as  one  of  them  told  the  lords  of 
the  parliament,  that  they  were  all  preachers;  for  so  they 
•practise  and  exercise  themselves  as  young  players  do  in 
private,  till  they  be  by  their  brethren  judged  fit  for  the 
pulpit,  and  then  up  they  go,  and,  like  mountebanks,  play 
their  part. — Mr.  Greene,  Mr.  Greene,  leave  off  these  ways : 
bring  home  such  as  you  have  caused  to  stray.  It  is  such  as 
jou  that  vent  their  venom  against  our  godly  preachers,  and 
the  divine  forms  of  prayers;  yea,  against  all  set  forms  of 
prayers :  all  is  from  antichrist ;  but  that  which  you  preach  is 
most  divine ;  that  comes  fresh  from  the  Spirit :  the  other  is 
an  old  dead  sacrifice,  composed  (I  should  have  said  killed) 
so  long  ago,  that  now  it  stinks.  It  is  so  old,  that  m  the 
year  1549  it  was  compiled  by  Doctor  Cranmer,  Doctor, 
Goodricke,  Doctor  Scip,  Doctor  Thirlby,  Doctor  Day, 
Doctor  Holbecke,  Doctor  Ridley,^  Doctor  Cox,  Doctor 
Tailor,  Doctor  Haines,  Doctor  Redman,  and  Mr.  Robinson, 
archdeacon  of  Leicester ;  but  what  are  all  these  ?  They  are 
not  to  be  compared  to  John  Greene,  a  hat-maker ;  for  he 
thinketh  what  he  blustereth  forth  upon  the  sudden,  is  far 
better  than  that  which  these  did  maturely  and  deliberately 
compose."  It  is  not  at  all  wonderful,  that,  when  the  church 
had  lost  its  power  to  persecute  nonconformists,  those  who 
still  retained  the  spirit  of  persecution  should  indulge  in  this  . 
kind  of  defamation  and  ridicule. 

However,  during  this  year,  Mr.  Greene,  together  with 
several  of  his  brethren,  was  complained  of  to  die  house  of 
commons,  for  lay-preaching.  He  was  convened  before  the 
house,  when  he  was  reprimanded,  threatened  to  be  severely 
punished,  if  he  did  not  renounce  the  practice,  and  then 
dismissed  ;*  but  whether  he   obeyed  their  orders,  or  still 

•  Jialion*!  CoUeciioiiSy  vol.  ii«  p.  W^,  270* 


PRICE.  9T 

continued  to  exercise  his  talents  in  preachings  we  are  not 
able  to  learn. 

Mr.  Edwards,  in  reproaching  all  who  dissented  from  hi^ 
presbyterian  bigotry,  observes  of  Mr.  Greene,  that  he  was 
ione  of  the  first  mechanics,  who,  presently  after  the  meet- 
ing of  the  long  parliament,  preached  publicly  in  the 
churches  in  London;  and  that  afterwards,  m  the  year  1644, 
he  accompanied  Colonel  Hemstead  to  Trinidad.  After  his 
return,  he  statedly  preached  in  ColemaurStreet,  once  on  the 
Lord's  day,  and  once  on  a  week  day;  where,  in  the  year 
1646,  to  use  the  words  of  our  author,  "  there  is  so*  great  a 
resort  and  flocking  to  him,  that  yards,  rooms,  and  house  are 
all  so  full,  that  he  causes  his  neighbours'  conventicles,  and 
bthers,  to  be  oftentimes  very  thin,  and  independents  to 
preach  to  bare  walls  and  empty  seats,  in  comparison  of  this 
great  rabbi."*  Crosby  mentions  one  Mr.  John  Green,  wh<|. 
inirvived  the  restoration,  and  who  endured  cruel  persecution 
^th  the  rest  of  his  brethren ;  but  it  does  not  appear  whether 
this  was  the  same  person.t 


John  Price  was  a  zealous  preacher  among  the  inde* 
pendents,  during  the  civil  wars.  Edwards  styles  him  ^'  an 
exchange-man,  a  beloved  disciple  of  Mr.  John  Goodwin,  and 
one  of  his  prophets ;  who  used  to  preach  for  him  when  he 
had  any  book  to  answer,  or  some  libertine  tractate  to  set  forth." 
He  then  gives  the  following  account  of  him :  "  This 
Master  Price  contents  not  himself  to  preach  only  in  London, 
but  I  hear  that  he  was  lately  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds ;  that  he 
there  preached  in  a  house,  and  maintained  certain  dangerous 
and  heretical  opinions ;  as,  that  men  might  be  saved  who 
were  not  elected,  and  that  if  men  improve  nature  well,  God 
will  surely  give  them  grace.  So  that  it  seems  this  exchange- 
man  sells  other  wares  besides  ijadependency  and  separation, 
and  does  with  feigned  words  make  merchandize  of  men's 
souls."  This  scurrilous  writer  adds :  **  Master  Price  was 
also  at  a  meeting  here  in  London,  where  some  of  several 
sects,  seekers,  antinomians,  anabaptists,  brownists,  inde- 
pendents, met  with  some  presbyterians,  to  consider  how  all 
these  might  live  together,  notwithstanding  their  several 
€|^iaiis ;  and  he  was,  as  all  the  sectaries  were,  for  a  general 
titration;  and  they  agreed  together  like  buckle  and  thong, 
•nly  tbe  presbyterians  were  not  satisfied." 


^-  Biwardi't  GRngneoa,  part  iii.  p.  S48, 249. 
f  Cnikgr>  B^^lsb,  vol.  iii.  p.  8S. 


V  .'A 


'  -> 


38  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

In  the  year  1646^  Mr.  Price  published  several  pamphlets 
on  the  controversies  of  the  day.  One  was  written  in  defence 
of  independency ;  two  others  were  replies,  one  to  the  City 
tlemonstrance,  the  other  to  a  Vindication  of  the  Remon- 
strance.  In  politics  he  seem^  to  have  been  of  republican 
principles,  ascribing  the  supreme  power  of  the  kingdom  to  the 
house  of  commons ;  and  this  is  all  that,  we  know  of  him.* 


Mr.  Symonds  was  beneficed  at  Sandwich  in  Kent,  during 
the  civil  wars ;  styled  by  Edwards,  "  a  great  independent^ 
and  a  great  sectary,"  If  we  aire  to  give  credit  to  this  writer, 
be  was  of  a  liigh  and-  imperious  spirit,  and,  in  his  views  of 
church  discipline,  remarkably  rigid  and  severe. +  He  relates 
of  him  what  he  calls  "  a  merry  story,"  which  is  as  follows: 
While  he  was  at  Sandwich,  a  person  came  to  him  to  be 
catechized;  but,  instead  of  performing  the  duty  of  his 
office,  he  sent  him  to  a  mechanic  of  the  town  to  do  it  for 
him;  and  when  he  was  expostulated  with,  and  asked  why 
he  had  done  so,  he  replied,  "  that  one  goose  might  best 
teach  another  to  eat."  The  author  applies  and  improves 
this  story  by  adding,  '^  so  merry  are  our  most  demure  inde- 

pendehts."t 

The  following  account  of  Mr.  Symonds  we  give  in  the 
words  of  this  writer.     "  There  is  one  Mr.  Symonds,  a  great 
sectary,"  says  he,  "  who  came  to  London  since  the  war$^ 
and  preached  at  little  Alhallows,  Thames-street,  and  at  the 
Tower,  where  I  have  been  informed,  that  he  hath  preached 
several  strange  things :  as,^  for  toleration^  and  liberty  for  all 
men  to  worship  God  according  to  their  canscienceSy  and  is 
favour  oi  antip&dobaptism.  Also  preaching  once  at  Andrew's, 
Undershaft,  for  Mr.  Goodwin,  he  preached  high  strains  oi 
antinomianism :  as,   that   Christ  was  a  legal  preacher^  and 
lived  in  a  dark  time,  and  so  preached  the  law,  but  afterwards 
the  gospel  came  to  be  preached.     Afterwards,  preaching  at 
Lawrence  Poultney,  on  the  day  of  thanksgivmg  for  taking 
Sherborn  castle,  he  spake  of  the  great  victories  the  saints, 
meaning  the  independents,  had  obtained ;  and  yet  the  parlia- 
ment was  now  making   lews   against  these  .  saints.     As  at 
London  he  hath  preached  thus;  so  since  he  left  London,  this 
last  summer,  he  preached  at  Bath  before  the  General  strange 
stuff,  viz.  against  presbytery,  saying  it  was  a  limb  of  anti- 
christ, pleading  for  liberty  of  conscience,  and  for  those  who 

•  Edwards's  Gan^rseaa,  part  iii.  p.  160, 161. 
+  Ibid.  p.  108,  109.  X  Ibid.  p.  76. 


SYMQNDS.  91 

Would  not  have  their  children  baptized  till  they  came  to  yean 
of  understanding,  and  for  weavers  and  ignorant  mechanict 
preaching;  when  he  spake  of  these  men's  gifts,  and  theijr 
having  the  Spirit,  before  learned  men  and  men  bred  at  univer- 
aities,  with  a  n-eat  deal  of  this  stuff.  It  is  a  sad  thing,  that 
Sir  Thomas  l*air&x,  that  valiant  and  well-affected  gentleman, 
should  have  such  land  of  chaplains  and  preachers  upon  all 
occasions  to  preach  before  him.  I  have  spoken  the  more  oC 
this  Mr.  Symonds,  because  I  hear  he  is  nominated  one  of 
the  itinerary  preachers  of  Wales ;  that  so  the  country  and 
ministers  may  be  aware  of  him;  and  that  the  assembly, 
yirhen  he  comes  to  be  approved  of,  mav  do  their  duties,  aiul 
not  let  him  pass  so  easily  as  they  did  Mr.  Cradock."* 

From  this  curious  narrative  it  appears  that  Mr.  Symonda 
was  of  the  baptist  persuasion ;  and  it  is  further  observed,  that 
he  was  approved  and  appointed  by  the  house  of  commons 
to  preach  in  Wales.-  He  was  living  in  the  year  1646;  but 
was  a  different  person  from  Mr.  Joseph  Symonds,  pastor  of 
Ihe  church  at  Rotterdam  in  Holland,  a  brief  memoir  of 
whom  is  given  in  the  next  article.f 


Joseph  Symonds  was  some  time  the  worthy  assistant  of 
Mr.  Thomas  Gataker,  at  Rotherhithe,  near  London;  but 
afterwards  he  became  rector  of  St.  Martin's,  Ironmongers - 
lane,  in  the  city.  Having  espoused  the  sentiments  of  the 
independents,  he  forsook  the  church  of  England,  left  his 
benefice,  and  went  to  Holland.  After  his  departure.  Arch- 
bishop Laud,  in  the  year  l639y  pronounced  against  him  the 
sentence  of  deprivation,  by  which  the  good  man  lost  his 
liviuj^,  after  he  had  given  it  up.t  Mr.  Symonds  having 
sacrmced  his  benefice,  to  escape  die  storm  of  persecution, 
setded  at  Rotterdam,  where  he  was  chosen  pastor  to  the 
English  church,  in  the  place  of  Mr.  Sydrach  Sympson.  In 
this  situation,  his  deportment  and  his  doctrine  were  par« 
ticularly  conciliatory,  and  his  labours  eminentiy  useftd.^  Mr. 
Edwards,  to  reproach  his  sentiments  and  to  cloud  his  memory, 
says,  '^  that  his  independent  church  at  Rotterdam  was  over- 
growi^with  anabaptism ;  and  that  he  wrote  to  his  friends  in 
England,  saying,  he  was  so  pestered  with  anabaptists,  that  he 
knew  not  what  to  do."!     Mr.  Robert  Park,  afterwards  one  of 

•  Edwards's  GangniDa,  part  ill.  p.  841,  SiS.        f  ttid.  p.  131, 84S. 

1  V^arton's  Troables  of  Land,  vol.  i.  p.  S60« 

$  Bailie's  Dissuasive,  p.  84, 176. 

I  £dwsrds*8  GaDfrviia,  part  ii.  p%  16. 


40  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

the  ejected  nonconformists,  was  his  assistant  in  the  pastoral 
office.*  It  appears  that  he  was  living  in  the  year  1646,  and 
still  pastor  of  the  church  at  Rotterdam.  Though  he  was  an 
independent,  Edwards  styles  him  "  one  of  the  most  moderate 
and  modest  of  that  way."t  Several  pieces,  written  by  a 
person,  of  the  same  name,  occur  in  the  Sion  and  Bodleian 
catalogues.}  Though  pastor  of  a  church  in  a  foreign  land, 
he  was  sometimes  called  to  preach  before  the  parliament,  as 
appears  from  one  of  his  sermons  afterwards  published  widi 
this  title,  "  A  Sermon  lately  preached  at  Westminster,  before 
sundry  of  the  Honourable  House  of  Commons,  1641 :  Bj 
Joseph  Symonds,  late  minister  in  Ironmongers'-lane,  LondoDi^ 
now  pastor  of  the  Church  at  Rotterdam." 


Henry  Burton,  B.  D. — This  painful  sufferer  for  non- 
conformity was  bom  at  Birdsall  in  Yorkshire,  in  the  year 
1579>  and  educated  in  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  where 
he  took  his  degrees,  and  was  afterwards  incorporated  at 
Oxford.  His  first  public  employment  was  that  of  a  tutor  to 
the  sons  of  Lord  Carey  at  Leppington,  who,  in  1625,  was 
created  Earl  of  Monmouth,  and  whose  lady  was  governess 
to  Pruice  Charles  in  his  infancy.  It  was  probably  owing  to 
the  interest  of  this  honourable  person,  that  he  was  made 
clerk  of  the  closet  to  Prince  Henry,  and,  after  his  death,  to 
Prince  Charles.  In  the  year  1623,  he  was  appointed  to 
attend  the  young  prince  to  Spain ;  but,  for  reasons  unknown, 
he  was  set  aside,  even  after  part  of  his  goods  were  shipped.^ 
On  that  prince's  accession  to  the  crown,  he  expected  no  less 
than  to  be  continued  in  the  clerk's  ofEce ;  but  his  majesty 
giving  that  place  to  Neile,  Bishop  of  Durham,  Mr.  Burton 
is  said  to  have  been  so  highly  disgusted,  that  he  warmly 
expressed  his  resentment  on  all  occasions,  particularly  by 
railing  against  the  bishops.  "  The  vapours  of  ambition  fuming 
in  his  head,"  says  Clarendon,  "  he  would  not  think  of  less 
than  still  being  clerk  of  the  closet.  Being  thus  disappointed, 
and,  as  he  called  it,  despoiled  of  his  right,  he  would  not  in 
the  greatness  of  his  heart,  sit  down  with  the  afiront,  but  com^ 
mitted  two  or  three  such  weak  and  saucy  indiscretioiis,  as 
caused  an  inhibition  to  be  sent  him,  that  he  should  not 
presume  to  come  any  more  to   court."    The  principle  of 

•  Palmer's  Noncoa.  Mem.  vol.  »i.  p.  S55. 
i  Ivdwards'g  Gangraena,  part  iii.  p.  94S. 
J  Granger's  Biog.  Hist.  vol.  iii.  p  5. 
^  Fuller'!  Charcb  Hist.  b.  xi.  p.  152. 


H.  BURTON.  41 

diese  weak  and  saucy  indiscretions^  as  they  are  called,  was, 
that  in  April,  1623,  he  presented  a  letter  to  King  Charles, 
remonstrating  against  Dr.  Neile  and  Dr.  Laud,  his  majesty's 
constant  attendants,  as  being  much  inclined  to  popery; 
which  was  certainly  too  true.  "  From  that  time/'  adds 
the  noble  historian,  **  he  resolved  to  revenge  himself 
upon  the  whole  order  of  bishops;  and  so  turned  lecturer, 
and  preached  against  them,  being  endowed  with  malice  and 
boldness,  instead  of  learning  and  any  tolerable  parts."* 

The  above  slanderous  accusation  is  founded  in  ignorance, 
or  prejudice,  or  both,  as  will  appear  to  all  who  will  only  read 
his  works  with  impartiality.  Indeed,  Mr.  Burton  afterwards 
affirmed  his  right  to  the  above  office,  and  that  Bishop  Neile 
cast  him  out  through  envy ;  and  added :  ''  but  this  was 
ordered  by  the  special  providence  of  my  God,  who  would 
not  suffer  me  to  rise  high  at  court,  lest  I  jshould  have  been 
corrupted  with  its  preferments ."+  From  what  he  has  published 
to  the  world,  he  appears  to  have  been  furnished  with  con- 
siderable parts,  and  to  have  been  no  mean  scholar.  He  was 
courageous  in  the  cause  of  truth,  and  a  man  of  a  warm  spirit ; 
which  led  him,  on  certain  occasions,  to  discover  some  degree 
of  heat  and  indiscretion.  The  oppressions  and  cruelties  of 
the  prelates  were  sufficient  to  make  a  wise  man  mad.  But 
that  he  resolved  to  revenge  himself  upon  them,  and  tiumed 
lecturer  for  that  purpose,  is  easily  asserted,  but  not  easily 
proved.  Indeed,  the  charge  of  his  turning  lecturer  at  all,  is 
certainly  incorrect ;  for  in  9ie  above  year  he  was  presented  to 
the  rectory  of  St.  Matthew's,  Friday-street,  London. 

Mr.  Burton  was  a  person  of  a  most  heroical  spirit,  and 
never  feared  the  appearance  of  an  enemy,  as  appears  from 
the  account  he  gave  of  himself.  Speaking  of  his  various 
citations  before  Laud,  his  courage  was  such,  that  he  says, 
''  I  was  not  at  any  time  before  hun,  but  methought  I  stood 
over  him,  as  a  schoolmaster  over  his  scholars :  so  great  was 
the  goodness  of  God  towards  me.  Being  convened  before 
the  high  commission  for  my  book,  entitled, '  Babel  no  Bethel,' 
Harsnet  Archbishop  of  York,  having  run  himself  out  of 
breath  vnth  railing  against  me  and  my  book;  and  saying, 
that  I  had  dedicated  my  book  to  the  parliament,  to  incense 
them  against  the  higher  powers,  (meaning  the  king,)  1 
answered,  '  No,  my  lord,  I  am  none  of  those^  who  divide 
the  king  and  parliament,  but  I  pray  God  unite  them 
together ! '" 

«  Clarendon's  Hist.  vol.  i.  p.  158.-— Wood's  Athens  Ozon.  toI.  i.  p.  814. 
^  BanoD*f  Namtloa  of  kit  Life,  p.  %    Edit.  1649. 


is  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

He  afterwards  describes  the  prelatical  innovationfl  and 
usurpations,  and  how  he  set  himself  to  oppose  them,  sayings 
**  I  more  and  more  disliked  the  prelates'  usurpations,  and 
tyrannical  government,  with  their  attempts  to  set  up  popery* 
Therefore  I  purposely  preached  upon  the  second  chapter  to 
the   Colossians,   crying  down  all  will-worship  and  human 
inventions  in  God's  service.     I  began  in  my  practice,  as  in 
my  judgment,  to   fall   off  from   the  ceremonies.'    Only  I 
watched  for  an  occasion  to  try  it  out  with  them,  either  bj 
dint  of  arguments,  or  force  of  law,  or  by  the  king  and  his 
council,  resolving  either  to  foil  my  adversaries,  though  I  had 
no  great  hope  of  success ;  or,  at  least  discover  the  mystery 
of  iniquity  and  hypocrisy,  which,  like  a  white  vail,  they  had 
cast  over  all  their  foul  practices.     This  discovery  I  took  to  be 
of  no  small   importance.     I  saw  how  every  day  they  got 
ground  in  the  hearts  of  the  simple  and  credulous,  as  if  all 
diey  did   was  to  maintain   the   protestant   religion ;    when 
under  that  specious  colour,  the  withered  whore  of  Babylon 
came  in  naked  at  the  first,  till  at  length  she  began  to  s^ew 
her  painted  face  in  her  superstitions,  altar-service,  and  other 
garbs.     And  as  they  laboured  to  undermine  and  overthrow 
die  true  protestant  religion,  and  set  up  popery ;  so  they  did 
not  seek  less  to  overthrow  the  civil  state,  with  its  good  laws^ 
and  just  liberties  of  the  subject,  and  to  introduce  arbitrary 
and  tyrannical  government."*    What  degree  of  truth  is  con- 
t^ned  in  these  strictures  on  the  character  and  proceedings  of 
the  ruling  prelates,  thosd  who  are  conversant  with  the  history 
of  the   times  will  easily  determine;    and  this  will  in  part 
appear  in  the  course  of  the  present  narrative. 
.  Mr.  Burton  was  a  great  sufferer  in  the  cause  of  noncon- 
formity.    He  felt  the  shocking  intolerance  and  cruelties  of 
the  ruling  prelates,  especially  those  of  Bishop  Laud.     lu  the 
year  1626,  he  was  convened  before  tlie  high  commission, 
when  he  would  have  received  the  censure   of  the  ruling 
ecclesiastics,  had  not  the  judges  interposed  and  granted  a 
prohibition,  which  they  might, do  according  to  law,  by  which 
he  was  at  that  time  rescued  from  his  cruel  oppressor .t     Mr. 
Burton  having  published  a  book  entitled, "  The  Baiting  of 
the   Pope's   Bull;  or,  an  Unmasking  of  the  Mystery  of 
Iniquity,  folded  up  in  a  most  pernicious  Breave  or  Bull,  sent 
from  the  Pope  lately  into  England,  to  cause  a  Rent  therein, 
for  his  Re-entery,"  1627 ;  though  the  book  was  wholly  against 
the  pope  and  his  dangerous  bull,  and  was    licenced    by 

«  Barton's  NarratUn,  p.  8, 9,  t  Heyliii*i  Life  of  Land,  p.  Ifil. 


H.  BURTON.  t$ 

f 

Pr.  Goad^  be  was  caUed  before  the  council  by  the  instiga* 
t^oQ  of  Laud,  who  spoke  vehemently  against  the  book^ 
calling  it  a  libel.  Aftenvards,  he  published  another  work 
agsdnst  popery,  entitled,  "  The  Pouring  out  of  the  Seven 
Vials/'  1628;  for  which  he  was  prosecuted  in  the  high 
commission  by  this  prelate,  and  the  book  suppressed.  And 
when  he  published  his  book,  entitled,  ^'  Babel  no  Bethely** 
wholly  against  the  church  of  Rome,  this  prelate  employed 
his  pursuivant  to  apprehend  him ;  committed  him  to  the 
fleet,  refusing  bail  when  offered,  contrary  to  the  petition 
of  right ;  suspended  him  from  his  benefice-;  and  suppressed 
the  book.*  About  the  same  time,  his  "  Trial  of  Private 
Devotions/'  1628^  against  Dr.  Cosins;  and  his  "  Plea  to 
an  AppeaJ,  in  refutation  of  divers  Arminian  and  Popish 
Errors  broached  by  Mountague  in  his  Appello  Casarem^^ 
were  both  called  in  and  suppressed,  by  the  severity  of  this 
intolerant  ecclesiastict 

How  long  Mr.  Burton  remained  under  the  above  sus- 
pension, and  a  prisoner  in  the  Fleet,  we  have  not  been  able 
to  learn.  He  was  afterwards  released.  This,  however,  was 
to  him  only  the  beginning  of  sorrows.  November  5,  1636^ 
he  preached  two  sermons  at  his  own  church  in  Friday-stree^ 
from  Prov.  xxiv.  21,  22,  My  son^fear  thou  the  Lord  4md  th€ 
king^  and  meddle  not  mth  tnem  that  are  given  to  change,  &c« 
in  which  he  laid  open  the  late  innovations  in  doctrine, 
worship,  and  ceremonies,  and  warned  his  hearers  against 
them.  Dr.  Laud,  now  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  hearing 
of  this,  caused  articles  to  be  exhibited  against  him  in  the 
high  commission,  and  sunmioned  him  to  answer  them,  out 
of  term,  before  Dr.  Duck.  .  On  his  appearance,  he  was 
cliarged  with  having  ^'  spoken  against  turning  communion 
tables  into  altars,  against  bowing  to  them,  against  setting  up 
crucifixes,  against  saying  the  second  service  at  the  altar,  and 
against  putting  down  afternoon  sermons  on  the  Lord's  day." 
Enormous  crimes,  indeed,  were  these !  He  was,  moreover, 
charged  with  having  said,  *\  that  ministers  might  not  safely 
preach  upon  the  doctrines  of  grace  without  being  troubled 
for  it ;  and  that  the  ministers  in  Norfolk  and  Suffolk  were 
suspended  for  nonconformity  to  the  rites  and  ceremonies, 
imposed   upon  them  contrary  to  the  laws  of  the  land." 

*  It  18  cnrions  to  observe,  that  while  Mr.  Barton  was  treated  thus  fdr 
W.ritiBg  against  popery,  one  Chowney,  a  fierce  papist,  pablished  a  book  in 
defence  of  popery,  for  which  he  was  neither  punished  nor  even  qncslioned  ; 
but  was  permitted  to  dedicate  his  work  to  Land,  who  fovoured  it  with  hit 
loyal  and  episcopal  patronage  1  l—fVMthckt'B  MtmorUUi,  p.  81. 

f  Pryine'i  Cast.  Doome,  p.  186. 


44  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

.  These  charges  amountmg,  it  is  said^  to  sedition,  he  wm 
required  to  answer  upon  his  oath^  and  so  to  become  his  own 
accuser :  but  he  refused  the  oath ;  and,  instead  of  answering, 
appealed  to  the  king.  Notwithstanding  his  appeal,  within 
fifteen  days  he  was  summoned,  by  the  direction  of  the 
archbishop,  to  appear  before  a  special  high  commission  at 
Doctors'  Commons;  when,  in  his  absence,  he  was  sus- 
pended from  his  office  and  benefice,  and  attachments  were 
given  out  to  apprehend  him.* 

Under  these  oppressive  proceedings,  Mr.  Burton  kept 
himself  close  shut  up  in  his  own  house ;  and,  to  give  an 
impartial  public  a  fair  opportunity  of  deciding  upon  his 
case,  he  published  his  sermons,  entitled,  "  For  God  and  the 
King ;  the  Sumipe  of  two  Sermons  preached  on  the  fifth  of 
November  last,  in  St.  Matthewes,  Friday-street,  1636;"  with 
**  An  Apologie  for  an  Appeale,"  addressed  to  the  king,  the 
lords  of  the  council,  and  the  learned  judges. +  The  pursui- 
vants of  the  high  commission  not  daring  to  break  open 
Mr.  Burton's  doors,  the  archbishop  and  the  bishop  of 
London,  with  several  others,  drew  up  a  warrant  to  one 
Dendy,  a  sergeant  at  arms,  to  apprehend  him.^  By  virtue 
of  this  warrant,  Dendy,  accompanied  by  the  sheriff  of 
London,  and  various  other  armed  officers,  went  the  same 
evening  to  Mr.  Burton's  house  in  Friday-street,  and  between 
ten  and  eleven  o'clock  at  i^ight,  violently  broke  open  his 
doors,  took  him  into  custody,  and  seized  his  books  and 
papers,  as  many  as  they  pleased.  The  next  day,  instead  of 
being  brought  before  the  lords,  as  the  warrant  ex{Nressed, 

«  Burton's  Apologie  for  an  Appeale,  p.  4, 15.— Prynne's  DiscoTery  of 
tbe  Prelates'  Tyranny,  p.  14.     Edit.  1641. 

+  Mrs.  Burton  liis  wife,  venturing  to  present  copies  of  these  sermons  to 
several  of  the  lords  in  parliament,  was  committed  to  prison  for  her  pains.— 

i  The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  warrant ; — **  To  Edward  Dendy^ 
*'  esquire,  one  of  his  m^esty's  sergeants  at  arms.  These  shall  be  to  will 
**  and- require  you  to  make  your  immediate  repair  to  any  place  where  yoa 
**  shall  understand  of  the  present  being  of  Henry  Burton,  clerk,  and 
**  having  found  him,  to  take  him  into  your  custody,  and  to  bring  him  forth* 
**  with  and  in  your  company  (all  delays  and  excuses  set  apdrt)  before  «s» 
**  to  answer  to  such  matters  as  shall  be  objected  against  him.  And  you  are 
**  further,  by  virtue  hereof,^  tq  require  and  charge  all  mayors,  sheriffs, 
'*  justices,  baililTs,  constables,  headboroughs,  and  all  others^  his  mi^Mty'i 
**  officers  and  loving  subjects,  to  be  aiding  and  assisting  unio  yon  In  the 
*'  full  and  due  execution  of  this  service,  whereof  nerther  they  nor  yoa 
**  may  fstW  at  your  perils.  And  this  shall  be  unto  you  and  them  %. 
**  sufficient  warrant.  Dated  at  the  star-chamber,  the  first  of  Feb.  16S7. 
•♦  W.  Cant.  Henrv  Vaine,  Arundall  and  Surry, 

**  Gail.  LondoD.         Tho.  Coventry,  J.Coke." 

Ibid,  p.  14,  li» 


&.  BURTON.  45 

lie  was,  by  another  warranty  and  \iithout  any  cause  assigned^ 
committed  close  prisoner  to  the  Fleet.* 

Dming  Mr.  Burton's  close  confinement,  two  anonymous 
publications  came  forth,  the  one  entitled,  '^  A  Divine  Tni- 
gedj,  containing  a  Catalogue  of  God's  late  Judgments  upon 
Sabbath-breakers;"  the  other, "  News  from  Ipswich,"discover- 
in^  the  innovations  and  severities  of  the  prelates,  especially 
Bishop  Wren  of  Norwich.  Iliese  were  supposed  to  liave 
been  written  by  Mr.  William  Prynne,  the  lawyer.  Dr.  John 
Bastwick,  a  physician,  havings  published  a  book,  entitled, 
Apologeticus  ad  prasules  AnglicanoSy  and  a  panipldet,  called, 
**  The  New  Litany  ;"t  these  three,  Mr.  Burton,  Mr.  Pryime, 
and  Dr.  Bastwick,  now  confined  in  prison,  were  prosecuted 
in  the  star-chamber,  for  '^  writing  and  publishing  seditious, 
schismatical,  and  libellous  books  against  the  hierarchy,  and 
to  the  scandal  of  the  government."  Tliis  was  the  substance 
of  the  indictment.  They  had  warmly  reflected  upon  the 
bishops,  taxed  them  with  inclinations  to  popery,  and  ex- 
claimed against  the  severity  and  injustice  of  the  proceedings 
of  the  h^h  commission.  The  persons  then  in  power  were 
of  too  impatient  and  revengeful  a  temper  to  let  such  reflec* 
tions  and  invectives  go  unpunished.^ 

When  the  three  defendants  had  prepared  their  answers  to 
the  indictment,  they  could  not  obtam  counsel  to  sign  diem, 
through  fear  of  the  prelates;  upon  which  they  petitioned 
the  court  to  receive  them  ffom  diemselvcs,  which  was 
rejected.  However,  Mr.  Prjnne  and  Dr.  Bastwick,  having"* 
no  other  remedy,  left  their  answers  at  the  ofiice,  signed 
by  their  own  hands,  but  were,  nevertheless,  proceeded 
against  pro  confesso.    Mr.  Burton  prevailed  upon  Mr.  Holt, 

*  The  foUowing  is  a  copy  of  this  second  warrant : — *'  To  the  wardea 
**  of  the  Fleet  or  his  deputy.  These  are  to  will  and  require  yoo  to  receire 
^'  into  yoor  custody,  the  person  of  Henry  Burton,  cleric,  tent  herewith 
**  onto  yon,  and  to  keep  him  a  close  prisoner  in  the  Meet,  not  sofierinf 
**  any  one  lo  speak:  with  him  until  further  order^  whereof  you  may  not  fail 
'*  at  your  perils,  and  this  shall  be  your  warrant.  Dated  from  Whitehall, 
'«  the  second  of  Feb.  1637. 
**  W.  Cant.  Arnndall  and  Surry,  T.  Jermyn  and  Jo.  Coke, 

"  GaU.  London,  Pembroke  and  Moontf^omery,  Fra.  Windebanke." 

Prynne  t  Discovery  of  ike  Prelates*  Tyranny y  p.  16.     Edit.  1641* 

i  In  the  indictment  against  the  three  prisoners,  it  is  said,  that  Or* 
Bastwick  bad  signified  in  his  <*  Litany,'*  in  the  name  of  his  wife,  who  was 
great  with  child,  that  he  was  desirous  of  father  William's  holiness  (meanior 
Laud)  and  William  London,  the  principal  governor  of  the  treasury,  beisr 
godfathers  to  his  child,  not  doubUng  that  he  should  procure  the  whore  or 
Babylon,  with  whom  they  had  so  long  committed  fomicatioB^  to  be  cod* 
■iother.--Baiir«r*«  MS.  CoOec,  vol.  ixxiil.  p.  289,  WO.  • 

t  Biog.  Britaa.  vol.  i.  p.  680.    £dit.  1778. 


te  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

a  learned  and  an  aged,  bencher  of  Gray's-inn^  to  sign  his 
answer ;  but  the  court,  instead  of  receiving  it,  even  when 
signed,  ordered  the  two  chief  justices  to  expunge  what  they 
deemed  unfit  to  be  brought  into  the  court.  Accordingly, 
they  struck  out  the  whole  answer,  consisting  of  forty  sheets 
of  paper,  except  a  few  lines  at  the  beginning,  and  a  few 
more  at  the  end:  and  because  Mr.  Burton  would  not 
acknowledge  it  thus  purged,  he  was,  in  like  manner,  pro- 
ceeded against  pro  confe^so.* 

The  three  pnsoners  were  brought  to  the  bar  June  14, 1637, 
when  they  offered  to  defend  their  several  answers  at  the 
peril  of  their  lives ;  but  the  court,  finding  them  not  filed  on 
record,  would  not  receive  them.  The  prisoners  at  the  bar 
cried  aloud  for  justice,  and  that  their  answers  might  be 
read ;  but,  however  reasonable  their  request,  it  was  peremp- 
torily denied.  During  the  trial,  Prynne  and  Bastwick  having 
been  examined,  the  learned  judges  came  next  to  the  case  of 
Mr.  Burton,  which  was  as  follows : 

Lord  Keeper.    Mr.  Burton,  what  say  you  ? 

Burton.  My  good  lords,  your  hofiours,  it  should  seem,*  do 
determine  to  censure  us,  and  take  our  cause  pro  corifesso, 
although  we  have  laboured  to  give  your  honours  satisfaction 
in  all  things.  My  lords,  what  have  you  to  say  against  my 
book  ?  I  confess,  I  did  write  it ;  yet  did  I  not  say  any 
thing  out  of  intent  of  commotion  or  sedition.  I  delivered 
nothing  but  what  my  text  led  me  to,  being  chosen  to  suit 
with  thp  day,  namely,  the  fifth  of  November. 

L.  Keeper.  Mr.  Burton,  I  pi-ay  stand  not  naming  texts  of 
scripture  now :  we  do  not  send  for  you  to  preach,  but  to 
answer  to  those  things  which  are  objected  against  you. 

Burton.  My  lord,  I  have  drawn  up  my  answer,  to  my 
great  pains  and  charges ;  which  answer  was  signed  with  my 
counsel's  hand,  and  received  into  the  court  according  to  the 
rule  and  order  thereof.  And  I  did  not  think  to  have  been 
called  this  day  to  a  censure,  but  to  have  had  a  legal  proceed* 
ing  by  way  of  bill  and  answer. 

L.  Keeper.    Your  answer  was  impertinent. 

Burton.  My  answer,  after  it  was  entered  in  the  court, 
was  referred  to  the  judges,  but  by  what  means  I  do  not 
know ;  and  what  cause  your  lordships  had  to  cast  it  out,  I 
know  not.  But  after  it  was  approved  of  and  received,  it 
was  cast  out  as  an  impertinent  answer. 

Lord  Finch.    The  judges  did  you  a  good  turn^  to  mfdce  it 

«  Pryint'i  PreUtci'  Tyranny,  p.  14^18,  40—43. 


H.  BURTON.  4T 

impertiiient;  for  it  was  as  libellous  as  your  book:  so  that 
jour  answer  deserved  a  censure  alone. 

L.  Keeper.  What  say  you^  Mr.  Burton^  are  you  guilty 
or  not  ? 

Burton.  My  lord,  I  desire  you  to  peruse  my  book^  not 
only  here  and  diere^  but  every  passage  of  it. 

L.  Keeper.  Mr.  Burton^  time  is  short.  Are  you  guilty, 
or  not  guilty  i  What  say  you  to  that  which  was  read  ?  Dodi 
it  become  a  minister  to  deliver  himself  in  such  a  railing  and 
scandalous  way  i 

Burton.  In  my  judgment,  and  as  I  can'  prove  it,  it  was 
neither  railing  nor  scandalous.  I  conceive,  that  a  minister 
hath  a  larger  liberty  than  always  to  go  in  a  mild  strain.  I 
being  a  pastor  of  my  people,  whom  I  had  in  charge,  and 
was  to  instruct,  I  supposed  it  was  my  duty  to  inform  thent 
of  those  innovations  that  are  crept  into  the  church,  as  like- 
wise of  the  dai^er  and  ill  consequences  of  them.  As  ^or 
my  answer,  ye  blotted  out  what  ye  would,  and  then  the  rest, 
which  made  best-  for  your  own  ends,  you  would  have  to 
stand ;  and  now  for  me  to  tender  oiJy  what  will  serve  for 
your  own  turns,  and  renounce  the  rest,  were  to  desert  my 
cause ;  which,  before  I  will  do,  or  desert  my  conscience,  I 
will  rather  desert  my  body,  and  deliver  it  up  to  your  lord- 
ships to  do  with  it  what  you  will. 

L.  Keeper.  '  This  is  a  place  where  you  should  crave 
mercy  and  favour,  Mr.  Burton,  and  not  stand  on  such  terms 
as  you  do. 

Burton.  Wherein  I  have  offended  through  human  frailty, 
I  crave  pardon  of  God  and  man.  And  I  pray  God,  that,  in 
your  sentence,  you  may  so  censure  us  that  you  may  not  sin 
against  die  Lord.* 

Thus,  while  Mr.  Burton  and  his  fellow-prisoners  desired 
to  say  more  for  themselves,  they  were  interrupted,  and  com- 
manded silence ;  when  the  following  dreadful  sentence  was 
passed  upon  them :  "  That  Burton  shall  be  deprived  of  his 
ecclesiastical  benefice,  degraded  from  his  ministerial  func- 
tion and  degrees  in  the  university,  as  Prjnne  and  Bast  wick 
have  been  from  their  professions  of  law  and  physic  ;t  tliey 

•  Harleiao  Miscellany,  yo\,  if,  p.  17.    Edit«  1745. 

t  Mr.  Prymie  liaviDg  published  bis  **  Histrio-Mastix,"  a  book  against 
playt,  masqnerades,  Ac,  itgafe  great  offence  to  Archbishop  Laud,  who,  in 
the  year  18S3,  procured  a  sentence  against  bim  in  the  star-chamber,  '*  That 
hit  ilKHild  be  disabled  from  the  practice  of  the  law,  be  degraded  from  his 
degree  in  the  unifersity,  be  set  in  the  pillory,  have  boUi  his  ears  cot  off. 
Ml  b»ok  bvrat  by  the  common  hangman,  to  pay  a  fine  of  Jh»  thoui*nd 
foiBdi,  and  to  be  impriioBed  daring  life;*'  which  sentence  was  rigorously 


48  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

shall  be  fined  each^ve  thousand  pounds ;  they  shall  stand  in 
the  pillory  at  Westminster,  and  have  their  ears  cut  oflF;  an<J 
because  Prynne  hath  already  lost  his  ears,  'by  sentence  of 
the  court  in  1633,  the  remainder  of  the  stumps  shall  be  cut 
off,  and  he  shall  be  stigmatized  on  both  his  cheeks  with  the 
letters  S.  L.  for  a  seditious  libeller;  and  they  shall  suffer 
perpetual  imprisonment,  in  three  of  the  remotest  prisons  of 
the  kingdom,  namely,  in  Carnarvon,  Cornwall,  and  Lancaster 
castles."  Previous  to  the  execution  of  this  terrible  sentence^ 
Mr.  Burton's  parishioners  sent  a  petition  to  the  king,  signed 
by  a  great  number  of  hands,  humbly  entreating  his  pardon 
and  liberty.  It  was  presented  by  two  of  them,  who  were 
immediately  committed  to  prison  for  their  pains.*  And, 
June  30th,  the  sentence  was  executed  upon  the  three  pri- 
soners, the  hangman  sawing  off  the  remainder  of  Prynne's 
ears,  rather  than  cutting  them.t 

These  three  men  were  of  the  three  most  credible  pro- 
fessions, and  not  of  the  meanest  character  in  their  several 
faculties.  Nevertheless,  they  are  called  by  many  bigotted 
historians,  these  fellows,  iiiese  pilloty-men,  diese  stigmatized* 
scoundrels:  when,  in  fact^  the  truly  stigmatized,  as  our 
author  observes,  were  their  persecutors,  who  really  deserved 
the  punishment  which  these  injured  gentlemen  suffered; 
Their  crime,  if  any  they  were  guilty  of,  was  not  against  any 
law  of  the  land,  but  the  tyrannical  oppressions  of  the 
prelates.^ 

On  passing  the  above  sentence,  Archbishop  Laud  made  a 
long  and  laboured  speech,  to  clear  himself  from  the  charge 
of  innovationsy  with  which  he  was  branded  by  the  puritans. 
Though  Laud  was  the  chief  prosecutor  of  these  unfortunate 
sufferers,  and  his  hand  was  first  put  to  their  numerous 
warrants,  he  made,  in  this  speech,  the  following  declarations : 
"  I  can  say  it  clearly  and  truly,  as  in  the  presence  of  God, 
"  I  have  done  nothing,  as  a  prelate,  to  the  uttermost  of  what 
^^  I  am  conscious,  but  with  a  single  heart,  and  with  a  sincere 
"  intention  for  the  good  government  and  honour  of  the 

executed.  At  the  same  time,  Dr.  Bastwick  having  pabtished  his  EUnckuM 
Papismi  et  FlageUum  Epiicoporum  Latialiumf  against  the  papists, 
declaring  he  intended  nothing  against  our  bishops,  but  only  those  of  Rome, 
he  was,  nevertheless,  sentencedJn  the  high  commission,  *'  to  fine  a  tkoutamd 
pounds,  to  be  excommunicated,  debarred  the  practice  of  physic,  his  book  to 
be  burnt,  and  to  be  imprisoned  till  he  made  his  recantation," — Whithcke'9 
MtmoriaU,  p.  18,  21. 

*  Strafforde*s  Letten,  vol.  ii.  p.  ST.    Edit.  17S9. 

fiRushworth'sCoIlec.  vol.  it.  p.  882.— Prynne's  Prelates*  Tyranny, p«4ll« 

(  Clarendon  and  Whitlocke  Compared,  p.  $3. 


H«.BURTO!r. 

^  cfaordi,*  and  dM  iniJatfUMMi  of  dM  orihodwi 
^  leUnon  of  Clinit»  ivofessed,  estdhhaked. 


in  &a  church  of  Engbnd."  Was  ihe 
this  reverend  prelate  become  so  caUoas,  that,  bj 
acts  of  cruelty  and  oppression,  he  had  lost  aU  feeling  far 
feUow-cieatures?  In  the  condosion  of  the  above 
still  addressing  the  lords  who  consdlnted  the  coart,  he 
adds : — **  I  humbly  give  you  all  iettrty  ikaMk$  for  jomtjmti 
^  and  AoiioMrgAfeccitmfe  upon  these  men,  and  your  anawtawj 
*' disUke  of  .theml'^f  No  one  will  for  a  moment  diinnn 
thw  unanimous  dislike  of  them ;  but  whether  this,  as  wdl  as 
ihejutt  and  hommrabU  censure  put  upon  them,  was dcseiiing 
the  hearty  thanks  of  a  learned  and  pious  archbishop,  wiU 
certainly  be  questioned.  An  impartial  writer  very  justly 
observes,  diat  as  the  punishment  of  these  men  was  ez« 
orbitant,  and  disproportionate  to  the  offence,  it  was  then, 
and  hath  been  ever  smce,  looked  upon  bv  all  merciful  and 
unprejudiced  persons  with  horror  and  detestation.; 

The  morning  when  the  prisoners  were  to  sufier  their 
heavy  septence,  Air.  Burton  being  brought  to  the  Palace- 
yard,  Westminster,  and  beholding  the  piUory,  he  said, 
^  Never  was  my  wedding-day  so  welcome  and  joyful  to  me 
as  this  day  is ;  and  so  much  the  more,  seeing  I  have  so  noble 
a  captain,  who  hath  gone  before  me  with  so  undaunted  a 
spirit,  that  he  saith  of  himself,  ^  I  gave  my  back  to  the 
smiters,  and  my  cheeks  to  them  that  plucked  off  the  hair.' 
The  Lord  God  will  help  me;  therefore,  I  shall  not  be 
confounded.  Shall  I  be  ashamed  of  a  pillory  for  Christ, 
who  was  not  ashamed  of  a  cross  for  me  ?"  Then  being  put 
in  the  pillory,  he  addressed  the  immense  crowd  of  spectators, 
siayipg,  ^^  Good  people,  I  am  brought4uther  to  be  a  spectacle 
to  the  world,  to  angels,  and  to  men.  And  though  I  stand 
here  to  undergo  the  punishment  of  a  rogue ;  yet,  unless  it  be 
the  property  of  a  rogue  to-be  a  faithfid  servant  of  Christ, 
and  a  loyal  subject  to  the  king,  I  am  clear  from  any  such 
charge.  But  if  to  be  Christ's  fidthful  servant,  and  the  king's 
loyal  subject,  deserve  such  kind  of  punishment  as  thb,  I 
glory  in  it,  and  bless  God  my  conscience  is  clear.  I  bless 
God,  who  .hath  accounted  me  worthy  of  these  sufferings. 

.*  The  character  given  of  his  grace  by  Lord  Clarendon,  very  much 
acconU  with  the  good  opinion  he  had  of  himself.    *'  No  man,"  observes  '\ 
tiie  noble  historian,  **  was  ever  more  plentifally  replenished  with  a  good  ^ 
cooscijeoce,  and  most  sincere  and  worthy  intentions,  and  a  man  of  iauneoie  J 
▼irtae."— CtoreRi/on*«  HM.  vol.  i.  p.  61.  — ' 

f  Laod's  Speech  annexed  to  Troubles,  vol.  ii.  p.  67—84. 

:|:  Biog.  Britan.  vol.  i.  p.  682. 

VOL.  III.  E 


50  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

I  bless  Gody  I  am  fiill  of  comfort/'  With  a  ^ve  and 
cheerful  countenance  he  added :  ^'  I  was  never  m  such  a 
pulpit  before.  Little  do  you  know  what  fruit  God  is  able 
to  produce  from  this  dry  tree.  Through  these  holes  (meaning 
the  pillory)  God  can  bring  light  to  his  church.  My  con- 
science, in  the  discharge  of  my  ministerial  duty,  in  admonish- 
ing m]r  people  to  beware  of  the  creeping  in  ofpoptryy  and  in 
ei^orting  them  unto  a  dutifrd  obedience  to  God  and  die 
king,  was  that  which  first  occasioned  my  sufferings.  The 
trudi  which  I  have  preached,  I  am  ready  to  seal  with  my 
own  blood,  and  this  is  my  crown  both  here  and  hereafter. 
When  he  was  delivered  out  of  the  pillory,  and  again  brought 
upon  the  scaffold,  the  executioner  cut  off  his  ears  in  a  most 
barbarous  manner  ;*  during  which,  and  while  the  blood  wa9 
streaming  in  every  direction,  he  manifested  the  greatest 
constancy  and  composure  of  mind,  saying,  **  Be  content ; 
blessed  be  God,  it  is  well;"  and  much  more  to  the  same 
purpose.f  Mr.  Prynne  and  Dr.  Bastwick  had  this  part  (rf 
their  sentence  executed  at  the  same  time  and  place. 

The  day  preceding  the  execution  of  the  above  sentence,  it 
was  decreed  in  the  star-chamber,  '^  That  Henry  Burton  shatt 
be  sent  to  Lancaster  castle,  William  Prynne  to  Carnarvon 
castle,  and  John  Bastwick  to  Launceston  castle,  and  there 
suffer  perpetual  imprisonment,  and  not  be  allowed  any  use 
of  pen,  ink,  or  paper,  or  any  other  book  than  the  Bible,  the 
Book  of  Common  Prayer,  and  certain  books  of  devotion ; 
and  no  person  to  have  access  to  them.'^  Accordingly,  July 
£6th,  Dr.  Bastwick  was  taken  from  the  Gatehouse ;  the  day 
following,  Mr.  Prynne  was  taken  from  the  Tower ;  and,  July 
28th,  Mr.  Burton  was  taken  from  the  Fleet ;  and,  their  sores 
not  being  cured,  were  conveyed  to  their  respective  places  of 
confinement.  As  they  passed  out  of  the  city,  vast  multitudes 
of  people  came  forth  to  witness  their  departure,  taking  their 
final  and  sorrowfril  farewell.  As  Mr.  Burton  passed  from 
Smithfield  to  Brown's-well,  a  little  beyond  Highgate,  it  is 
said  that  no  less  than  one  hundred  thousand  persons  were 
collected  to  witness  hb  departure,  and  that  his  vnfe,  going 
along  in  a  coach,  had  great  sums  of  money  thrown  to  her  as 
she  passed  along.t  But  the  liberty  given  to  Mr.  Burtoq  and 
his  fellow-sufferers  to  speak  in  the  pillory ;  and  the  affection 

*  His  ears  were  pared  so  close,  that  the  temporal  artery  being  cut,  the* 
blond  gushed  oat  in  torrents  apon  tBe  scaffold.  The  sight  of  this  awakened 
the  compassion  and  cries  of  an  immense  concourse  of  people*-— Al^ef'a 
Church  HUt,  b.  xi.  p.  \55.—Strafforde'i  Letttrtp  Tol.  ii.  p.  85. 

+  Prynne's  Prelates*  Tyranny,  p.  46 — 60. 

t  StnUforde's  Letters,  vol.  ii.  p.  114. 


H.  BURTON-  61 

and  compassion  of  die  populace,  were  highly  offensive  to 
Laud's  proud  spirit ;  as  appears  from  hia  letter  to  Wentwordi, 
dated  August  28,  1637  :•  "  What  say  you  to  it,"  observes 
the  intolerant  prelate,  ^  that  Pmuie  and  his  fellows  should  be 
''  suffered  to  talk  what  they  pleased  while  they  stood  in  die 
^*  pilloiy,  and  win  acclamations  from  the  people,  and  have 
^'  notes  taken  of  what  they  spake,  and  those  spread  in  written 
**  copies  about  the  city ;  and  that  when  they  went  out  of 
*'  town  to  dieir  several  imprisonments,  there  were  thousands 
^'  suffered  to  be  upon  the  way  to  take  their  leave,  and  God 
•*  knows  what  else  ? — And  I  hear  Prynne  was  very  much 
''  welcomed,  both  in  Coventry  and  West-Chester,  as  he 
^'  passed  towards  Camarvon."f  A  writer  of  some  eminence 
observes,  diat  nature  seemed  to  have  designed  Laud  for  die 
office  of  an  inquLntor.    He  was  fierce  and  unrelenting  in  his 

«  atrafbrde'f  Letters,  toI.  ii.  p.  99. 

f  Mr.  Prjnoe,  on  bit  way  from  London  to  Canarvon,  spent  tba  Lord*! 
day  at  Cofentry ;  where  he  twice  attended  divine  service  at  church,  and 
•ereral  persons,  his  friends,  visited  him  at  the  inn,  his  condoctors  haTinf 
received  no  orders  to  the  contrary.  Archbishop  Land  hearing  of  this, 
immediately  sent  a  messenger  to  Coventry,  to  bring  the  mayor  and  six 
others  np  to  London,  and  convened  them  before  the  conncil-table.  TliOBgh 
■mst  of  them  never  spoke  to  Mr.  Prynne,  they  were  obliged  to  a  continued 
attendance  for  some  time,  and  pnt  to  two  or  three  hundred  ponnds 
expense,  wlien  they  were  reprimanded  and  dismissed.  On  Mr.  Prynne*t 
arrival  at  Chester,  Mr.  Calvin  Brewen  and  some  others  visited  him  at  ihm 
inn,  assisted  him  in  the  purchase  of  some  necessary  fhmiture  for  his 
chamber  at  Carnarvon,  and  manifested  certain  other  acts  of  kiodnest 
towards  him.  But  by  the  direction  of  Laad,  pursuivants  were  sent  with 
warrants  to  apprehend  them,  and  bring  them  before  the  high  commission  at 
York  I  when  some  were  fined  three,  and  some  five  hundred  pounds,  and 
iwrced  to  enter  into  bonds  of  three  hundred  pounds  each,  not  only  to  abide 
by  the  further  appointment  of  that  court,  but  to  make  rack  pablie 
acknowledgment  in  the  cathedral  of  Chester,  and  before  the  mayor, 
aldermen,  and  citizens,  in  the  town-hall,  as  the  commissioners  should 

Srescrlbe*  Also,  these  pious  high  commissioners  hearing  that  there  were 
ve  paintings  of  Mr.  Prynne,  In  the  possession  of  his  friends  In  Clicster, 
they  not  only  prosecuted  the  poor  painter,  but  sent  forth  two  warrants, 
first  fo  defece  the  paintings,  then  to  born  them.  Accordingly,  the  Inoftn- 
■ive  paintings  were  apprehended  and  defaced,  and  then  publicly  burnt  at 
the  high-cross  in  Chnter,  in  the  presence  of  the  mayor,  aldermen,  and 
citizens.  It  is  cud^as  further  to  observe,  that  the  Bishop  of  Chester,  who 
took  an  active  part  in  these  barbarous  proceedings,  out  of  enmity  to  Mr. 
Prynne,  called  his  crop-eared  horse  by  the  name  of  Prynne.  Thus 
the  angry  and  reve^ful  prelates,  not  glutted  by  the  severe  sentence 
obtainnl  against  Mr.  Prynne,  pursued  and  grievously  oppremed  those  who, 
as  he  was  conveyed,  to  prison,  shewed  him  any  acts  of  civility,  Mr* 
Ihrynne's  servant  was  also  severely  proseented  In  the  high  commission, 
and  sent  from  prison  to  prison,  only  for  refusing  to  accuse  his  master. 
The  archbishop,  who  was  leader  in  all  these  barbarous  proceedings,  and 
whom  Granger  considers  eminent  for  sincere  and  ardent  piety,  seemed 
(datitttte  of  the  feelings  of  humanity.  —  PrynfWs  Prelatei'  Tyranny^ 
f.  99—106.— i^cars  Purittmty  vol.  iL  p.  280,^Qr§nffer'»  Biog.  HUt. 
VOL  iL  jf.  159. 


M  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

ing  they  might  be  to  the  spirit  of  Archbishop  Laud,  will 
rouse  the  pity  and  indignatioa  of  every  generous  and  pious 
mind.  The  learned  Mosheim^  in  aUusion  to  these  shocking 
severities,  observes,  ^'  That  a  violent  spirit  of  animosity  and 
persecution  discovered  itself  through  the  whole  of  Laud's 
ecclesiastical  administration.  This  haughty  prelate  executed 
the  plans  of  his  royal  master>  and  fulfilled  the  views  of  his 
own  ambition,  without  using  those  mila  and  moderate 
methods,  that  prudence  employs  to  make  unpopular  schemes 
go  down.  He  carried  things  with  a  high  hand.  When  he 
found  the  laws  opposing  his  views,  he  treated  them  with  con- 
tempt, and  violated  them  without  hesitation.  He  loaded  the 
Suntans  with  injuries  and  vexations,  and  aimed  at  nothing  less 
lan  llieir  total  extinction."* 

;  The  three  prisoners  remained  in  the  above  remote  islands^ 
undef  Biost  severe  usage,  till  the  year  1640.  During  this 
period,  Mrs.  Burton  and  Mrs.  Bastwick,  as  widows  forcibly 
divorced  firom  their  husbands,  often  petitioned  his  majes^j^ 
and  the  lords  of  the  council,  for  liberty  to  visit  them,  or  that 
they  might  reside  on  those  islands  where  they  were  imprisoned^ 
cor  that  they  might  be  shut  up  in  close  prison  with  them. 
But,  by  the  sovereign  power  and  influence  of  Laud,  their 
p^hions  were  all  rejected.  Though  the  archbishop  could 
neveg  be  prevailed  on  to  forgive  the  three  sufferers,  he  said, 
''  ll^  humbly  beseeched  God  to  forgive  them.'^  One  of  the 
prisjii^rs,  however,  obtained  some  mitigation  of  his  afflic* 
tionis.  For,  upon  the  petition  of  Sir  Thomas  Jermin, 
governor  of  Jersey,  being  presented  to  the  king,  in  behalf  of 
Mr.  Prynne,  he  was  allowed  to  attend  divine  service,  and 
receive  the  sacrament  in  the  castle,  and  to  walk  vrith  his 
keeper  in  the  gardens.  But  as  soon  as  the  unmerciful  arch- 
bishop heard  of  the  royal  indulgence,  he  fell  into  a  violent 
rage,  and  sent  a  messenger  for  one  Mr.  Hungerford,  who  had 
been  employed  in  procuring  it,  and  convened  him  before  the 
council.f 

In  the  above  year,  the  prboners  were  called  home  by 
order  of  the  parliament.  For,  November  7th,  Mrs.  Burton 
and  Mrs.  Bastwick  having  presented  petitions  to  th^.  house 
of  conmions,  in  behalf  of  their  husbands,  complaining  of 
their  heavy  sentence  in  the  star-chamber,  the  house  im- 
mediately ordered,  '^  That  their  said  husbands  shall  be  forth- 
with sent  for,  in  safe  custody,  by  a  warrant  of  the  house, 
directed  to  the  governors  of  the  islands  where  they  are  pri- 

•  Mosheim's  Eccl.Hist.  toI.t.  p.  S9S. 
f  Frynne'i  PrekUn' Tyranny,  p.  no. 


H.  BURTON.  U 

mHnen,  ^Uid  to  die  captuns  of  the  castles  there ;  that  &e  cause 
of  their  being  detained  may  be  here  certified/'*  This  warrant 
lit  dated  November  ?»  1640.  A  petition  was  also  presented 
in  behalf  of  Mr.  Prynne,  when  the  house  gave  a  similar  order 
for  his  return. 

Mr.  Burton  and  Mr.  Prynne  coming  in  the  same  vessel^ 
arrived  at  Dartmouth  on  the  22iid  of  November,  where 
they  were  received  and  entertained  widi  extraordiiiury  de- 
monstrations of  affection  and,  joy.  In  die  wh<de  of  their 
^'oumey  to  the  metropolis,  they  were  attended  widi  a  marvel- 
ous conflux  of  people,  and  not  only  their  charges  borne  with 
great  magnificence,  but  liberal  presents  given  them.  This 
kind  of  treatment  they  met  virith  all  the  way,  great  numbers  of 
people  meeting  them  at  their  entrance  into  all  the  towns 
through  which  diey  passed,  and  waiting  upon  them  some 
distance  out,  with  wonderfid  acclamations  of  joy.  As  diey 
approached  the  metropolis,  the  road  betwixt  Brentford  and 
llondon  was  so  fiill  of  coaches,  horsemen,  and  persons  on 
tootf  come  to  meet  them,  and  congratulate  them  on  their  safe 
arrival,  that  it  viras  viidi  difficulty  they  could  ride  one  mile  an 
hour.  As  diey  entered  London,  there  was  so  immense  a  con- 
course of  people,  diat  they  were  nearly  three  hours  in  passing 
from  Charing-cross  to  dieir  lodgings  in  the  city.  The 
numerous  crowds  who  escorted  them  into  the  city,  in  token 
of  their  great  joy,  carried  lighted  torches  before  thein,.strewed 
die  road  with  herbs  and  flowers,  put  rosemary  and  bays  in 
dieir  hats,  and,  as  they  went  along,  with  loud  acclamations 
/or  their  deliverance,  shouted.  Welcome  homey  welcome  home  i 
God  bless  you,  God  bless  you :  God  be  thanked  for  your 
retum,f 

On  November  30th,  being  two  4ays  after  his  arrival  in 
Ix)ndon,  Mr.  Burton  appeared  before  the  house  of  com- 
mons, and,  December  5di,  presented  his  petition  to  the  house, 
entided,  ^'  The  humble  Petition  of  Henry  Burton,  late  Exile, 
and  close  Prisoner  in  Casde-comet,  in  the  Isle  of  Guernsey .'' 
In  this  petition  he  gives  a  sketch  of  his  numerous  and  painful 
sufferings,  and  concludes  by  recommending  his  case  to  their 
impartial  {consideration ;  but  the  whole  is  too  long  for  our 
insertion.^  On  the  presentation  of  the  petition,  with  many 
others  of  a  similar  kind,  the  house  appointed  a  committee  for 
&eir  examination;  and  on  the  12th  of  March  following, 

•  Prynae'i  Prelates'  Tyranny,  p.  1 12.— Rashworlh's  CoUec.  vol.  ▼.  p.  20. 
— Nalson's  Collec.  vol.  i.  p.  499. 

•I-  Prynne's  Prelates*  Tyranny,  p.  US,  114. 
«  t  Ibid.  p.  127— 130.— Rnshwortli'i  CoUec.  vol.  v.  p.  78, 70. 


66  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Mr.  Rigby'  delivered  tbeir'  report'  to  the  house,  when  ike 
house  passed  the  following  resolutions : 

1 .  "  That  the  four  commissioners.  Dr.  Duck,  Dr.  Worral, 
Dr.  Sams,  and  Dr.  Wood,  proceeded  unjustly  and  illegall/in 
suspending  Mr.  Burton  from  his  office  and  benefice,  for  niot 
appearing  upon  the  summons  of  the  first  process. 

2.  '^  That  the  breaking  up  Mr.  Burton's  house,  and  arrest- 
ing his  person  without  any  cause  shewed,  and  before  any  suit 
depended  against  him  in  the  star-chamber,  and  his  close  im- 
prisonment thereupon,  are  agaitist  the  law  and  the  liberty  of 
the  subject. 

3.  **  That  John  Wragg  hath  offended  in  searching  and 
seizing  the  books  and  papers  of  Mr.  Burton,  by  colour  of 
a  general  warrant  dormant  from  the  high  commissioners ;  and 
tfiat  th^  said  warrant  is  against  law  and  the  liberty  of  the 
subject ;  and  that  sergeant  Den<}y  and  alderman  Abel  haVe 
offended  in  breaking  open  the  house  of  Mr.  Burton,  and  ought 
respectively  to  make  him  reparation  for  the  same. 

4.  "  That  Mr.  Burton  ought  to  have  reparation  and 
recompence  for  the  dams^ges  sustained  by  the  aforesaid  pro- 
ceedings of  Dr.  Duck  and  others,  who  suspended  him  frohi 
his  office  and  benefice. 

5.  '^  That  the  warrant  from  the  council-board,  dated 
at  Whitehall,  February  £,  l6d7>  for  committing  Mr.  Burton 
close  prisoner,  and  the  comibitment  thereupon,  is  illegal,  and 
contrary  to  the  liberty  of  the  subject. 

6.  "  That  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  the  Bishop  of 
London,  the  Earl  of  Arundal  and  Surrey,  the  Earl  of  Fem- 
broke  and  Montgomery,  Sir  H.  Vane,  Sir  J.  Coke,  aijd  Sir 
Francis  Windebank,  do  make  reparations  to  Mr.  Burton  fofr 
his  damages  sustained  by  this  imprisonment." 

The  24th  of  the  same  month,  Mr.  Burton's  case  being 
again  brought  before  the  house,  it  was  further  resolved : 

1.  "  That  the  sentence  in  the  star-chamber  against  Mr. 
Burton  is  illegal,  and  without  any  just  ground,  and  ought  to 
be  reversed,  and  he  ought  to  be  freed  from  the  fine  o(j€5000, 
sttid  the  imprisonment  imposed  upon  him  by  the  said  sentence, 
and  to  be  restored  to  his  degrees  in  the  university,  orders  in 
the  ministry,  and  to  his  ecclesiastical  benefice  in  Friday-street, 
London. 

2.  "  That  the  order  of  the  council-board  for  transferring^ 
Mr.  Burton  from*  the  castle  of  Lancaster  to  the  isle  of 
Guernsey,  and  his  imprisonment  there,  are  against  Is^w  and 
the  liberty  of  the  subject. 

3.  **  Tliat  the  said  Mr.  Burton  ought  to  have  reparation 


H.  BURTON.  57 

and  recompence  for  the  damages  sustained  by  die  said 
imprisonment,  loss  of  his  ears,  and  other  evils*  sustained  by 
the  said  unjust  and  illegal  proceedings/'* 

On  die  20th  of  April,  die  house  of  commons  voted 
Mr.  Burton  to  receive  six  thousand  pounds  for  his  damages 
sustained,  but  the  confusions  of  die  times  prevented  the 
payment  of  the  money.  And  by  an  order  of  the  house, 
dated  June  8,  1641,  he  was  restored  to  his  former  ministry 
and  benefice  in  Friday-street.t  Mr.  Prynne  and  Dr.  Bastwick 
also  presented  their  petitions  to  the  house,  when  their  cases 
were  taken  into  consideration,  and  the  house  passed  similar 
resolutions  in  their  favour.* 

On  Mr.  Burton's  restoration,  he  formed  a  church  after  the 
model  of  the  independents ;  and  he  appears  to  have  gready 
prospered  in  his  public  ministry.  Wood  represents  him  as 
severe  in  the  exercise  of  church  discipline ;  that  he  would 
admit  none  to  the  Lord's  supper  besides  members  of  his  own 
church,  or  any  to  baptism  besides  the  children  of  such ;  that 
he  challenged  a  power  of  examination  into  the  lives  and 
conversation  of  members,  casting  out  whom  he  pleased,  and 
not  admitting  them  till  they  gave  satisfaction  to  the  church ; 
and  that  he  would  not  administer  the  Lord's  supper  at  Easter 4 
But  this  author  further  observes,  that  towards  the  close  of 
fais  life,  he  became  more  moderate ;  and  he  lived  tiU  after  the 
beheading  of  his   old  master.    King  Charle*s  I.      Herein, 

■  •  Prynne's  Prelates*  Tyrrfnny,  p.  139—141 .— Rnsbworth'i  Collect.  ?  oI.t. 
p.  207, 213.— Nal8on*8  Collec.  vol.  i.  p.  787,  794. 

+  Prynne's  Prelates'  Tyranny,  p.  146. 

:|:  Mr.  Prynne  was  afterwards  chosen  member  of  the  long  parliament. 
He  was  a  man  of  a  courageoas  spirit,  and  boldly  stepped  forwards  to 
correct  every  enormity  in  church  and  state.  He  was,  perhaps,  one  of  the 
hardest  students  that  ever  existed.  He  was  called  one  of  the  greatest 
paper*worms  that  ever  crept  into  a  library.  Wood  supposes  that  he  wrote 
a  sheet  for  every  day  of  his  life,  computing  from  the  time  of  bis  arrival  to 
man's  estate  to  the  day  of  his  death.  He  says,  "  his  custom  was,  when 
'*  he  studied,  to  put  on  a  long  quilted  cap,  which  came  an  inch  over  his 
**  eyes,  serving  9»  an  umbrella  to  defend  them  from  too  much  light  {  and 
*'  seldom  eating  a  dinner,  would  every  three  hours,  or  more,  be  mounching 
**"  a  roll  of  bread,  and  now  and  then  refresh  his  exhausted  spirits  with  ale." 
This  voluminous  writer  was  author  of  about  t$Do  hundred  books,  which  he 
gave,  in  forty  volumes  folio  and  quarto,  to  the  public  library  of  Lincoln's- 
inn.  On  the  restoration  of  Charles  II.,  some  one  asked  the  king  what 
must  be  done  with  Prynne,  to  make  him  quiet.  "  Why,'|  said  his 
m^esty,  "  let  him  amuse  himself  with  writing  against  the  catholics,  and  in 
f ^  poring  over  the  records  of  the  Tower."  To  enable  him  to  do  the 
latter,  Charles  made  him  keeper  of  the  records  of  the  Tower,  with  a  salary 
^  ,<|lye  hundred  pounds  a  year.  He  died  October  24,  1669.— FTood'i 
MhefUB  Oxom.  vo),  ii,  p.  31  l^Sf^. 

h  Ibid.  p.  460. 


58  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

however/ he  is  mistaken ;  for  Mr.  Burton  was  buried  January 
Ty  1647>  aged  sixty-eight  years.* 

The  memory  of  this  zealous  and  faithful  servant  of  Chrial 
has  suffered  the  reproach  and  contempt  of  most  of  our 
bigotted  historians;  but,  from'  the  foregoing  narrative,  his 
manifold  and  painful  sufferings  stand  as  a  monument  of 
disgrace  to  the  government  under  which  he  lived,  and 
especially  as  a  lastii^  reproach  to  Archbishop  Laud.t  Some, 
indeed,  have  not  been  ashamed  to  assert,  that  his  heavy 
sentence,  with  that  of  his  fellow-sufferers,  was  jiLst  and 
necessary *t  But,  says  Granger,  '^  The  punishment  of  these 
men,  who  were  of  the  three  great  professions,  was  ignomimou$ 
and  severe.  The  indignity  and  severity  of  their  punishment 
gave  general  offence ;  and  they  were  no  longer  regarded  as 
criminals,  but  confessors."} 

His  Works,  in  addition  to  those  already  mentioned.  —  1.  A 
Censure  of  Simony,  1624. — 2.  Israel's  Fast,  or  Meditations  on  the 
seventh  Chap,  of  Joshua,  1628. — 3.  Truth's  Triumph  over  Trent,  or 
the  great  Gulph  between  Sion  and  Ba))yIon ;  that  is,  th^  irreconcile- 
able  Opposition  between  the  Apostolic  Church  of  Christ  and  the 
Apostate  Synagogue  of  Antichrist,  in  the  main  and  fundamental 
Doctrine  of  Justification,  1629. — 4.  The  Law  and  the  Gospel  recon- 
ciled against  the  Antinomians,  1631. — 51  The  Christian's  Bulwark,  or 
the  Doctrine  of  Justification,  1632. — 6.  Exceptions  against  Dr. 
Jackson's  Treatise  of  the  Divine  Essence  and  Attributes,  163.. — 
7.  Jesu  Worship  Confuted:  or,  certain  Arguments  against  Bowing 
at  the  Name  of  Jesus,  proving  it  to  be  Idolatrous  and  Superstitious, 
and  so  utterly  unlawAil:  With  Objections  to  the  contrary  fully 
Answered,  i641. — 8.  The  Sounding  of  the  two  last  Trumpets : 
or.  Meditations  on  the^  ninth,  tenth,  and  eleventh  Chapters  of 
Revelation,  1641.  —  9.  The  Protestation  Protested;  or,  a  short 
Jlemonstrance  shewing  what  is  piincipally  required  of  all  those  who 
take  the  last  Parliamentary  Protestation,  1641. — 10.  England's 
Bondage  and  Hopes  of  Deliverance,  a  Sermon  preached  before  the 
Parliament,  1641. — 11.  A  Narration  of  his  own  Life,  1643. — 12.  A 
Vindication  of  Independent  Churches,  in  Answer  to  Mr.  Prynne, 
1644. — 13.  Parliament's  Power  for  Laws  in  Religion,  1646. — 14.  Tmth 
Vindicated  against  Calumny,  in  a  brief  Answer  to  Dr.  Bastwick's  two 
books,  entitled,  *  Independency  not  God's  Ordinance,'  1645. — 
15.  Truth  shut  out  of  Doors;  or,  a  brief  Narrative  of  the  Occasioa 
and  Manner  of  Proceeding  of  Aldermanbury  parish  in  shutting  their 
Church-door  against  him,  1645. — 16.  Tinith  still  Truth,  though  shut 
out  of  Doors,  1646. — 17.  Conformity's  Deformity,  in  a  Dialogue 
between  Conformity  and  Conscience,  1646. — 18.  Relation  of  Mr. 
Chillingworth. 

♦  Peck's  Desiderata  Ciiriosa,' Vol.  ii.  b.  xiv.  p.  22* 

f  The  portraits  of  Archbishop  Land  and  Mr.  Burton,  botik  whole 
lengths,  were  published  in  one  print.  The  prelate -lA-represented  as  vomit* 
ing  up  his  own  works,  and  Mr.  Burton  holding  his  head.  The  jk'iat  Sf 
extremely  scarce  and  curious. — Granger's  Blog.  HUi*  vol*  ii.  p«  I5S. 

+  Vernon's  Life  of  Heylin,  p.91.     Edit.  1682, 

S  Granger's  Biog.  Hist.  vol.  ii.  p.  192, 193. 


H.  WILKINSON.  60 

Henry  Wilkinson,  B.D.-— Tlis  worthy  divine  was 
born  in  the  vicarage  of  Halifax,  Yorkshire,  October  Q,  1666, 
and  educated  in  Merton  college,  Oxford.  He  was  a  near 
relation  to  Sir  Henry  Savile,  by  whose  favour  he  was  elected 
probationer  fellow  of  the  collie;  and  in  the  year.  1601,  he 
became  pastor  of  Waddesdon  in  Buckinghamshire,  where 
he  continued  in  the  laborious  and  &ithful  exercise  of  his 
ministry  fbrty-«ix  years.  He  married  the  only  daij^hter  of 
Mr.  Arthur  Wake,  another  zealous  puritan  divine,  by  whom 
he  had  six  sons  and  ^bree  daughters.  She  was  a  person 
of  most  amiable  character,  and  they  lived  together  in 
mutual  a£Eection  upwards  of  fifty  years.  He  was  a  man  of 
considerable  leamii^  and  piety,  and  being  an  old  puritan,  says 
Wood.*  was  elected  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines.  But  it 
i.  saidthat  he  spent  most  of  his  time  am'ong  his  pamhioners 
by  whom  he  was  exceedingly  beloved  and  revered. 

Mr.  Wilkinson  was  author  of  **  A  Catechisme  for  the  use 
of  the  Congregation  of  Waddesdon,''  oftentimes  printed. 
Also  ^  The  Debt4)ook ;  or,  a  Treatise  upon  Rom.  xiii.  8. 
wherein  is  handled  the  civil  debt  of  money  or  goods,"  16^ ; 
and  several  other  articles.  The  celebrated  Dr.  Henry 
Wilkinson,  Margaret  professor  at  Oxford,  and  ejected  at  die 
restoration,  was  his  son.t  Mr.  Neal  very  much  confounds 
die  one  widi  the  other.t  Mr.  Wilkinson  <&ed  at  Waddesdon, 
March  19, 1647^  aged  ekhty-one  years.  His  mortal  remains 
were  laid  in  the  (Cancel  of  his  own  church,  where,  against 
the  south  vrall,  wais  a  monumental  inscription  erected,  of 
which  the  follovdng  is  a  translation  .-$ 

Henry  Wilkinson, 

forty-Bix  years  the  fsithful  pastor  of  this  drnrch, 

was  born  the  nintii  day  of  Octobar,  1506, 

and  died  the  nineteenth  day  of  March,  1647. 

He  married  Sarah 

the  only  daughter  of  Arthur  Wake 

of  Sawey  For$8t  in  the  county  of  Norikmi^^ion, 

with  whom  he  lived  in  holy  concord  fifty-three  yean, 

and  by  whom  he  had  nine  children, 

six  sons  and  three  daughters. 

The  remains  of  the  aforesaid  Sarah  Wilkinson, 

who  lived  to  the  age  of  seventy  years, 

were  laid  by  the  side  of  her  husband, 

leaving  us  an  example 

of  a  most  upright  and  holy  life, 

f  Wood*8  Athene  Ozod.  vol.  ii«  p.  ^. 
f  'Pialmer's  NoncoD.  Mem.  vol.  I.  p.  841. 
t  Neal*i  Paritans,  vol.  iH.  p«  M. 
S  Waid*s  Greshaia  Profeston,  p.  813»  814. 


60  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

M)d  a  reputation  scarcely  to  be  exceeded. 

John  Wilkinson,  son  of  the  aboye, 

who  died  December  18,  1664, 

aged  sixty-one  years, 

was  also  inteired 

^ear  them. 


Thomas  Coleman^  A.  M.-— This  learned  and  pious 
divine  was  bom  in  the  city  of  Oxford,  in  the  year  1598,  and 
educated  in  Magdalen  college,  in  that  university.      Havii^ 
-entered  upon  the  ministerial  work,  he  became  vicar  of  Blitofn 
in   Lincolnshire;    but   he  was  persecuted,  and  afterwards 
driven  from  the  place  for  nonconformity.      On   the  com- 
mencement of  the  civil  wars,  he  fled  for  refuge  to  London, 
was  made  rector  of  St.  Peter's,  Comhill,  and  chosen  one  of 
the  assembly    of   divines.     He  frequently  preached  before 
the  parhament;  andy  October  15,  1643,  when  both  houses 
took  the  covenant,  he  preached  before  the  lords,  giving  some 
explanation  of  it.     He  observed  on  this  occasion,  "  that  by 
prelacy,  as  used  in  the  covenant,  was  not  meant  all  episco-- 
pacy,  but  only  the  fonn  therein  described.'**     In  1^44,  he 
was  appointed  one  of  the  committee  of  examination  and 
approbation  of  public  preachers.     The   year  following,  in 
the  grand  debate  of  the  assembly,  concerning  the  divine  right 
of  the  presbyterian  mode  of  church  government,  he  gave  his 
opinion  against  it ;  and  openly  declared,  both  in  the  assembly 
and  from  the  pulpit,  that  if  the  divine  right  of  presbyterianism 
should  ever  be  established  by  public  authority,  he  was  ap* 
prehensive  it  would  prove  equally  arbitrary  and  tyrannical  as 
the  prelacy  had  been.     He  therefore  proposed  that,  under 
present  circumstances,  the  civil  magistrate  should  have  the 
power  of  the  keys  till  the  nation  should  be  brought  into  a 
more  settled  state.t 

Mr.  Coleman  was  of  erastian  principles  respecting  church 
govemment ;  but  he  fell  sick  during  the  above  debate ;  and 
some  of  the  members  waiting  upon  bim,  h^  desired  they 
would  not  come  to  any  conclusion  till  they  had  heard  what 
he  had  further  to  offer  upon  the  question.  But  his  complaint 
increasing,  he  died  in  a  few  days,  and  the  whole  assembly 
paid  the  last  tribute  pf  respect  to  his  memory  by  attending 
his  funeral  solemnities,  March  30,  1647-  Wood  says,  ^^  he 
was  so  acconmlished  an  Hebrean,  that  he  was  conunonlj 
denominated  Kabbi  Coleman  ^^^  and  adds,  '*  that  he  behaved 

♦  SyWester*8  Life  of  Baxter,  part  i.  p.  49.  * 
t  Neal's  Poritaoff,  vol.  lii.  p.  S61. 


T*  COLEMAN.  61 

bolii  modesdy  and  learnedly  in  the  assembly.''*  Fuller  styles 
lim"  a  modest  and  learned  divine,  equally  averse  to  presby- 
tiay  and  prelacy /'t 

Piom  the  eminent  talents,  learning,  and  moderation  of  this 
CKcdknt  divine,  we  might  suppose  that  even  bigotry  itself 
would  lie  dormant ;  but  this  unhappy  temper,  ever  influenced 
Iqrpaity  principles,  and  to  promote  a  party  interest,  will.break 
ftrowh  idl  difficulties,  to  blacken  the  memory  of  real  worth. 
Mr.  Coleman,  in  common  with  many  of  his  brethren,  is  the 
Mbject  of  public  calunmy.  The  zealous  historian^  speak- 
ing of  those  divines  who  preached  before  the  parliament,  says, 
'^  Another  of  these  brawlers,  who  seldom  thought  of  a 
Uiop,  or  .the  king's  party,  but  with  indignation,  was  Mr. 
Thomatj  Cdanao.;  In  one  of  his  sermons,  he  thus  rants 
sginst  die  church  of  Ei^land,  and  violently  persuades  the 
jwriianieal  to  execute  severe  justice  upon  her  children.  *  Our 
cidiedrals  in  a  great  part  are  of  late  become  the  nests  of  idle 
dnnes,  and  die  roosting  places  of  superstitious  formalists. 
Oip  formalists. and  government,  in  the  whole  hierarchy,  are 
become  a  fretting  gangrene,  a  spreading  leprosy,  an  insup- 
poitaUe  tynrnny.  Up  with  it,  up  with  it  to  the  bottom,  root 
sad  blanch,  hip  and  ddgh :  destroy  these  Amalekites,  and  let 
d^ir  place  be  no  more  found.  Throw  away  the  rubs  ;  out 
ividi  ifie  Lord's  enemies,  and  the  land's.  Vex  the  Midianites ; 
^boMk  the  Amalekites,  or  else  they  will  vex  you  with  their 
^inles,  as  they  have  done  heretofore.  Let  popery  find  no 
favour,  because  it  is  treasonable  ;  prelacy  as  fittle,  because  it 
13  tyrannical.' 

"  Hiis,"  our  author  adds,  ^'  was  rare  stuff  for  the  blades  at 
Westminster,  and  pleased  them  admirably  well.  Therefore 
tbey  straitly  order  Sir  Edward  Aiscough  and  Sir  John  Wray, 
to  give  the  zealot  hearty  thanks  for  his  good  directions,  and  to 
<le8ire  him  by  all  means  to  print  it ;  which  accordingly  he  did, 
and,  in  requital  of  thanks,  dedicates  his  fury  to  their  worships  ; 
^re  he  falls  to  his  old  trade  again,  very  prettily  by  his  art  of 
ifaetorick,  calling  the  king's  army  partakers  with  atheists, 
ii^dels,  and  papists ;  saying,  *  it  hath  popish  masses,  super- 
stitious worships,  cold  forms  in  the  service  of  God:  it  is 
stored  with  popish  priests :  it  persecutes  God's  ministers, 
painful  preachers :  it  doth  harbour  all  drunken,  debauched 
deigy,  or  idle,  non-preaching,  dumb  ministry,  our  ambitious 
tyrannical  prelacy,  and  the  sink  and  dregs  of  the  times ;  the  . 
r^ptacle  of  the  filth  of  the  present  and  former  ages,  our 

*  Aibeae  Oxod.  vol.  ii.  p.  53. 

f  FaUer's  Chorch  Hist.  b.  zi.  p.  313. 


/ 
I 


62  LIVES  OF  THE  PUHITANS. 

flpiritoal  coartfs-meii/  This  man's  ndling/'  he  adds,  '^  pleased 
^e  ca^anom  so  well,  that  they  cpuU  think  of  no  man  fitto' 
to  prate  when  their  wicked  league  and  covenant  was  taken 
than  he;  which  accordingly  he  did  to  the  purpose^  ticldii^ 
thdr  filthy  ears  with  the  same  strains  of  malice ;  impudently 
affirming!  ^  That  none  but  an  atheist,  papist,  oppressor, 
rebel,  or  the  guilty,  desperate  cavalimtt,  and  light  and  empty 
men,  can  refuse  the  covenant :'  and  so  concludes  with  reflec- 
tion upon  the  king's  party,  as  idolaters.  And  for  diis  stuff, 
Oolond  Long  must  be  ordered  to  give  him  thanks  from  the 
house/'* 

'  Admitting  the  correctness  of  our  author's  extracts,  there 
was  certainly  too  much  trudi  in  many  of  Mr.  Coleman's 
remarks,  though  some  of  them  peihiq[>s  require  a  degree  of 
limitation.  It  is,  however,  a  certain  feet,  which  many  of  out 
zealous  historians  seem  willing  to  forget,  diat ''  their  worships, 
the  blades  at  Westminster,"  whose  **  filthy  ears  were  tickled 
with  the  preacher's  strains  of  malice,"  and  who  thanked  him 
for  his  sermons,  desiring  him  to  print  them,  even  the  commons 
in  parliament,  as  well  as  the  lords,  were,  according  to 
Clarendon,  all  members  of  the  established  church.t  Yet^ 
such  is  the  foul  language  of  the  above  bigotted  and  peevish 
writer,  that  his  prejudices  and  party  feelings  appear  without 
restraint,  while  he  pours  forth  his  abundant  slander  and  con- 
tempt upon  men  of  the  worthiest  character. 

His  Works. — l.The  Christian's  Course  and  Complaint,  both  in  ths 
pursuit  of  Happiness  desired,  and  for  Advantages  slipped  in  that 
pursuit ;  a  Sermon  preached  to  the  Honourable  House  of  Commons 
on  the  monthly  Fast,  Aug.  30, 1643 ;  at  St.  Mai^arefs  Westminster, 
1643. — 2»  The  Heart's  Engagement,  a  Sermon  preached  at  St.  Mar« 
garet's  Westminster,  at  the  public  entering  into  the  Covenant,  1643.—- 
3.  God's  unusual  Answer  to  a  Solemn  Fast,  a  Sermon  preached  to 
both  Houses  of  Parliament,  at  their  public  Fast,  Sep.  12,  1644 — 
1644.— -4.  A  Brotherly  Examination  Examined:  or,  a  clear  Justifica- 
tion of  those  Passages  in  a  Sermon;  against  which  Mr.  Gillespie  did 
preach  and  write,  1646. — 5.  A  short  Discovery  of  some  Tenets 
which  intrench  upon  the  Honour  and  Power  of  Parliaments. — 6.  A 
Modell,  &c. 


Eprraim  Paget  iiras  bom  in  Northamptonshire^  in  die 
year  1575,  and  educated  in  Christ's  college,  Oxford.  He 
was  die  son  of  Mr.  Eusebius  Paget,  a  celebrated  puritan 
divine,  and  a  ^reat  sufierer  for  nonconformihr*  He  wbls  so 
great  a  proficient  in  the  knowledge  of  the  languages,  that 

•  FoQlis's  Hht.  of  Plots,  p.  1S3, 184. 
f  ClarciidoB*t  Hist.  vol.  i.  p.  W. 


E.  PAGET.  eS 

upon  Yob  admittance  into  the  oniversity,  die  Greek  ptofeasor 
sought  his  acquaintance,  and  derived  much  assistance  from 
Urn.  At  die  age  of  twenty-six  years,  he  understood  and 
WToteJ^hGt  or  sixteen  languages.*  Having  completed  his 
studies  at  the  university,  he  became  minister  at  St.  Edmund's 
church,  Lombard-street,  London,  where  he  continued  many 
years.  While  in  thb  situation,  he  entered  into  the  coniugal 
state,  and  iparried  Lady  Bord,  widow  of  Sir  Stephen  Dori, 
of  a  worthy  family  in  Sussex.  Upon  the  commencement  of 
the  civil  wars,  he  was  a  great  sufierer;  and  he  was  so  mudi 
troubled  and  molested,  says  Wood,  that,  merely  for  the  sake 
of  quietness,  he  left  his  benefice  in  his  old  age,  being  then 
commonly  called  old  father  Ephraim.  He  retired  to 
Deptford  in  Kent,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days 
in  retirement  and  devotion.  He  entered  upon  the  joy  of  Ins 
Lord  in  the  month  of  April,  1647^  a^ed  seventyrtwo  years. 
His  remains,  according  to  his  last  wm  and  testament,  were 
laid  in  Deptford  church-yard.f 

Though  his  name  is  enrolled  among  die  sufferers  in  the 
royal  cause,  he  is  with  justice  classed  among  the  puritans. 
Many  excellent  divines,  who  were  dissatiraed  widi  the 
ecclesiastical  discipline  and  ceremonies,  and  even  with 
epbcopacy  itself,  were  nevertheless,  during  the  national 
confusions,  great  sufferers  on  account  of  their  loyal  attach- 
ment  to  his  majesty  and  the  civil  constitution.  Their  zeal  for. 
the  king  and  his  cause  exposed  them  to  the  severity  of  the 
opposite  party.  This  appears  to  have  been  the  case  with 
Bir.  Paget.  He  was  decided  in  his  attachment  to  his 
majesty's  interest  and  the  civil  constitution,  for  which  he  was  a 
sufferer  in  those  evil  times;  yet  he  was  opposed  to  the 
ecclesiastical  establishment,  as  well  as  the  cruel  oppressions 
of  the  prelates.  Therefore,  in  the  year  1645,  being  only  two 
years  before  hb  death,  he  united  with  his  brethren,  the 
London  nunisters,  in  presenting  a  petition  to  the  lords  and 
commons  in  Parliament,  for  the  establishment  of  the  presby- 
terian  discipune.t  He  wrote  with  great  bitterness  against 
the  independents,  baptists,  and  other  sectaries,  by  which  he 
exposed  himself  to  the  resentment  of  his  enemies.  ^  Error 
and  heresy,"  it  is  said,  *^  began  to  take  deep  root,  and  to 
spread  far  and  wide  over  the  face  of  the  earth ;  he,  therefore, 
set  himself  to  discover  them,  and  root  them  up,  when  he 
published  his  *  Heresiography.'  Hence  sprung  his  trouble;'' 

•  Paget*8  Hereiiograpby,  Pref.    Edit.  1662. 

f  Wood's  Athene  Ozoo.  vol.  ii.  p.  6S. 

I  Grey^  Ezaminatioii,  vol.  il.  Appen.  p.  87— -Sa. 


64  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS.    ' 

and  it  b  added,  ^'  the  enemies  o^  goodness  making  that  the 
ground  of  their  malice,  which  he  wrote  to  undeceive  and 
bring  them  into  the  way  of  truth.  Upon  thb  he  was 
persecuted,  reviled,  slandered,  and,  through  false  suggestions,- 
suffered  even  imprisonment  itself.  He  bore  up  manfully,  and 
suffered  patiently  whatever  their  malice  could  inflict,  tUl  at 
last  the  Lord  in  mercy  put  an  end  to  his  misery,  and  received 
him  to  himself.^'*  He  was  an  excellent  preacher,  and  his 
sermons  were*  as  pleasant  as  they  were  profitable,  drawing 
the  hearts  of  his  auditors,  as  by  a  bait  of  pleasure,  to  that 
which  is  good.f 

His  Works.— 1.  Christiftnographie :  or,  a  Description  of  the 
multitudes  and  sundry  sorts  of  Christians  in  the  worid  not  subject  to 
the  Pope,.  1636. — 2,  A  Treatise  of  the  Ancient  Christians  in  Britany, 
1640.--3.  Heresiographie :  or,  a  Description  of  the  Heresies  of  later 
Times,  1646.— 4.  The  Mystical  Wolf,  a  Sermon  on  Matt.  vii.  16., 
1646. 


Thomas  HobKER.— This  excellent  divine  was  bom  at 
Mkrfield  in  Leicestershire,  in  the  year  1586,  and  educated 
in  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  became  fellow. 
He  acquitted  himself  in  this  office  with  such  ability  and 
fisdthfiilness  as  commanded  universal  admiration  and  applause. 
During  his  abode  at  Cambridge,  he  was  brought  under  such 
deep  convictions  of  sin,  that  his  mind  was  overwhelmed  with 
extreme  horror.  The  anguish  of  his  soul,  under  a  sense  of 
his  sin  and  desert,  was  inconceivable.  He  was  ready  to 
exclaim,  "  While  I  suffer  thy  terrors,  O  Lord,  I  am  dis- 
tracted." Afterwards,  speaking  of  these  mental  exercises,  he 
said,  **  In  the  time  of  my  distress,  I  could  reason  to  the  rule 
of  duty,  and  see  there  was  no  other  way  of  relief  but  by 
submission  to  God,  and  by  lying  at  the  feet  of  Jesus  Christy 
humbly  waiting  for  his  favour ;  but  when  I  applied  the  rule 
to  myself,  and  endeavoured  to  put  it  in  practice,  my  reason- 
ing failed  me,  and  I  was  able  to  do  nothing."  Having 
laboured  under  the  spirit  of  bondage  for  a  considerable  time^ 
he  received  light  and  comfort,  and  his  mind  became  power- 
fully and  pleasantly  attached  to  holy  and  heavenly  contempla- 
tions. It  now  became  a  custom  with  him,  when  redring  to 
rest  at  night,  to  select  some  particular  promise  of  scripture, 
upon  which  he  meditated  during  his  wakeful  hours.  Ld  this 
he  found  so  much  improvement  and  comfort,  that  he  recom- 
mended others  to  adopt  the  same  practice. 

•  P^t*t  Heresiog.  Pref.  f  tloyd'a  Meinoires,  p.  510. 


HOOKER.  65 

.  Mr.  Hooker  hariog  tasted  that  the  Lord  was  gnciousy 
resolved  to  employ  hi&  time  and  his  talems-  in  the  work  of  the 
ministry^  when  he  commenced  preaching  in  London  and  its 
vicinity.  He  soon  became  celebrated  for  his  ministerial 
endowments,  particularly  in  comforting*  persons  under 
spiritual  distress.  In  the  year  1 626,  having  been  disappointed 
of  a  desired  settlement  at  Colchester^  he  was  chosen  iectiver 
at  Chelmsfordy  one  Mr.  Mitchel  being  the  incumbent.  His 
lectures  were  soon  numerously  attended,  and  a  remarkable 
unction  and  blessing  attended  his  preaching.  A  pleasing' 
reformation  also  followed,  not  only  in  the  town,  but  likewise 
in  the  adjacent  country.  By  a  multitude  of  public  houses  in 
die  town,  and  by  keeping  the  shops  open  on  the  Lord's  day^ 
the  people  of  Chelmsford  had  become  notorious  for  intenw 
perance  and  the  profanation  of  the  sabbath.  But  by  the 
blessing  of  God,  so  pientifully  poured  out  upon  Mr.  Hooker's 
nodnistry,  these  vices  were  banished  from,  the  place,  and  the 
sabbath  was  visibly  sanctified  to  the  Lord.  His  zealous  and 
useAil  labours,  however,  were  not  continued  very  long.  For 
in  about  four  years  his  difficulties  were  so  great,  on  account 
of  his  nonconformity,  that  he  gave  up  his  pulpit  and  com- 
menced teaching  school.  .  He  could  not  defile  his  conscience 
by  the  observance  of  the  superstitious  ceremfonies:  he  had 
rather  give  up  his  pulpit  and  his  public  ministry,  which 
he  dearly  loved,  than  sacrifice  the  ^'  testimony  of  a  good 
conscience." 

Though  the  best  and  most  delightful  empIo}inent  of  this 
worthy  servant  of  Christ  was  gone,  his  influence  was  not 
lost.  This  was  wholly  employed  to  promote  the  Redeemer'<s 
cause.  He.  engaiged  the  various  ministers  in  the  vicinity  of 
Chelmsford,  to  establish  .  a  monthly  meeting  for  fasting, 
prayer,  and  rdiciQus  conference.  By  his  influence,  several 
pious  young  mmUters  were  settied  iu  the  neighbourhood,  and 
others  became  more  establbhed  in  the  fundamental  doctrines 
of  the  gospel.  Indeed,  so  great  was  his  popularity,  and  so 
high  his  reputation,  *when  silenced,  that  no  less  than  forty* 
seven  conformist  ministers  of  liis  acquaintance,  presented  a 
petition  to  the  Bishop  of  London ;  in  which  they  testified, 
^  That  they  knew  and  esteemed  Mr.  Hooker  to  be  orthodox 
in  his  doctrine,  honest  in  hb  life,  and  conversation,  peaceable 
in  his  disposition,  and  in  no  wise  tmbulent  or  factious." 
But  these  powerifiil  mediators  could  not  prevail.  Mr. 
Hodcer  being  stigmatized  as  a  puritan,  must  be  buried  in 
nlence.  He  was  bound,  about  the  year  1630,  in  a  bond  of 
fifty  pounds,  to  appear  before  the  h^b  commission ;  but  this 

VOL.  III.  F 


LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 


iMHidy'by  tbe  advice  of  his  friends,  he  ferfeitedy  preferring 
It  M  a  lesser  evil  to  pay  so  great  a  smn,  than  fiedi  into 
die  hands  of  the  nilii^^  prdates,  whose  tender  mercy  vaa 
cniehy.t 

Mr.  Hooker,  to  avoid  the  storm  of  persocuJion,  fled  to 
Holland.  He  had  no  sooner  taken  shipping,  and  the  vessel* 
got  under  sail,  than  the  enraged  pursuivants  arrived  on  the 
wore,  but  happily  too  late  to  oeach  him*  Duripg  the  nassage, 
the  ship  was  in  the  i^toiost  danger  of  being  lost ;  but  tJus  hoty 
^[lan,  u\  this  perilous  situation,  exercised  a»  unshaken 
confidence  in  God,  who  sent  a  remarkable  delivesaace.  I« 
Holland,  he  preached  about  two  years  at  Delfi^  as  assistanl 
to  Mr.  Forbes,  an  s^e4  an4  excelie9t  ^otch  minasln^  I^ 
was  next  called  to  Kottenfaun,  where  be.  was  employed  for> 
some  time  as  colleague  to  the  celebrated  Dr.  Wiwam- Ames. 
The  gieatest  friendship  and  affection  subsisted  betwixt  these 
two  learned  divines.  The  latter  declared,  that,  notwjthstam^ 
ing  his  acquaintance  with  many  scholars  of  d^Serent  natioBS, 
he  had  never  met  vrith  a  man  equal  to  Mr.  Hooker,  either  a» 
a  preacher  or  a  kamed  disputant.  He  assisted  Dn  Amo» 
in  composing  hi/s  celebrated  work,  entiitled,  **  A  Fresh  Suit 
against  Human  Ceremonies  in  God^a  Wovd^p.*^  But  Mr. 
Hooker  not  finding  Holland  agreeable  to  his  virishes,  and  * 
number  pf  his  firiends  ii^  England  i»vitii|g  him^  at  diia  time  to 
accompany  them  to  America,  he  returned  to  his  native 
country  to  prepare  for  the  voyage.  He  was  no  sooner  oome^ 
to  Enghnd,  than  the  bishop'a  pursuivants  were  again 
employed  to  apprehend  hup.  At  one  time  they  were  i^ton 
the  very  point  of  taking  him,  a^d  even  knocked  at  the  door 
of  the  chamber  ia  which  he  and  Mr.  Sawiel  Stone  were 
employed  in  friendly  conversation.  Mv.  Stone  went  to  the 
door ;  when  the  officers  demanded  whether  Mr.  Hooker  was. 
there.  *<  What  Ho<Aer?"  replied  Mr.  Stoiie.  *<  Do  you 
mean  Hooker  who  once  lived  at  Chdmsford?''  The  offioeps 
answered,  ^<  Yes,  that  is  he.'-  ^^  If  it  be  he  who^  you  look- 
for,''  observed  Mr.  Stone,  *^  i  saw  him  about  an  hour  ago.a^ 
such  a  house  in  the  town :  you  had  best  hasten  there  after 
him.''  The  officers  taking  this  eva^ion^  for  a  sutteienli 
account,  went  their  way,  while  Mr,  Hoc^er  ooooealed' 
himself  more  securely,  till  he  went  on  board  in  dto>  Downstv 
He  sailed  for  New  England  in  the  year  l€3d>  when  Mfi 
Stone  and  Mr.  Cotton,  both  celebrated  puritans,  acc<mipanied 
him  in  the  same  ship.    Mit*  Hooker  arriving  sit  Newlowa^' 

» 

«  Mather's  Hist,  of  New  Eog.  b.  m.  p.  ft8--Sl . 


HOOKER.  Vt 

afterwwdi  called  Cambridge ;  and  being  moftt  aiFectioAtttel;f 
leceived  hj  \m  old  friends,  who  had  gone  over  the  preceding 
jpear,  he  aaid,  ^*  Now  i  Hve,  if  ye  staml  ftist  in  die  Lord." 

Great  aumbers  soon  after  following  these  adventurers  from 
England,  Newtown  became  too  narrow  for  them :  accord- 
'^^J9  in  1636>  Mr.  Hooker,  with  many  'of  his  friends, 
ramoved  to  a  fertile  spot  on  the  delightful  banks  of  the  river 
Cottiecticiit,  which  they  called  Hartford.  There  he  lived  all 
%m  rest  of  his  days,  and  was  deservedly  esteemed  '^  as  die 
fadwrf  tbe  pillar,  and  the  oracle  of  the  new  colony."  As  a 
yreacher,  ne  was  remarkably  animated  and  impressive ;  not 
only  Ua  voice,  bat  every  feature  in  his  countenance,  spoke 
the  flrdonr  of  hia  soul.  All  was  life  and  reality  in  his 
descriptiona.  Hia  preaching  was  not  that  theatrical  ailecta* 
lion  wnkh  ia  exhibited  by  men  who  paint  for  admiration,  but 
that  and  ^sUch  is  kindled  by  a  coal  from  God's  altar.  His 
Btoviag  addfesaes  flowed  from  his  own  exquisite  relish  of 
ftrine  Anigs,  and  an  impassioned  desire  of  promoting  diem 
ift  the  hearta  of  others.  His  success,  like  his  services,  was 
vary  eoiinest  A  profrine  man,  for  the  purpose  of  diversion, 
nea  add  to  kia  companions, ''  Come,  let  us  go  and  hear  what 
ba^riiag  Hooker  wilt  sav  to  us."  For  the  sake  of  sport,  diey 
aU  mat  to  Chelmsford  lecture.  Conviction  presendy  seised 
the  mind  of  this  person.  The  word  of  God  became  quick 
ttid  powerfld,  and  he  retired  with  an  awakened  conscience. 
Also,  by  tbe  subsequent  instructions  of  Mr.  Hooker,  he 
became  an  humble  follower  df  Christ;  and  afterwards 
followed  diia  worthy  minister  to  New  England,  that  he  might 
wjov  the  benefit  of  his  preaching  as  long  as  he  lived.  At 
iBodber  time,  one  of  his  enemies  hired  a  fiddler  to  play  in  the 
choreb-wd  and  the  church-porch,  with  a  view  to  disturb 
him  in  bis  sermon ;  but  the  design  had  not  the  least  efiect 
apon  Mr^  Hooker's  mind :  he  went  on  with  his  sermon  in  his 
unabated  zeal  and  vivacity.  When  the  man  went  to  die 
door  to  hear  what  he  said,  his  attention  was  instantly  caught; 
ooflfMtioD  immediately  seized  his  conscience;  and  at  the 
conehiaioA  of  the  service,  he  made  his  humble  confession  to 
Ur.  Hooker,  and  ever  after  lived  a  religious  life.  By  the 
i^plkcatioli  of  his  doctrine,  he  had  a  surprising  tailent  for 
laadlkig  uid  awakening  the  consciences  of  his  hearer^. 

TUs  lesmed  divine  was  remarkable  for  humility  and  a 
My  dispeiidenGe  upon  God.  lliis  will  appear  from  the 
twmfam  cir^umatance.  Some  time  after  his  settlement  at 
Hirtford,  having  to  preach  among  liis  old  friends  at  Newtovm. 
on  a  Lord's  <by  in  the  afternoon,  his  great  fame  had  coUe9t^4 


6»  LIVES  or  THE  PURITANS. 

together  a  vast  concourse  of  pebple.  When  he 'came  to 
preachy  he  found  hhnself  so  entirety  at  a  loss  what  to  say^ 
thaty  after  a  few  shattered  attempts  to  proceed,  he  was  obl^ed 
to  stop,  and  say,  that  what  he  had  prepared  was  altogeuer 
taken  from  him.  He  therefore  requested  the  congregation  to 
sing  a  psalm  while  he  retired.  Upon  his  rettun,  as  our 
aumor  observes,  he  preached  a  most  admirable  sermon, 
holding  the  people  two  hours,  in  a  most  extraordinary  strain 
both  for  pertinence  and  vivacity.  After  the  public  service  .wa4 
closed,  some  of  his  friends  speaking  to  him  of  the  Lord's 
withholding  his  assbtance,  he  meekly  replied,  **  We  daily 
confess  that  we  have  nothings  and  can  do  nothing,  without 
Christ;  and  what  if  Christ  wul  make  this  manifest  before  our 
congregations  ?  Must  we  not  be  humbly  contented  ?''* 

Mr.  Hooker  wished  to  be  abased,  and  the  Lord  alone  to 
be  exalted.  He  dreaded  outward  ease  and  prosperity^  ma 
that  which  was  most  likely  to  bring  the  Lord's  people  into 
spiritual  adversity.  When  at  the  land's  end,  taking  his  final 
leave  of  England,  he  said,  '^  Farewell,  England ;  I  expect  now 
no  more  to  see  that  religious  zeal,  and  power  of  godliness^ 
which  I  have  seeii  among  professors  in  that  land.  Adversity 
has  slain  its  thousands,  but  prosperit;y  its  ten  thousands.  1 
fear  that  those  who  have  been  zesuous  christians  in  the  fire  of 
persecution,  will  become  cold  in  the  lap  of  peace.'' 

He  was  highly  celebrated  as  a  man  of  prayer.  He 
used  to  say,  ^*  Prayer  is  the  principal  work  of  a  minister ; 
and  it  b  by  this  he  must  carry  on  the  rest."  Accordingly, 
he  devoted  one  day  in  every  month  to  private  prayer  and 
fasdng,  besides  the  observance  of  matry  such  days  fnibticly 
with  his  people.  It  was  his  settled  opimon,  that  if  professors 
neglect  diese  duties,*  **  iniquity  will  abound,  and  the  love  of 
many  wax  cold."  His  prayers  in  public  were  ferven^  but 
^ot  IpAg,  and  singularly  adapted  to  the  occasion^  Als  he 
proceeded  his  ardour  usually  increased ;  and,  as  the  last 
9tep  in  Jacob's  ladder  was  nearest  heaven,  the  close  of  hi» 
pi^yer  lyas  mostly  a  rapture  of  devotion ;  and  ''  his  people," 
It  is  said, "  were  often  surprised  with  the  remarkable  answers 
to  his  prayers." 

Though  Mr.  Hooker's  natural  disposition  was  irascibl<^ 

he  acquired  a  wonderful  command  of  his  temper.    He.vraf 

J  always  ready  to  sacrifice  his  own  apprehensions  to  the  letter 

..reasons  of  others.    T^e  meanest  of  his  brethren,  and  evei^ 

.^children,  were  treated  by  him  with  endearing  cOndescwsioa* 

•  MaUicr't  Hift.  of  Ncvr  Eng.  b.  iji.  p«  »,  88.  . 


HOOKEIL  09 

One  instance  it  may  not  be  improper  to  meii6oii.  A 
ne^bour  of  his  having  sustained  some  damage;  when 
Mr.  Hooker  meeting  a  boy  notorious  for  such  mischief^ 
warmly  accused  and  censured  him.  The  boy  denied  Ae 
charge^  but  he  continued  his  angry  lecture.  **  Sir/'  said  the 
boy,  **  I  see  you  are  in  a  passion ;  111  say  no  more  to  you  ;** 
and  then  ran  off.  Mr.  Hooker  finding,  upon  inquiry,  that  the 
boy  could  not  be  proved  guilty,  sent  for  him,  and  humbly 
confessed  his  fault,  which,  with  the  good  council  he  gave  him, 
made  a  deep  and  lasting  impression  on  the  mind  of  the  boy. 

Notwithstanding  Mr.  Hooker's  great  condescension,  he 
did  qot  in  the  least  degrade  or  depreciate  his  holy  function. 
When  he  mounted  the  pulpit,  he  appeared  with  so  much 
majesty  and  independence,  that  it  was  pleasantly  said  of  him^ 
He  wmild  put  a  king  in  his  pocket.  Judges,  princes,  and 
peasants  equally  shared  in  his  pointed  reproofs  and  solemn 
admonitions.  He  possessed  an  excellent  talent  for  solving 
eases  of  conscience,  and  set  apart  one  day  in  the  week  for 
any  of  his  people  to  come  to  hmi  and  propose  their  scruples 
and  difficulties.  Though  his  own  preaching  was  generally 
very  practical  and  experimental,  he  reconunended  young 
ministers,  when  first  settled,  as  well  for  their  own  benefit  as 
that  of  their  people,  to  preach  the  whole  system  of  divine 
truA.  He  had  a  happy  method  in  the  government  of  the 
church.  He  would  propound  nothing  to  the  church  assembly 
till  it  had  been  previously  considered  by  several  of  die  prin- 
cipal brethren;  and  if  at  any  time  he  saw  an  altercation 
be^iiing  to  rise  in  the  church,  he  would  put  off  the  vote  till 
another  opportunity ;  previous  to  which,  he  would  visit,  and 
generally  gain  over,  those  who  objected  to  what  appeared 
me  most  proper  to  be  adopted.  He  used  to  say,  **  The  eldera 
must  have  a  church  within  a  church,  if  they  would  preserve 
the  peace  of  the  church." 

1  his  holy  and  heavenly  divine  desired  not  to  outlive  his 
work.  His  last  sickness  was  short,  and  he  said  little.  When 
his  opinion  was  asked  concerning  certain  iipportant  points, 
he  replied,  *^  I  have  not  that  work  now  to  perform,  f  have 
declared  the  council  of  God.''  One  of  his  brethren  obsery- 
ing  to  him,  that  he  was  going  to  receive  his  reward, 
**  Brotfier,"  said  he,  '^  I  am  going  to  receive  mercy'*  After- 
wards, he  closed  his  eyes  with  his  own  hands,  and,  with  a 
smile  on  his  countenance,  he  expired,  July  7»  16479  ^^ 
sixty-one  years.*    He  was  justly  styled  "  the  grave,  the  godly, 

«  Mone  aid  Pftrish*!  Hkt.  of  New  Elf.  p.  76—78. 


10  LIVES  0F  THE  FURITAN8. 

tbe  jufticioiMy  the  fnkh&ly  and  tbe  hborioiis  Hooker.**  Tbtt 
pe»ce  which  b^  enjoyed  in  his  own  mind,  through  belitYiBg 
in  Christ,  for  the  space  of  thirly  years,  continu^  firm  and 
HUf hf^Len  to  the  la^.*  Mr.  Henry  Whitfield  gives  th^  foUaw- 
ing  testimony  of  his  worth:  '^  I  did  not  think/'  says  he, 
"  there  had  been  such  ^  man  on  the  earth,  in  whom  th^rt 
fhone  so  many  incomparable  excellencies;  and  in  whom 
learning  gnd  wi9dooi  were  so  admirably  tempered  with  zeal, 
holiness,  find  watchfulness/'  And  for  his  great  abilities  and 
glorious  services  in  both  Englands,  says  Mr.  Ashe,  he 
deserves  a  place  in  the  first  rank  of  those  worthies  whose 
lives  are  preserved.!  Fuller  has  honoured  him  with  a  placis 
among  the  learned  writers  and  fellows  of  Emanudl  college, 
Cambridge.^ 

Hb  Works.— 1.  The  SouFs  Implantation  into  Christ,  1037.— 
3.The  Uobetiever'8  Preparing  for  Christ,  1638.— 3.  The  Soars  effectnal 
^9nmg  to  Christ,  1638.--i.  The  Soul's  Humiliation,  1640.^-^  A 
Sarvey  of  the  Summe  of  Church-Discipline,  1648. — 6.  The  Doubluii^ 
Christian  drawn  to  Christ^  1652. — ^7.  The  Application  of  HtsdemptiQii 
by  the  Word,  1666.— 8.  The  Sjpiritual  Rule  of  the  Lord's  Kingdom.—:, 
9,  Farewell  Sermon  on  Jer.  xiv.  9.  publi9hed  in  Air.  Fenner's  Works." 
-r-And  probably  some  others. 

John  SAiiTMABSH,  A.  M.^— This  person  was  desceiid#f| 
from  a  respectable  and  ancient  family  of  the  same  qam^  a^ 
Saltmarsh  in  Yoi:)L8hirey  and  educfited  in  Magdalen  college^ 
CamWidge,  where  he  enjoyed  the  patropage  and  support  of 
Sir  John  Metham,  his  kinsman.  He  was  a  person  of  a  fiiie^ 
active  fancjy  no  contemptible  poet,  and  a  good  preacher ;  bi|| 
no  friend  to  bishops  and  ceremonies.^  AlM>ut  thfi  year  1641^ 
be  became  minister  at  Northatupton,  afterwards  at  Brai3te4 
in  Kent,  and,  at  length,  was  chosen  to  the  office  of  chaf^aiQ 
in  Sir  Thomas  Fairfex's  army ;  where,  to  hiis  great  honour,  b^ 
i9  said  to  have  always  preached  up  peace  and  unity.  He 
meddled  not  with  matters  of  discipline,  but  wholly  laboured 
to  draw  souls  from  sin  to  Christ.!  He  afterwards  opj^oly 
declared  his  sentiments  concerning  die  war,  saying,  '' Th$t 
all  means  should  be  used  to  keep  the  l^ng  and  people  from  % 
sudden  union ;  that  die  war  being  against  popery,  should  bei 
cherished,  as  the  surest  means  tQ  engage  the  |>eQi4e;  and 
that  if  the  kii^^  would  not,  iu  tbe  eud,  granit  their  deaaauuid% 

•  Iforton'i  Memorial,  p.  1«5. 

t  lfatber*8  Hist,  of  New.  Eag.  b.  iU.  p.  ii-*^. 

1  FnUer*!  Hist,  of  C^b.  p.  147. 

S  Faller*8  Worthies,  part  iii.  p.  212. 

I  Wood's  Athtaw  Oxm«  toI.  ti.  p.  m 


SALTMARSH.  71 

ihn  te  rdot  hiita  out,  togedier  with  the  mpi  Kne,  and  ap|k>int 
te  crown  to  some  oAet  penon/'  These  sentunents  were 
hid  brfore  the  houae  of  commons,  and  they  underwent  a 
pvieukur  examination ;  but  it  does  not  appear  whether  he 
was  sentenced  to  recrive  any  kind  of  puniniment.  During 
dui  examination,  howerer,  one  of  the  members  said,  **  He 
mm  no  reason  to  condeAin  Mfc*.  Saltmarsh ;  tot  it  was  better 
that  one  family  should  be  destroyed  than  ihany."<* 

Mr.  Saltmarsh  employed  his  pen  id  controrersy  with 
mwnl  learned  divines^  among  whonii  was  Dr.  lliomas 
Fuller,  the  historian.  This  person  havine  preached  a  iermon 
OB  **  reformation/'  which  he  afterwaras  published,  Mr. 
Saltmarsh  published  his  animadversions  upon  it,  in  which  he 
chaiged  faim  widi  several  points  of  popery.  Fuller,  however, 
defended  his  former  arguments,  in  a  piece  under  the  titk  of 
"  Trmh  Mttitained,''  m  which  he  challenged  Saltmarrfi  to 
lefilv;  hat  he  declined  the  contest,  givii^  diis  reason  for 
it,  mat  he  would  not  shoot  his  arrows  agamst  a  dead  ttiark^ 
bong  iafermed  diat  Fuller  ^as  dead.  He  also  engaged  m 
GMrovMy  uMi  the  celebrated  Mr.  Thomas  Oataker)  Mr. 
Jolm  lAfyf  Dr.  John  BAiftwick,  Mr.  Thomas  Edwards,  and 
odMrt.  It  is  uM  that  the  very  titles  of  some  of  hit  pieces 
sBened  to  hirve  some  tincture  of  enthusiasm,  if  not  of  mmf 
m  thttttwf 

Mr.  Edwards,  who  employs  his  presbyterien  bigotry  in  re- 
proachini^  hn  memory,  cives  the  following  account  of  him  :-- 
'^  There  is  one  Mr.  Saltmarsh,  a  man  who  hath  of  late  writ 
iftsny  traAy  pamphlets,  fully  stuffed  with  all  kinds  of  errors, 
ipstmnce,  am  impudence,  and  hath  been  well  answefed  and 
bifHed  by  three  learned  divines.  I  am  still  in  .his  debt  for 
SMie  pasiiages  in  his  **  Groans  for  Liberty,"  and  **  Reasons 
brUmty,  Love  and  Peace,"  against  m^  first  and  second  part 
of  **  Gangnena,"  and  shsll  say  in  this  diird,  I  purpose  to 
iBokott  With  him  once  for  all,  in  another  tractate,  lliis 
Ihiter  Saltmarsh,  the  last  half  year,  hath  much  followed  the 
smy :  a  fh  plaee  for  him.  When  Oxford  was  taken,  he  was 
oae  of  those  famous  preachers  who  preached  at  St.  Mary]s ; 
ssit  •  man  to  eredit  the  parliament  and  the  reformation  with 
tbe  university,  as  his  brodier  Peters.  Master  Saltmarsh  being 
to  preach  iti  the  army  on  a  fast-day  this  summer,  made  a 

Cihte  by  way  of  apology,  that  he  preached  not  for  the  fast: 
would  not  be  understood  as  preaching  upon  that  occasion, 
or  that  hk  seMien  wns  a  fast  sermon." 

•  Wliltlocke*t  Memorial,  p.  68. 

i  Biof .  BritM.  Vol.  Hi.  f .  fiOSS,  S054.    Edit.  1 747. 


78  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

r  

This  writer  also  adds :  ^^  He  hath  been  at  Bdth  this  year^ 
and  there,  in  one  of  the  lesser  churches,  preached,  that,  as 
John  Baptist  ^dre  a  leathern  girdle,  so  his  doctrine  was 
leathern  doctrine.  He  would  have  preached  at  the  great 
c.hurch,  but  the  minister  would  not  give  way  ;  whereupon  he 
came  to  the  minister's  house,  to  contest  with  him  about 
denying  him  his  pulpit ;  to  whom  the  minister  replied,  that 
he  had  heard  of  him  by  Mr.  John  Ley  and  Mr.  Thomas 
£dwards,  and  was  fully  satisfied  concerning  him.  Besides, 
he  said  *  I  have  heard  of  oqe  M^ter  Saitmarsh,  who,  in  the 
time  of  the  former  differences  between  the  king  and  the 
Scots,. viz.  before  this  parliament,  made  verses  to  incense- the 
king  to  war  against  the  Scots,  when  he  went  into  the  north ; 
and  that  when  the  late  oath,  made  by  the  bishops,  came  forth^ 
went  many  miles  to  an  archbishop  to  take  that  oath  upon  his 
knees:'  to  which  Master  Saltmarsh  replied,  he  was  then  in* 
his. darkness;  and  the  minister  of  Bath  rejoined,  he  thought 
I^im  to  be  still  in  the  smoak."* 

We  make  no  comment  upon  the  above  account,  but  .allow 
Mr.  Saltmarsh  to  speak  for  himself.     In  answer  to  Mc«* 
£dwards,  he  says,  **  When  I  called  to  you  the  other  day  in, 
the  street,  and  challenged  you  for  your  unanswerable  crime* 
against  me  in  the  third  pait  of  the  last  '^  Gangraena,''  in  setting 
my  name  against  all  the  heresies  you  reckon,  which  your  owa. 
soul  and  the  world  can  witness  to  be  none  of  mine,  and  your 
own  confession  tome  when  I  challenged  you — how  were  you 
tarqubled  in  spirit  and  language?  Your  sin  was,  as  I  thought, 
upon  you,  scourging  you,  checking  you  as  I  spc^.     1  told 
you  at  parting,  1  hoped  we  should  overcome  you  by  prayer* 
I.  believe  we  shall  pray  you  either  into  repentance,  or.shain9,- 
or  judgment,  ere  we  have  done  with  you  ;  but,  oh!  might  it* 
be  Jrepentance  rather!  till  Master  Edwards  smite  upon.hiai 
thigh,  and  say.  What  have  I  done?  > 

^*  For  your  anagram  upon  my  name,  you  ,do  but  fulfil,  the 
prophecy,  They  shall  cast  out  your  names  as  evil,  for  the  Son 
'  of  man's  sake.     Aildvyoiur  book  of  jeers  and  stories  of  your, 
brethren;,  poor  mahi  it  will  not  long. be  music  in  youreara>. 
at  this  rate  of  sinning.     For  the  nameless  authoc  and  his ; 
after-reckoning,  let  all  such  men  be  doing;  let  them  rail^ 
revile,  blaspheme,  call  heretics.     It  b  enough  to  me,  that* 
they  write  such  vanity  as  they  dare  not  own.    And  now  let 
me  tell  you  bothy  and  ail  such  pensioners  to  the  great  accuser, 
of  the  brethren ;  fill  up  the  measure  of  your  iniqui^^  if  you.* 

m  Edwards's  Gangraeoa,  part  iii.  p.  WZ^  114. 


SALTMARSH.  73 

triO  needs  perish  ^rhether  we  will  or  no.  I  hope  I  rest  in 
Ae  bosom  of  Christ,  with  others  of  my  brethren:  rail, 
persecute,  do  your  worst ;  I  challenge  all  the  powers  of  hell 
that  set  yott  on  work,  while  Christ  is  made  unto  me  wisdom, 
iwhteonsness,  sanctification,  and  redemption.  And  I  must 
m  you  further,  that  since  any  of  the  light  and  glory  of 
CSiiist  dswned  upon  me ;  since  first  I  saw  th^  morning  star 
of  righteousness,  any  of  the  brightness  of  the  glory  in  my 
heart,  that  heart  of  mine  which  once  lived  in  the  coasts  <^ 
Zebalnn  and  Napthali,  in  the  region  and  shadow  of  death,  I 
can  freely  challenge  you,  and  thousands  more  such  as  you,  to 
aay,  write,  do,  work,  print,  or  any  thin^ ;  and  I  hope  I  shall 
in  die  strength  of  Christ,  in  whom  f  am  able  to  do'  all 
things,  give  you  blessings  for  cursing,  and  prayers  for  persecu- 
Uons.''*    ^ 

Mr.  Edwards,  in  answer  to  this,  observes,  "  That  Mr. 
Gataker  had  proved  his  opponent  to  be  a .  shadow  without 
sobstance;  had  taken  off  the  shadows  he  had  cast  on 
onny  truths  of  the  gospel ;  had  shewed  this  new  light, 
with  his  dawmngs  cf  light,  to  be  only  a  shadow  of  cmrk- 
ness  and  death;  and  had  caused  this  great  light  to  go  out  in 
a  smoke  and  snuff.''  He  proceeds  in  his  usual  style  of 
mUleiy^  concluding  diat  the  former  accusations  were  still 
aDaiiswered.t 

The  death  of  Mr.  Saltmarsh  was  very  extraordinary,  and 
is  thus  related.  December  4,  16479  he  was  at  his  own  house 
at  Ilford  in  Essex,  when  he  told  his  wife  that  he  had  received 
9  special  message  from  God,  which  he  must  deliver  to  the 
army.  He  went  to  London  the  same  evening,  and  early  on 
Mmiday  morning,  December  6th,  to  Windsor.  When  he 
came  to  the  council  of  officers,  he  addressed  them  as  follows: 
'^  I  am  come  hither  to  reveal  to  you,"  said  he,  **  what  I  have 
received  from  God.  Though  the  Lord  hath  done  much  for 
you,  and  by  you,  yet  he  hath  of  late  left  you,  and  is  not  in  your 
counsels;  because  you  have  forsaken  him.  God  will  not 
prosper  your  consultations,  but  destroy  you  by  divisions 
among  yourselves.  I  have  formerly  come  to  you  like  a  lamb, 
but  God  hath  now  raised  in  me  the  spirit  of  a  lion;  because 
you  have  sought  to  destroy  the  people  of  God,  who  have 
always  stood  by  you  in  the  greatest  difficulties.  I  advise 
all  the  faithful  to  depart  from  you,  lest  they  be  destroyed  with 
Jim"  He  then  went  to  Sir  ^fhomas  Fairfax,  the  general ; 
and,  without  moving  his  hat,  said,  ^^  I  have  received  a  com- 

•  Sftlfmarsh's  Answer  to  Edwards,  p.  9—1  !•     Edit.  1812. 
f  Edwards'i  Gaograeoa,  part  iii.  p.  293. 


74.  LIVES  OF  THE  PUBITANS. 


Qiftiid  fimn  God  not  to  honoiur  you  at  all.  I  have  hommredl 
you  80  mucb^  that  I  have  offended  God ;  who  hadi  revealed 
'  unto  me  that  be  is  b^hly  dbpleased  widi  your  committingr 
his  saints  to  prison;  and  that  be  will  not  prosper  you,  nor 
can  I  bono«ur  you/'  He  next  went  to  Cromwdl,  to  whom 
be  delivered  the  sam^  message^  declaring  that  the  Lwd  waa 
angry  with  bimi  for  cauaing  diose  persons  to  be  impiisoned 
whom  be  knew  to  be  faithful  in  the  cause  of  God*  A^  after, 
recommending  him  to  take  some  effectual  measures  for  their, 
eidaigementy  be  took  his  leave  of  them  all,  saying,  **  I  have 
done  my  errand,  and  must  leave  you,  never  to  see  the  army 
any  more."  He  went  the  same  night  to  Londoni  and  next 
day  took  his  leave  of  his  friends  in  the  city,  saying,  his  work 
was  done,  and  his  message  delivered,  and  desir»l  them  la 
take  care  of  his  wife*  lliur8day>.  December  Qth,  he  left 
Ixmdon  well  and  cheerful ;  and  die  same  evening  arrived  at 
Ilford.  The  day  following,  he  told  his  wife  that  he  had  now; 
finished  his  work,  and  must  go  to  bis  Father.  In  the  aftemoo% 
be  complained  of  the  head*acbe,  desiring  to  lie  down  upon  hhr 
bed,  when  he  rested  well  through  ike  night.  Saturdivft 
momiiq;,  December  11th,  he  was  taken  speechless,  and  died 
about  four'  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.*  It  appears  (nHm: 
Mr.  Saltmarsh's  writings,  that  he  was  strongly  ti^ed  with  tbe 
piincijAes  of  lantinomianism. 

His  Works.— 1.  Practice  of  Policy  in  a  Christian  Lilb,  1039.-—' 
%  Holy  DiseoTeries  and  Flames,  1640.-^.   Free  Grace;  or,  tbe^ 
Flowings  of  Ckrisf s  Blood  freely  to  Sinners,  ISib."-^^  New  Qnerie,. 
I645W--6.  Shadows  flyins^  away,  1646.— 6.  Dawnings  of  L^rht,  WM^ 
— 7.  Maxims  of  Reformation,  1646. — 8.  Reasons  for  Unity.  Peaea 
and  Love,  1646.— 0.  Groans  for  Liberty,  1646.— 10.  Beams  of  LigBt, 
discovering  the   Way  of  Peace,    1640. — 11.  Some   Queries  fbr 
Hie  better   anderstanding   of  Mr.  Edwards's   last  book,   called 
Gtmyrmnm,    1646.*-^  13.  Parallel  between  Prelacy  apd    Presbytery^ 
1646. — 13.  The  Divine  Right  of  Presbytery  asserted  by  the  present 
Assembly,  and  petitioned  for  accordingly  to  the  H.  of  Gom.  iii 
Pariiament,  with  Reasons  discussing  this  pretended  Dirine  Right, 
1946. — 14.  Sparkles  of  Glonr;  or.  Some  Beams  of  the  Moniinft 
Star,  1647.— U^  Wonderfol  Predictions^  1648.— 16»  The  Assembly's 
Petition  against  his  Exception. — 17.  The  Openiag  of  Mr.  Pr^nne'ia 
Vindication.  -^  18.   Flagellnm   Flagelli,  against  Dr.   Bastwiek. — 
19.  Animadversions    on  Mr.  T.  ruller^s   Sermon. — 20.  Several' 
Sermons* 

•  Wood's  AthensB  Oxoo.  tol.  ii.  p.  199, 10^. 


PALMEIL  n 


Hbrbkbt  Pai-mbb,  B.  Dw^-TUs  nott  picas  Amut 
ibe  SOB  of  Sir  Tbomas  Pslmer,  bora  at  Wingham  mv 
jCanterbiiryy  in  the  year  ISQI,  and  edntatfJ  m  St  John's 
college,  Gunbiidge ;  bat  was  afterwards  chosen  fellow  of 
Qiieeu's  college^  in  the  same  university.  He  was  a  outt 
celebrated  for  genuine  piety ,  and  thought  to  have  beea 
sanctified  from  the  womb.  In  the  year  lG96»  be  entered 
upon  his  first  ministeriai  exerdses  in  the  city  of  Canterbury, 
having  previooAly  obtained  a  license  from  Archbishop  Abbot,^ 
authorizing  him  to  deliver  a  lecture  at  St.  Alphage  church, 
every  Lord's  day  afternoon.  In  diis  situation,  by  his  sound 
doctrine  and  unblemished  deportment,  his  great  usefulness 
was  presently  manifest  to  all.  By  his  aealous  and  jmbcioaa 
efforts,  the  corruptions  so  prevalent  among  the  ecclfriaiitics 
of  the  cathedral,  who  preferred  pompous  ceremonies  above 
the  power  of  godliness,  were  greaUy  interrupted.  Thi% 
indeed,  soon  roused  the  malice  and  enmity  of  the  bigotted 
ecclesiastics.  They  could  not  endure  the  soundness  of  his 
doctrine  and  the  hcJiness  of  his  life,  so  much  opposed  to 
their  dead  fonnality,  and  thw  unri^teous  doings.  Though 
bis  high  birth  and  numerous  friends  screened  him  for  a  time^ 
articl^  were  at  length  exhibited  against  him ;  but  his  replies 
to  those  articles,  it  is  said,  were  such,  that  he  was  honourably 
acquitted.^ 

In  the  year  16£9^  upon  the  comfdaint  of  the  dean  and  arch* 
deacon,  Mr.  Palmer  was  silenced  and  his  lecture  put  dowl^ 
to  the  great  grief  of  his  numerous  audience.  The  chatgea 
brought  against  him  were, — **  That  he  read  prayers  umI 
catechised  against  the  minister's  will,  and  not  according  to 
the  ecclesiastical  canons  :-*tliat  in  the  catechizing,  he  took 
upon  him  to  declare  the  king's  mind  in  his  instructions  >-» 
^t  he  preached  a  factious  sermon  in  the  cathedral,  and 
detracted  from  its  divine  service : — and  that  fectioos  persons 


•  When  Arclibisbop  AbkoCn  BMtWr  was  prepuuM  of  fciai,  the  h  mM  tm 
htiwt  bad  a  dream,  wbwli  prawei  at  oaer  as  aawa  aatf  as  fanianiai  Af  Ms 
fmmn  pronotioo.  She  fancied  fbe  was  loM  ia  bcr  ilm,  ilmif^b^  f^MM 
eatajack,  or  pike,  tbe rbUd ibe  weal  wiib  woaM  pro? #  a «i^  aN4  riar  m 
l^reat  preferaieot,  Vot  Utmg  mfler  tM^  lu  laklaf  a  pail  •/  mm^r  mm  Af  rM 
rtf«r  Wey,  wbicb  raa  by  tbeir  boatr,  tbe aeeWrarty  eaaclM  a  pM't.  **f 
bad (basaa  odd  opportaaitj  of  faUUIb^  htr  dfvaai.  TM«  m^f  #wfM# 
nocb  cooverwtioa,  aad  CMoian;  lo  ibe  fcaowMfe  iT  <>^rfa«i  p^^mm  oT 
dittiBctioo,  tbey  offered  lo  bccooM  jpoainri  f#  rfc<$  fMU$,  w)tk^k  wm 
kindly  accepted,  aad  bad  Ibe  fatdafi  lo  aibwl  mmt  miiinal-n^  4/  %iir 
affection  to  tbeir  pdmm  mMt  m  icboof,  m4  ikin^  M  mtm  '<»  w 
BBi  versify.  Sacb  were  tbc  pmA  t§mM  of  li«  imfh0f$  ikmrn-  Jfa^ 
MvUtm.  vol.  L  p.  S.  -»— ^     ^-p^ 

f  Cterfc't  Lhroi  aaaesed  lo  MaHjiaMpiiy  p. 


I 

76  LIVES  OP  THB  PURITANS. 

from  dl  the  parishes  in  the  city,  were  his  auditors/'*  H#w- 
ever^  by  the  petition  of  many  of  the  citizens  and  gentry^  and 
the  honotoifole  testimony  of  several  ministers,  concerning 
his  orthodox  doctrine  and  unblemished  character,  together 
with  the  testimony  of  ten  knights  and  others,  presented  to 
the  archbishop,  he  was  asain  restored,  and  the  archdeacon 
inhibited  from  his  jurisdiction.-f  It  is  likewise  observed,  that 
all  who  took  an  active  part  in  thb  afiair,  exposed  themselves 
to  the  scorn  and  contempt  of  the  people.^ 

Mr.  Palmer  afterwards  removed  to  the  vicarage  of  Ashwel! 
in  Hertfordshire,  to  which,  on  account  of  liis  amiable  cha^ 
racter,  though  a  puritan,  he  was  presented  by  Bishop  Laud, 
receiving  his  institution  February  7, 1632.  Laud  mentioned 
this 'circumstance  as  an  instance  of  his  impartiality,  in  his 
own  defence,  at  his  trial.^  There  Mr.  Palmer,  as  in  hia 
former  situation,  discovered  his  zealous  care  and  unwearied 
diligence,  in  promoting  the  welfare  of  his  flock.  Though  he 
was  a  man  of  great  learning,  he  never  wished  to  make  it 
appear.  He  sought  not  the  applause  of  men,  or  any  worldly 
emolument,  but  the  approbation  of  God,  the  testimony  of  a 
good  conscience,  and  the  salvation  of  souls. 

During  the  above  year,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  preachert 
I  to  the  university  of  Cambridge,  and  afterwards  one  of  the 
clerks  in  convocation.  In  1643,  he  was  appointed  one  of 
the  assembly  of  divines,  and  afterwards  one  of  the  assessors; 
During  the  assembly,  he  was  highly  distinguished  by  his  ex- 
cellent talents,  his  unwearied  industry,  his  great  useftdaess, 
and  was  seldom  absent.  Upon  his  removal  from  Ashwdl, 
he  Was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Crow,  afterwards  silenced  in  l66d,|t 
and  he  accepted  an  invitation  to  Duke's-place,  London.  . 
But  afterwards,  having  received  a  pressing  invitation,  be 
became  pastor  at  New  Church,  Westminster,  being  succeeded 
at  Duke's-place  by  Mr.  (afterwards  Dr.)  Thomas  Young, 
another  worthy  puritan.  In  each  of  these  situations  he  was 
highly  admired,  and  his  preaching,  expounding,  catechizing, 
and  other  ministerial  labours,  were  abundant.  He  was  alwaya 
abounding  in  the  work  of  the  Lord.  In  1644,  he  was  con- 
stituted maister  of  Queen's  college,  Cambiidge,  by  the,Ear)  of 
Manchester.  He  succeeded  Dr.  Martin,  one  of  Laiid'a  ^sh|ip* 
buns,  and  a  man  of  high  principles.    Under  the  peculiar  care 

.   •  Pry mie*i  Cant.  Doome,  p.  S79,  ST3.— Riish worth*i  Colle^  vol^  ii*  P^  34^ 
.   +  CInrW's  Live«,  p.  187.-— Pr>UDe'8  Cant.  Doome,  p.  373. 

1  Heylin's  Life  of  Land,  p.  201. 

4  Clark's  l^ives,  p.  187.  , 

I  Fklncr't  NoBcoB.  Bicm.  toI.  ii,,p.  309. 


PALMER.  n 

and  e&coQhigeineDt  of  the  new  mastery  the  college  flonriilied^ 
fSfen  to  thegreat  adnuntion  of  all.*  In  1645^  he  was  appointed^ 
by  order  of  parliament^  one  of  the  committee  of  accon- 
inodation*f 

Mr^  Palmer  was  always  firm  to  his  principles.    Though  he 
would  deny  himself  when  only  his  own  interest  was  concerned, 
he  was  constantly  zealous  and  unmoved  in  whatever  con- 
cerned the  honour  of  God  and  the  glory  of  his  kingdom. 
Therefore^  when  he  was  called  to  preach  at. the  Buhop  of 
Lincoln's  visitation,  he  spoke  with  great  freedom  asainst  the 
existing  corruptions  of  the  church,  not  fearing  the  conse* 
quencesy  though  sensible  of  his  great  danger.    When  the 
Book  of  Sports,  bowing  to  the  altar,  reading  part  of  the 
service  in  tli^  chtacel,  and  other  innovations,  were  enjoined, 
he  resolved  to  lose  all,  rather  than  offend  God  by  the  en- 
couragement  of  superstition  and  profoneness.      He  con- 
stantly and  vigorously  opposed  the  superstitious  and  unrigh- 
teous oath  of  canonical  obedience.^    He  was  always  a  most 
consistent  and  conscientious  nonconformist. 
.    This  worthy  divine,  bebg  highly  reputed  for  learning  and 
piety,  was  often  called  to  preach  before  the  parliament,  for 
which  he  has  incurred  the  severe  displeasure  of  certaiq 
historians.    One   of  these  bitter  writers,  with   an  evident 
design  to  reproach  his  memory,  has  transcribed  the  following  - 
passage  from  one  of  Mr.  Palmer's  dedications  addressed  to 
the  Earl  of  Essex,  then  general  to.  the  parliament's  army : 
*^  God  hath  put  you  in  his  own  place :  God  hath  graced 
you  \rith  his  own  name,  Lord  of  Hosts,  general  of  armies. 
.  God  hath  committed  to  your  care  what  is  most  precious  io 
himself,  precious  gospel,  precious  ordinances,  a  precious 
parliament,  a  precious  people.     God  hath  called  forth  your 
excell^ior  as  a  choice  worthy  to  be  a  general,  and  the  €ham« 
pion  of  jfesus  Christ,  to  fight  the  great  and  last  battle  with 
'  antichrist  in  this  your  native  kingdom."^    Another  of  these 
writers  observes,  that,  June  28,  1643,  **  Mr.  Palmer  made 
a  long-winded  tittle-tattle,  stuft  with  rebellion  and  sedition, 
before  the  house  of  commons  {•  at  the  end  of  which  he  foimd 
out  a  pretty  device,  to  have  all  the  cavaliers'  throats  cut ; 
and  all  this  to  be  justified  by  inspiration  of  Almighty  God. 
f  I  kumbh  entreat  you,*  said  he,  ^  to  ask  GoJCs  amhenifinif 
whether  Me  tmll  spare  such  or  such,  or  pardon  them ;  and  if 
he  Will  not,  you  must  not*    Probably  this  politiciao,"  adds 

•  Clark*8  LWet,  p.  167—197. 

f  Piipen  of  Accdamodatioo,  p.  18.  t  Clavk't  th0l^  ^  Nt 

S  L'Btcnoso't  DisieBten*  layiop,  part  ii.  f.  i#. 


80  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

oo'hartnJ'^  *  When  he  desired  them  to  come  formrds,  they 
urged  him  to  make  hi^  escape^  kindly  ofFering  him  all  the 
assistance  in  their  power;  but  this  he  refused^  suspecting 
they  might  have  some  ill  design  upon  him.  Though  they 
assured  him  of  their  ^ood  intentions^  and  gave  him  the  most 
evident  proofs  of  it^  he  still  refused  to  accept  their  offers, 
saying,  ^*  I  will  rather  endure  the  utmost  that  God  will  suffer 
them  to  inflict  upon  me,  than  risk  the  lives  of  those  who 
have  shewed  themselves  friendly."  As  an  evident  token  of 
dieir  esteem,  they  brought  him  out  to  the  fresh  air,  cleaned 
his  room,  and  so  left  him. 

The  next  morning  a  council  was  called,  particular^  with  a 
view  to  determine  what  should  be  done  with  Mr.  Balsom ;. 
and  as  they  were  debating  about  putting  him  to  death,  a 
captain,  being  one  of  the  council,  stood  up,  and  said,  ^^  I 
will  have  no  hand  in  the  blood  of  this  man ;"  and  went  out  oC 
the  room,  and  so  nothing  was  done.  The  prisoner  was  then 
carried  to  Salisbury ;  and  on  the  very  night  of  his  arrival,, 
another  council  was  called,  and  picked  for  the  purpose^ 
by  which  he  was  condemned  to  be  hanged.  Having, 
received  the  sentence  of  death,  the  high  sheriff  waited  upcui 
him  in  prison ;  who,  after  much  ill  language,  told  him  that  he. 
must  prepare  to  suffer  at  six  o'clock  next  moiiiing ;  assuring: 
him,  at  tne  same  time,  that  if  he  would  ask  the  king  pardon, 
and  serve  his  majesty  in  future,  his  life  would  be  spared, 
and  he  might  have  almost  any  preferment  he  pleased.  .  Mr.- 
Balsom,  being  remarkably  courageous,  and  not  in  the  least 
afraid  of  death,  boldly  replied,  ^'  To  ask  pardon  when  I  son- 
not  conscious  of  any  offence,  were  but  the  part  of  ^fool; 
and  to  betray  my  conscience  in  hope  of  preferment,  were  but 
the  part  of  a  knave :  and  if  I  had  neither,  hope  of  heaven,- 
nor  fear  of  hell,  I  M'ould  rather  die  an  honest  man,  thicp  live  a^ 
fool  or  a  knave.''  He  accordingly  rose  next  monung  in  full 
expectation  of  his  doom ;  and  about  six  o'clock^  th^  officers, 
came  to  the  prison  with  a  view  to  carry  him  forth  to  execution. 
As  he  was  preparii^  to  go,  he  heard  a  post  ride  in,  immedi- 
ately asking.  Is  the  prisoner  yet  alive  ?  He  brought  a  reprieve: 
from  Sir  Ralph  Hopton,  when,  instead  of  death,  Mr.  Balsoin, 
was  immediately  carried  to  him  at  Winchester.  As  hcv 
entered  the  city,  Sir  William  Ogle,  governor  of  the  plac^, 
said,  "  I  will  feed  you  with  bread  and  water  two  or  three, 
days,  and  then  hang  yQu."  He  fell,  however,  into  better 
hands.  For  upon  his  appearance  before  Sir  Ralph  Ho{>to|^... 
ajfter  ^ome  familiar  conversation  relative  to  his  espousing  the 


BALSOM.  81 

pftriiament**  cause,  and  the  principles  on  which  he  acted,  he 
was  committed  with  this  charge,  '^  Keep  this  man  safe,  but 
use  him  well/' 

Mr.  Balsom,  after  remaining  in  a  state  of  confinement  for 
some  time,  was  at  length,  by  an  express  order,  next  carried  to 
Oxford,  and  committed  prisoner  to  the  castle.  Here  he  set 
ap  a  public  lecture,  preached  twice  every  day,  and  was  nu- 
meitniBly  atfended,  not  only  by  the  prisoners  and  soldiers,  but 
hy  courtiers  and  townsmen.  After  having  been  once  or  twice 
prohibited,  he  said,  '*  If  you  be  weary  of  me,  I  do  not  wish 
to  trouble  you  any  longer ;  you  may  turn  me  out  of  doors 
when  you  please.  But  while  I  have  a  tongue  to  speak,  and 
people  to  hear,  I  will  not  hold  my  peace."  At  length,  by 
an  exchange  of  prisoners,  he  was  released.  And  having 
oblaihedluB liberty, he  was  sent  for  by  the  Earl  of  Essex; 
when  he  became  chaplain  in  his  army,  and  continued  with 
Um  dujrinff  his  command. 

Iff,  Biusom  afterwards  settled  at  Berwick,  where  he  was 
ifMedly  employed  in  his  beloved  work  of  preaching.  In 
dus  situation  he  had  the  strong  affections  of  the  people,  the 
miles  of  God  upon  his  labours,  and  the  satisfaction  of 
seeing  the  work  of  the  Lord  prosper  in  his  hands.  His 
labours  were  made  extensively  useful ;  but  having  occasion, 
afiter  some  time,  to  visit  his  own  neighbourhood,  he  never 
rettimed.  For,  to  the  great  anguish  of  his  affectionate 
people,  he  was  taken  ill  and  died,  in  the  year  1647** 

This  zealous  and  faithful  servant  of  God,  a  short  time 
before  his  death,  wrote  a  letter  to  a  friend  in  London,  giving 
him  some  account  of  the  transactions  in  the  north ;  and 
because  the  sight  of  it  will  be  gratifying  to  every  inquisitive 
retder,  it  will  be  proper  to  be  inserted.  It  is  dated  May  21, 
1646,  and  is  as  follows  :t 

^  My  dear  friend, 

**  Yours  was  not  a  little  welcome  to  me,  nor  am  I  put 
to  it  to  send  you  a  requital.  The  news  here  is  so  good,  that 
I  can  hardly  hold  my  pen  for  joy.  The  king's  coming  to 
the  Scotch  army  in  all  probability  will  prove  one  of  our 

Etest  mercies  since  the  wars  began.  And  never  did  I 
'  of  any  christians  carrying  themselves  so  boldly  and 
fintfaiiilly  in  reproving  their  prince,  so  humbly  before  their 
•God, -so  innocently  towards  their  brethren,  so  desirously  of 
a  settled  and  well-grounded  peace,  as  the  Scots  now  do« 
Hiey  labour  with  much  earnestness  for  the  king's  conversion ; 

•  Clark*8  LUn  annexed  to  his  Martyrologie,  p.  179—1^2. 
f  Edwards's  G&ngrcna,  part  iii.  p.  7S,  74. 
VOL.  III.  O 


«e  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

UH  him  plainly  of  his  blood-guiltiness ;  have  sent  for  out  of 
Scotland  the  able9t  ministers  to  coaveise  widi  him ;  have 
banished  all  malignants  six  miles  from  his  person  by  proch^ 
matJon ;  refused  to  entertain  him  with  any  token  of  joy ;  and 
told  him  he  was  a  great  sinner  before  God,  and  that  he  must 
give  satisfaction  to  bodi  kingdoms.  The  malignants  droop, 
who  were  gathering  towards  him  out  of  bodi  kingdoms.  T%e 
Frendi  agent,  who  was  active  in  making  a  breach,  is  much 
discountenanced.  The  nobles  and  ministers  profess  dieir 
earnest  longing  after  a  happy  union,  the  settling  the  govern^ 
ment  of  Christ  in  his  church ;  which  beii^  done,  they  will 
presently  return  to  peace.  The  independents  themselves 
•tand  amazed  at  their  wisdom,  resolution,  and  fidelity:  ze^ 
with  humility,  doth  accompany  all  their  actions.  The 
malignant  party,  which  was  much  feared,  is  borne  down; 
The  mouths  that  were  so  wide,  both  of  independents  and 
malignants,  are  sewn  up  :  they  have  not  a  word  to  say.  And 
see  how  the  Lord  blesses  them.  All  their  enemies  in 
Scotland  are  routed  and  brought  to  nothing.  The  Idng 
refuses  to  proclaim  Montrose  and  his  adh^ents  rebels ;  but 
the  King  of  kings  hath  taken  the  quanel  into  his  own  hand; 
and  utterly  dispersed  them.  I  have  not  time  to  write  the 
particulars,  only  to  let  you  know  I  am 

Your  assured  friend, 

R.  Balsom.'' 


Thomas  Edwards,  A.  M. — This  very  singular  person 
was  bom  in  the  year  1 599>  and  edacated  in  Trinity  college, 
Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  degrees  in  arts,  and  was 
incorporated  at  Oxford.  Oiie  of  his  name,  and  apparently 
the  same  person,  is  said  to  have  been  of  Queen's  college^ 
Cambridge,  and  one  of  the  preachers  to  the  university.  For 
a  sermon  which  he  delivered  in  St.  Andrew's  church,  he  was 
committed  to  prison,  February  11,  1627;  where  he  remained 
till  he  entered  into  bonds  for  his  appearance  before  \ii 
ecclesiastical  jucfges.  Upon  his  appearance  at  the  time  atfd 
place  appointed,  he  was  charged  with  having  uttered  in  hi|( 
sermon  the  following  words : — ^*  W  hen,  there  arise  any  double 
about  the  way,  that  thou  knowest  not  well  which  way  to  tlik«^^ 
if  thou  art  a  sei  vant,  thou  must  not  go  to  thy  carnal  mastery 
to  enquire  of  him  :  il  ihou  art  a  ^wife,  thou  must  not  go  t0*^ 
tny  carnal  husband,  to  ask  him  :  if  thou  art  a  son,  thou  tfua^ 
not  go  to  thy  carnal  father :  if  thou  art  a  pupil,  thou  mu3t'iiot 
go  to  thy  carnal  tutor  to  ask  him ;  but  thou  must  find  out  a 


EDWARDS.  83 

man  in  whom  the  Spirit  of  God  dwelleth :  one  ^o  b 
renerced  by  grace^  and  he  shall  direct  thee.**  A  little  after, 
he  said,  ^'^If  all  this  he  not  true,  then  this  book,  clapping  hb 
hand  upon  the  Bible,  is  full  of  falsehoods,  and  God  himself 
is  a  liar,  and  Christ  himself  a  deceiver."  He  also  added,  ''  If 
the.  day  of  judgment  were  now  at  hand ;  if  the  seals  were 
opened;  if  the  tire  were  now  about  my  ears,  ^hich  should 
bum  those  diat  follow  not  this  doctrine,  I  would  testify  and 
teach  this,  and  no  other  doctrine.*' 

Mr.   Edwards,     for    delivering    these    sentiments,    ^as 
repeatedly  convened  before  his  superiors;  and,  March  31, 
1628,  he  was  required  to  make  a  public  revocation  of  hb 
opinions  in  St.  Andrew's  church,  where  he  had  delivered  hb 
sermon ;  and  the  following  instrument  was  aftenvards  drawn 
up,  testifying  his  compliance : — ^*  These  are  to  certiA*,  that 
whereas  Mr.  Edwards,  A.  M.  late  of  Queen's  college  in 
Cambridge,   was  required   to  explain  himself,   concerning 
words  spoken  by  him  in  a  sermon  preached  in  tlie  parish  of 
St.  Andrew's  in  Cambridge,  as  if  he  had  deliorted   from 
consulting   carnal  tutors,  husbands  and  masters.     To  tlib 
purpose  he  did  explain  himself,  in  tlie  said  church  of  St. 
Andrew's,  April  6,  l62d,  being  the  day  appointed,  to  mic, 
*  He  desired  not  to  be  mistaken,  as  if  he  had  preached  against 
obedience  to  superiors,  or  hearkening  to  dieir  advice  and 
counsel,  though  carnal  and  wicked ;  for  such  might  advise 
well :  as  the  pharisees  sitting  in  Moses's  chair,  were  to  be 
obeyed  in  their  sayings;  and  tliat  they  oucht  rather  to  be 
dutiful  to  such  than  others,  that  they  may  wm  them  and  stop 
their  mouths,  1  Peter,  iii.  I.     Only  if  tliey  advise  any  thing 
contrary  to  die  word,  as  to  lie,  swear,  &c.  to  remember  the 
speech  of  the  apostle, '  It  is  better  to  obey  God,  rather  than 
ihen.'     In  witness  whereof,  I,  Ihomas  Goodwin,  then  curate 
of  the  said  church,  being  present,  have  subscribed  mv  name 
as  also  we  whose  names  are  undent  ritten,  being  also  there 
present    Thomas  Goodwin,  Tho.  Ball,  Th.  Marshall."* 

Though  Mr.  Edwards  b  said  to  have  •  been  alwavs  a 
piuritan  in  his  heart,  he  received  orders  according  to  the  form  * 
of  the  established  church ;  and,  on  his  leading  the  universitv 
he  was  hcensed,  in  the  year  1629,  to  preach  at  St.  Rotolph's 
church,  Aldgate,  London-+  About  die  same  time,  he  was 
brought  mto  trouble  for  nonconformity,  and  questioued  or 
suspended  by  Bbhtp  Laud,  for  refusing  to  observe  hi. 
superstitious  mjunctions.|    In  the  year  1 640,  having  deliverrd 

•  Baker'i  MS.  Collrc.  toI.  ▼!.  p.  192.  xti.  898. 
+  lirwcoart*t  Reprrt.  Reel.  fol.  i.  p.  9|6. 
t  Prjime's  Cant.  Dooae,  p.  «78. 


M  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

a  sermon  in  Mercer's  chapel,  which  gave  great  offence  to  the 
ruling  prelates,  letters  missive  were  issued  against  him,  and 
he  was  apprehended  by  the  bbhop's  pursuivants,  and  pro- 
secuted m  the  high  conmiission.  It  will  be  proper  to  give 
an  account  of  his  puritanistu  and  persecution  m  his  own 
words : — "  I  never  had  a  canonical  coat,"  says  he,  "  never 
"  gave  a  penny  to  the  building  of  Paul's,  took  not  the 
**  canonicid  oath,  declined  subscription  for  many  years  before 
*'*die  parliament,  (though  I  practised  the  old  conformity,) 
'^  would  not  give  ne  obolum  quideni  to  the  contributions 
"  a^nst  the  Scots,  but  dissuaded  other  ministers ;  much  less 
**  did  I  yield  to  bow  to  the  altar,  and  at  the  name  of  Jesus, 
^'  or  administer  the  Lord's  supper  at  a  table  turned  altarwise, 
"  or  bring  the  people  up  to  rails,  or  read  the  Book  of  Sports, 
*^  or«  highly  flatter  the  archbishop  in  an  epistle  dedicator]^  to 
**  him,  or  put  articles  into  the  high  commission  court  i^ainst 
**  any,  but  was  myself  put  into  the  high  commission  cpurt^ 
''  and  pursuivants,  with  letters  missive  and  an  attachment^ 
*^  sent  out  to  apprehend  me  for  preaching  a  sermon  at 
Mercer's  chapel^  on  a  fast-day,  in  July,  1640,  against  the 
bishops  and  their  faction ;  such  a  free  sermon  as,  I  believe, 
^'  never  a  sectary  in  Eugland  durst  have  preached  in  such  a 
**  place,  and  at  such  a  time."*  This  Mr.  Edwards  has  to 
say  of  himself;  though  it  is  generally  supposed  that  he 
never  had  any  stated  charge,  but  officiated  as  lecturer  at 
various  places,  particularly  at  Hertford,  and  at  Christ's-church, 
London,  one  of  his  name  in  1643,  but  whether  the  same 
person  we  cannot  ascertain,  was  vicar  of  Heinton  in  Hert- 
fordshire.t 

When  the  parliament  declared  against  King  Charles  I.,  he 
became  a  zealous  advocate  for  the  changes  in  the  civil  and 
ecclesiastical  constitution,  and  supported  vnth  all  his  influence 
the  ruling  party.  He  was  a  most  rigid  presbyterian,  and,  n^itb 
uncommon  zeal,  defended  and  supported  that  dbcipline  and 
government.  This  he  declares  in  the  dedication  of  one  of 
his  books,  to  the  lords  and  commons  assembled  in  parliament, 
as  follows :  ^'  ^1  my  actions,"  says  he,  **  from  die  beginning 
**  of  your  sitting,  my  sermons,  prayers,  praises,  discourses, 
'^  actings  for  you,  speak  this.  I  am  one  who  out  of  choice 
''and  judgment  have  eii[ibarked  mvself,  with  wife,  children^ 
''  estate,  and  all  that's  near  to  me,  m  the  same  ship  with  yoUk 
''  to  sink  and  perish,  or  to  come  safe  to  land  with  you,  ana 
''  that  in  the  most  doubtful  and  difficult  times,  not  only  early 
''  in  the  first  beginning  of  the  war  and  troubles,  in  a  mafig;« 

«  £dwards*8  Gangraena,  part  i.  p.  75, 76.    Second  £dit. 
t  Vfood'i  Athenie  Oxod.  yoI.  ii.  p.  728. 


EDWARDS.  85 


U 

u 
u 
i< 
a 

it 

u 


it 

U 
€t 


nant  place  among  courtiers  and  those  who  were  servants 
and  had  relations  to  the  king,  queen,  and  their  children, 
pleading  your  cause,  justifying,  satisfying  many  dut 
scrupled ;  but  when  your  affairs  were  at  the  lowest,  and  the 
chance  of  war  against  you,  and  some  of  the  grandees  and 
favourites  of  these  times  were  packine  up  and  ready  to  be 
gone,  I  was  then  highest  and  most  zealous  for  you,  preach- 
ing, praying,  stimng  up  the  people  to  stand  for  you,  by 
going  out  in  person,  lending  of  money,  in  the  latter  going 
**  before  them  by  example  ;  and  as  I  have  been  your  honour's 
**  most  devoted  servant,  so  I  am  still  yours,  and  you  cannot 
'*  easily  lose  me."* 

When  the  independents  began  to  gain  some  ascendency, 
Mr.  Edwards  became  equally  furious  against  them  as  he  had 
been  against  the  prelacy.     He  wrote  and  preached  against 
them  with  great  severity,  and  opposed  the  sectaries  with  great 
virulence.     This  appears  from  several  of  his  publications ; 
but  we  shall  give  the  account  in  his  own  words :—«-''  Many 
"  years  ago,"  says  he,  "  when  I  was  persecuted  by  some 
prelates  and  their  creatures,  in  no  possibility  nor  capacity  by 
my  principles  and   practices  of  preferment,  I  preached 
against,  and  upon  all  occasions  declared  myself  against,  the 
''  Brownists,  separatists,  antiqomians,  and  sdl  errors  in  that 
''  way,  as  well  as  against  popish  innovations  and  Arminian 
**  tenets.     I  have  preached  at  London  and  at  Hertford  against 
^  those  errors.     About  ten  years  ago,  when  independency 
^*  and  the  chuich  way  be^an  to  be  fallen  to  by  men  of  some 
**  note,  and  some  people  took  after  it,  I  preached  against  it 
**  early,  apd  by  all  ways  laboured  to  preserve  the  people." 
He  adds,  ^*  I  never  yet  sought  an^  great  things  for  myself, 
**  great  livings,  or  coming  into  public  places  of  honour  and 
**  respect^  to  be  of  the  assembly,  or  to  preach  in  any  public 
''  places  before  the  magistrates,  either  at  Westminster  or 
**  JUondon,  but  hav^  contented  myself  with  small  means,  and 
**  to  preach  in  private  places  in  comparison,  having  refused 
<'  many  great  livings  and  places,  preaching  here  in  London  for 
**  a  little^  and  that  but  badly  paid,  (as  many  well  know,)  mind* 
**  ing  the  work  and  service,  litde  die  maintenance.'*! 

Most  of  Mr.  Edwards's  productions  are  controversial ;  th^ 
language  and  sentiments  of  which  are  bitter  and.  violent  ii^ 
the  highest  degree.  He  distinguished  himself  by  alt  the  zeal 
and  bigotry  of  a  fiery  zealot.     His  bitterness  and  enmity 

*  GaDfrsena,  part  }..p.  8.  f  Ibid,  part  Hi.  p.  14,15. 


86  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

against  toleration-  rose  almost  to  madness  ;  and  had  he  beeji 
possessed  of  power^  he  would  undoubtedly  have  proved  a^ 
furious  a  persecutor  of  all  nonconformists  to  presbyterianism, 
a^  the  prelates  had  been  of  those  who  ventured  to  dissent 
hojn  the  established  episcopal  church.  Many  of  his  severe 
and  unworthy  reflections  upon  some  of  the  most  worthy 
persons,  as  collected  from  his  "  Gangrajna"  and  "  Antapo- 
logia/'  are  noticed  in  the  various  parts  of  this  work.  The 
pacific  Mr.  Jeremiah  Burroughs  says,  *'  I  doubt  whether 
there  ever  was  a  man,  who  was  looked  upon  as  a  man  pro- 
fessing godliness,  that  ever  manifested  so  much  boldness  and 
malice  against  others,  whom  he  acknowledged  to  be  reli- 
gious persons.  That  fieiy  rage,  that  implacable,  irrational 
violence  of  his,  against  godly  persons,  makes  me  stand  and 
wonder."* 

His  indignant  temper  and  language  against  toleration  is 
without  a  parallel.  It  will  be  proper  to  give  a  specimen  in 
his  own  words,  for  the  gratification  of  the  inquisitive  reader. 
^'  If  ministers,'*  says  he,  "  will  witness  for  truth,  and  against 
errors,  they  must  set  themselves  against  toleration,  as  die 
principal  inlet  to  all  error  and  heresy;  for  if  toleration  foe 
i[ranted,  all  preaching  will  not  keep  them  out.  If  a  toleration 
be  granted,  the  devil  will  be  too  hard  for  us,  though  we  preach 
^ver  so  much  against  them.  A  toleration  will  undo  all.  1% 
will  bring  in  scepticism  in  doctrine,  and  looseness  of  life^ 
and  afterwards  all  atheism.  O !  let  ministers,  therefore^ 
oppose  toleration,  as  that  by  which  the  devil  would  at  once 
lay  a  foundation  for  his  kingdom  to  all  generations ;  witness 
tgainst  it  in  all  places ;  possess  the  magistrate  with  the  evil  of 
it ;  yea,  and  the  people  too,  shewing  them  how,  if  a  toleration 
yjvere  granted,  they  would  never  have  peace  any  more  in  dieir 
families,  or  ever  have  any  command  of  wives,  children, 
servants ;  but  they  and  their  posterity  are  likely  to  live  in.  dis- 
conftent  and  unquietness  of  mind  all  their  days.  Toleration 
is  destructive  to  the  glory  of  God  and  the  salvation  of  souls; 
therefore,  whoever  should  be  for  a  toleration,  ministers  ought 
to  be  against  it.  If  the  parliament  city,  yea,  and  all  the 
people,  were  for  a  toleration  of  aU  sects,  as  anabaptists, 
antinomians,  seekers,  Brownists,  and  independents ;  yet 
ministers  ought  to  present  their  reasons  against  it,  preach  a^ 
cry  out  of  me  evil  of  it,  never  consent  to  it ;  but  protest, 
against  it^  and  withstand  it  by  all  lawfi^  ways  and  meana 

«  BarroQgbs's  Yindicatioo,  p.  2.    £dit.  1646. 


EDWARDS.  87 


within  their  power,  yentttring  the  Iom  of  liberties,  ettitm, 
lives,  and  all  in  that  cause,  and  inflame  us  with  zeal  against 
a  toleration,  die  great  Diana  of  the  sectaries.* 

**  A  toleration,"  adds  this  bigotted  and  furious  zealot,  ^  is 
the  grand  design  of  the  devil;  his  master-piece  and  chief 
engine  he  works  by  to  uphold  his  tottering  kingdom*  It  is 
^e  most  compendious,  ready,  and  sure  way  to  destroy  all 
religion,  lay  all  waste,  and  bring  in  all  evil.  It  is  a  most 
transcendent,  catholic,  and  fundamental  evil,  of  any  that  can 
be  imi^ined.  As  original  sin  is  the  fundamental  sin,  having 
in  it  the  seed  and  spawn  of  all  sin :  so  a  toleration  hath  in  it 
all  errors  and  all  evils.  It  is  against  the  whole  stream  and 
current  of  scripture  both  in  the  Old  and  New  Testament, 
both  in  matters  of  faith  and  manners,  both  general  and  par- 
ticular commands.  It  overthrows  all  relations,  political, 
ecclesiastical,  and  economical.  Other  evils,  whether  errors 
of  Judgment  or  practice,  are  only  against  some  few  places  of 
scnpture  or  relation;  but  this  is  against  all.  This  is  the 
j^baddon,  ApoUion,  the  destroyer  of  all  religion,  the  abomina- 
tion of  desolation  and  astonishment,  the  liberty  of  perdition ; 
therefore  the  devil  follows  it  night  and  day,  and  all  the  devils 
in  hell,  and  their  instruments,  are  at  work  to  promote  a 
tolewtion/'t . 

These  extracts,  expressed  in  the  author's  own  language,  are 

^*ustly  descriptive  of  his  arbitrary  and  outrageous  temper. 
3ut  the  presbyterian  interest  beginning  soon  after  to  decfine, 
and  Oliver  Cromwell  having  overturned  the  power  of  the  pai^ 
liament,  Mr.  Edwards,  to  escape  the  expected  resentment  of 
the  independents,  fled  to  Holland,  where  he  died  of  a  auartan 
ague,  in  l647y  aged  forty-eight  years.  By  his  wife,  who  was 
heiress  of  a  considerable  fortune,  he  left  one  daughter  and 
four  sons,  the  second  of  whom  was  Dr.  John  Edvirards, 
author  of  Veritas  Redux,  and  many  other  learned  works 
upon  theological  subjects.} 

His  Works. — 1.  Reasons  against  the  Independent  Government  of 
particalar  Congregations,  1641.-2.  A  Treatise  of  the  Civil  Power  of 
jSoclesiasticals,  and  of  Suspension  from  the  Lord^i  Supper,  1642. — 
9;  Antapologia;  or,  afUil  Answer  to  tlie  *  Apoiog^tical  Narration*  ot 
Mr.  gliomas)  Goodwin,  Mr.  Nye,  Mr.  Sympson,  Mr.  Burroug^hs,  and 
Mr.  Bridge,  Members  of  the  Assembly  of  Divines,  1644. — I.  Gan- 
g|^na;  or,  a  Catalogue  and  DiscoTcr}'  of  man v  of  the  Errors,  Here- 
sills,  Blfu^bemies,  and  pemicions  Practices  of  the  Sectaries  of  this 

s 

•  Edwards's  Gaofratoa,  part  i.  p.  85, 86.    Third  edit. 

"f  ibid.  p.  58,  69. 

}  Bios.  BriUn.  loh  y.  p.  543.    Edit.  IT78. 


.88  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

I 

Time,  vented  and  acted  in  England  in  these  four  last  years,  iii  Parb, 
1646.— 6.  The  particular  Visibility  of  the  Church,  1647.— 6.  TK« 
Casting  down  of  the  last  and  strongest  Hold  of  Satan ;  or,  a  Treatise 
against  Toleration,  Part  first,  1647. 


John  White,  A.  M. — ^This  excellent  divine  was  bom  tt 
Stanton  St.  John  in  Oxfordshire,  in  the  year  1576,  and 
educated  first  at  Winchester,  then  in  N  ew  College,  Oxford, 
where  he  was  chosen  fellow.  In  the  year  1606,  he  left  Ae 
university,  and  became  rector  of  Trinity  church,  Dorchester, 
where  he  •  continued,  with  little  interruption,  above  forty 
years.  He  was  a  Judicious  expositor  of  scripture;  and, 
during  his  public  ministry  at  Dorchester,  he  expounded  tfie 
whole  Bible,  and  went  through  one  half  a  second  time.* 

About  the  year  1624,  Mr.  White,  with  some  of  his  friends, 
projected  the  new  colony  of  Massachusetts  in  New  England, 
as  an  asylum  for  the  persecuted  nonconformists;  but,  for 
several  years,  the  object  met  with  numerous  discouragements. 
Indeed,  the  difficulties  became  so  foimidable,  that  the  under* 
taking  was  about  to  be  relinquished,  and  those  who  had 
settled  in  the  new  plantation  were  on  the  point  of  returning 
home.  At  this  juncture  the  worthy  settlers,  who  had  already 
outbraved  many  a  storm,  and  surmounted  the  greatest  diffi*- 
culties,  received  letters  from  Mr.  White,  assuring  them,  that 
if  they  could  endure  their  painful  conflict  a  little  longer,  he 
would  procure  for  them  a  patent,  and  all  the  necessaiy 
supplies  for  the  new  settlement.  They  concluded  to  wait 
the  event ;  and  in  all  these  particulars  he  made  his  promise 
good.  Thus,  by  the  blessing  of  God  upon  his  active  and 
vigorous  endeavours,  the  colonists  were  enabled  to  maintain . 
their  ground ;  and  they  afterwards  greatly  prospered.^  *  Thb 
was  the  first  peopling  of  Massachusett's  Bay  in  New 
England. 

About  the  year  1630,  Mr.  White  was  brought  into  trouble' 
by  Bishop  Laud,  and  prosecuted  in  the  high  commission 
court,  for  preaching  against  Arminianism  aiid  the  popish  cere- 
monies.it  Wood  is  therefore  mistaken  when  he  says  ''  that 
he  conformed  as  w^ll  after  as  before  the  advancement  of 
Laud.''  Though  it  does  not  appear  how  long  his  trouUes 
continued,  or  what  sentence  was  inflicted  upon  him ;  yet ' 
these  proceedings  against  a  divine  of  such  distinguished^ 

♦  Wood's  Athena;  Oxod,  toI.  ii.  p.  60. 

+  Mather'sNew  Eng.  b.  i.p.  19.->Priiice*iCbilfD. Hist.  vol.  i.p.|44-*149. 

{  Prynne'9  Caot.  Doome,  p.  S62. 


WHITE.  89 

-fexcdlence^  and  one  so  universally  beloved,  were  sure  to 
Vring  the  greatest  odium  upon  his  persecutors.  Mr.  White 
was  afterwards  a  great  sufferer  from  the  public  confusions  of 
the  nation.  His  excellencies  could  not  screen  him  from  the 
destructive  ravages  of  the  civil  wars.  Prince  Rupert  and  his 
forces  b^ng  in  those  parts,  a  party  of  horse  was  sent  into  the 
town,  when  the  soldiers  plundered  his  house,  and  earned 
away  his  library.  But,  upon  the  approach  of  these  calami- 
ties, the  good  man  fled  from  the  storm;  and,  retiring  to 
LoodoQ,  was  made  minister  of  the  Savoy.* 

In  the  year  1640,  Mr.  White  was  appointed  one  of  the 
learned  divines  to  assist  the  committee  of  religion,  consisting 
of  ten  €iii8,  ten  bishops,  and  ten  barons.t  In  1643,  he  was 
chosen  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  and  cons^ntly 
attended.  He  was  deservedly  admired  on  account  of  his 
great  zeal,  activity,  learning,  moderation,  and  usefulness, 
daring  the  uriiole  session.  Upon  the  meeting  of  both  houses 
of  parliament,  the  assembly  of  divines,  and  the  Scots  com- 
noners,  in  Margaret's  church,  Westminster,  to  take  the  cove- 
tent,  he  engaged  in  the  public  prayer ;  and,  to  prepare  their 
minds  for  so  sacred  an  engagement,  as  our  author  observes,  he 
prayed  a  yii//  hour.t  In  1645,  upon  the  revival  of  the  com- 
mittee of  accommodation,  he  was  chosen  one  of  its  members.^ 
And  about  the  same  time  he  was  appointed  to  succeed  Dr. 
Featley  in  the  sequestered  rectory  of  Lambeth ;  and,  accord- 
ing to  our  historian,  he  was  appointed  to  have  the  care  and 
use  of  die  doctor's  library,  until  the  doctor  should  be  able  to 
procure  his,  which  had  been  carried  away  by  Prince  Rupert's 
soldiers.!  In  1647^  Mr.  W^hite  was  offered  the  wardenship 
of  New  College,  Oxford,  but  refused  the  ofKce. 

When  the  public  broils  of  the  nation  were  concluded,  he 
returned  to  his  flock  and  his  ministry  at  Dorchester ;  where 
he  continued  in  peace  the  remainder  of  his  days.  He  died 
suddenly,  July  21,  1648,  aged  seventy-two  years.  His 
remains  were  interred  in  the  porch  of  St.  Peter's  churchy 
Dorchester,  but  without  any  monumental  inscription.!     He 

was  a  most  faithful  pastor;  and  a  divine  of  sound  doctrine^ 

« 

*  Wood*s  Atheoae  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  61. 

i  This  coramiUee  was  appointed  by  the  bouse  of  lords,  and  desig^ned  to 
•lamine  all  innoTatinns,  as  weU  in  doctrine  as  discipline,  illegally  intro- 
4«ced  into  the  church  since  the  reformation.  It  was  extremely  ofS^nsife 
to  the  intolerant  spirit  of  Archbishop  Laud. — Wharton*t  ^oubUa  of 
Lni^  Tol.  i.  p.  174,  175. 

1  Whitlocke'8  Mem.  p.  70. 

S  Papers  of  Accommodatioo,  p.  IS. 

I  Wood's  Athene  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  01> 

I  Wood's  Hilt.  &  Antiq.  1.  ii.  p.  149. 


9»  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

90  admirable  judgment,  and  a  most  powerful  genius,  being 
na  less  eminent  for  piety,  £aith,  and  diligence.  Also,  ha  was 
a  .person  of  unconunon  gravity,  and  so  universally  beloved 
and  respected,  that  he  was  usually  called  the  patriarch  of 
Dorchester,  The  puritans  at  a  distance,  as  well  as  those 
about  him,  according  to  Wood,  '*  had  more  respect  for  him 
tban  even  for  their  diocesan;  yet  he  was  a  most  moderate 
piuitan.'^*  **  He  was  a  constant  preacher,"  says  Fuller, 
*t  and,  by  his  vidsdom  and .  ministerial  labours,  Dorchester 
was  much  enriched  with  knowledge,  piety,  and  industry ."t 
Mr.  John  White,  the  ejected  nonconformist,  was  his  son.t 

His  Works.— 1.  The  Way  to  the  Tree  of  Life,  1647.— 2.  A  Coi»- 
mentary  upon  the  Three  first  Chapters  of  Genesis,  1656. — 3.  Direc- 
tions for  Reading  the  Scriptures. — i.  Of  the  Sabbath.' — 5.  Seyeral 
Sermons. — ^Most  probably  he  vas  author  of  some  other  articles. 


Peteb  Smart,  A.  M . — This  great  sufferer  in  the  cause 
Df  nonconformity  was  bom  in  Warwickshire,  in  the  year 
1569;  dnd  educated  first  at  Westminister  school,  then  at 
Broadgate's-hall,  Oxford,  and  afterwards  elected  student  of 
Christ's  Church,  in  the  same  university.  After  taidne  his 
degrees  he  entered  into  the  ministry,  when  Dr.  Wuliam 
James,  dean,  and  afterwards  bishop,  of  Durham,  presented 
him  first  to  the  grammar-school  at  Durham,  then  made  him 
one  of  his  chaplains ;  and,  in  1609^  presented  him  to  the  sixth 
prebend  in  the  cathedral  of  Durham,  and  the  rectory  of 
Boldovers.$  In  the*  year  1614  he  vi^as  removed  from  the 
sixth  to  the  fourth  prebend ;  but  his  patron,  the  bishop,  dying 
in  ^bout  three  years,  he  received  no  further  advancement. 

The  first  business  of  a  public  nature  in  which  Mr,  Smart 
appears  to  have  been  engaged,  was  his  appointment  to  the 
high  Commission  for  the  province  of  York.  He  was  nomi- 
nated one  of  the  commissioners  in  the  year  1625;  and  though 
at  their  second  assembly  he  qualified  according  to  law,  he 
seldom  honoured  the  court  witli  his  attendance,  and  sub-> 
scribed  only  to  one  sentence.  Upon  the  renewal  of  the 
commission  in  1627>  he  again  qualified,  but  seldom  attended.} 

.  *  Wood's  Athene  Oxon.  toI.  M.  p-  60, 61. 
•  f  Faller'8  Wortbies,  fiart  ii.  p.  340. 
^  Palmer's  Noncon.  Mem.  vol.  ii   p.  145. 

^  GraDger  says  be  was  minister  at  Bowden,  by  which  is  pnMUy 
intended  the  same  place. — Biog.  Hist,-  vol.  ii.  p.  160. 

y  Wood's  Athene  Oxon.  vol.  114  p,  11.— Ulustiatioa  of  29cal  itf  tlM 
article  of  Peter  Smart,  p.  8, 3. 


SMART.  91 

This  vftis  about  tea  months  previous  to  the  commcncancfit 
of  his  troubles,  occasioned  by  a  sermon  which  he  preached 
in  the  cathedral  at  Durham.    In  this  sermon,  delivered  July 
9,7,  1628,  he  spoke  widi  considerable  freedom  against  the 
superstitions  and  popish  innovations,  which  Dr.  Cpsins  and 
others  had  introduced  into  that  church.*     His  text  was,  / 
hate  all  those  that  love  superstitious  vanities^  but  thy  law  do 
I  love.    For  the  satisfaction  of  the  reader,  we  shall  insert 
some  of  the  most  exceptionable  and  offensive  parts  of  this 
sermon.   He  said,  ^  The  whore  of  Babylon's  bastardly  brood, 
doating  upoti  their  mother's  beauty,  that  painted  harlot,  the 
church  of  Kome,  has  laboured  to  restore  her  all  her  robes 
and  jewels  again,  especially  her  looking-glass,  the  mass,  in 
which  she  may  behold  all  her  bravery.     For  they,  despising 
all  the  plain  simplicity  of  that  srave  matron,  Christ  s  holj 
spouse,  have  turned  her  offices  an  out  of  doors,  with  all  her 
bousehold-stuii^  her  tables,  her  books,  her  cups,  her  com- 
munions, the  very  names  of  her  ministers :  instead  whereof, 
the  words  priest  and  altar  are  taken  up  by  them;  because 
without  a  priest  no  sacrifice  can  be  offered ;  without  priest 
afid  sacrifice  there  is  no  use  of  an  altar ;  and  without  all  these 
there  can  be  no  mass.     But  the  ntass  coming  in,  brings  in 
with  it  an  inundation  of  ceremonies,  crosses,  crucifixes^ 
chalices,  images,  copes,  candlesticks,  tapers,  basons,  and  a 
thousand  sucn  trinkets  which  attend  upon  the  mass. 

'^  Before  we  had  ministers,  as  the  scripture  calls  them,  we 
had  communion  tables,  we  had  sacraments;  but  now  we  have 
priests,  we  have  sacrifices  and  altars,  with  much  altar-furni- 
ture, and  many  massing  implements.  Nay,  what  want  we  ? 
Have  we  not  all  religion  agam  i  For  if  religion  consists  in 
altar-ducking,  cope-wearmg,  organ-playing,  piping,  and  sing- 
ing, crossing  of  cushions,  kissing  of  clouts,  oft  starting  up 

*  AoaccoantortbcseioDOfatioot  it  still  oo  record.  Dr.  Cosin  rcMovtd 
the  commonioo  table  in  the  church  of  Darbam,  aod  erected  it  aliar-«k# 
expend iDf  two  kuudred  pooods  in  beaatifviog  it.— He  ifed  there  to  officiate* 
turning  bis  back  to  the  people.~He  used  extraordinary  boaiaa  to  it  -lu 
compelled  oUien  to  do  Uie  same,  oiinf  ?iolence  on  Ummc  who  refii«i>d  ..if! 
abolished  Uie  singing  of  Psalms  in  tl£  chufck.~-nr!M^  n^uT^X^ 
wax  candks  to  be  set  up  and  lighted  in  the  church,  on  CandlemLSl!^ 
nigbt,  in  honour  of  our  Lady.-He  caused  diven  inLm,  most  iloSi.h! 
painted,  to  be  erected  in  Uie  church.-He  used  Iki^rmpi^kill!^^ 

all  good  order  and,  intend  of  a  relbnaation,  made  it  aTSmSl!^^ 
He  caused  two  thouiand  pounds  to  be  exaendMl  in  t^tilm^irr^^*  — 
other  supentitloos  inno^tlons.  He  ^SS^i^  ^72^121^2? 
saeruneotal  bread  to  beconwcnOed,  kS^e^Jt  «  a!nlll2^^  **• 
«»r  ?f^^".  with  a  golde.  beard,  U?a  W J^  ci' 1 'i'JIf  ^'^T  •^ 
-oriVs  CsOec.  toI.  ..  p.  W^l0.^iami»!!iZ  7^^  ST^*^ 


92  LIVES  OP  THE  PURITANS. 

and  squatting  down,  nodding  of  heads,  and  whirling  about  till 
their  noses  stand  eastward ;  in  candlesticks,  crucifixes,  burn- 
ing of  wax-candles,  and  (what  is  worst  of  all)  gilding  of 
angels,  garnishing  of  images,  and  setting  them  up:  if,  I  say, 
religion  consists  m  these,  and  such  like  superstitious  vanities, 
cerenionial  fooleries,  apish  toys,  and  popish  trinkets,  v^e  had 
never  more  religion  than  now.  They  are  whores  and  whore- 
mongers, they  commit  spiritual  fornication,  who  bow  their 
bodies  before  the  idol."*  These  were  the  most  exceptionable 
passages  in  Mr.  Smart^s.  sermon,  even  his  enemies  being 
judges. 

.  The  very  day  on  which  he  preached  this  invective  and 
seditious  sermon,  as  it  is  called,  against  tlie  decent  and  allowed 
ceremonies  of  the  church  of  England,  a  letter  missive  was 
issued  to  apprehend  him,  and  bring  him  before  the  dean  and 
other  commissioners.  Upon  his  appearance  he  delivered  up 
his  sermon  to  be  copied,  declaring  that  he  would  justify  every 
particular  therein  contained.  After  he  had  entered  into  a 
bond  of  one  hundred  pounds  for  his  future  appearance  he  was 
dismissed.  From  the  time  of  his  first  appearance  to  January 
$9th  following,  he  appeared  no  less  than  eight  different  times 
before  his  ecclesiastical  judges.  In  the  mean  time,  articles 
were  exhU)ited  against  him,  to  which  he  gave  hid  writteii 
answers.  At  length,  however,  he  was  sent  to  the  high  com- 
mission at  Lambeth.  Fuller  says,  that  for  preaching  the 
above  sermon,  '^  Mr.  Smart  was  kept  a  prisoner  four  months, 
by  the  high  commision  of  York,  before  any  articles  were 
exhibited<against  him,  and  five  months  before  any  proctor  wasr 
allowed  him.  *  From  the  high  commission  of  York  he  was 
carried  to*  the  high  commission  at  Lambeth,  and,  after  long 
trouble,  jemanded  back  to  York,  fined  Jive  hundred  pounds, 
ordered  to  recant,  and,  fOr  neglecting  which,  he  was  fined  a 
second  time,  excommunicated,  degraded,  deprived,  and  com- 
mitted to  prison,  his  damage  amounting  to  many  thousand 
pounds."t  It  is  inquired  by  what  Ij^w  Mr.  Smart  was  treated 
thus,  for  preaching  against  setting  up  images,  altars,-  placing 
them  at  the  east  end  of  the  church,  and  bowing  to  diem, 
directly  contraiy  to  the  Bpok  of  Coiniuon  Prayer,  and  the 
homily  against  idolatry,  confirmed  by  act  of  parlia^ient?^  He 
' remained  in  prison  eleven  or  twelve  years,  till  he  was  released, 
by  the  long  parliament.    The  puritans  had  so  much  esteem  * 

«  Grey's  Ezamlnatioii  of  Neal,  ▼ol.  i.  p.  118, 1 19.— lllojitration  vf  Net!,, 
p.  181. 

t  vFoUer's  Church  Hi#t«  b.  zi.  p.  178.^IUustnitioD  of  Neal,  p.  5,  72« 
;(  HuiiUey'i  Prelates*  UsarpatioDs,  p.  160. 


SMART.  SS 

•ndcQiiipMskHi  for  him,  diat  durii^  his  imprisonmenty  thej 
nkei  him  j£4O0  a  year.*  Bishop  Laud,  it  should  be  observed^ 
in§  the  leading  person  in  all  the  cruelties  inflicted  upon 
lir.Soiart.f 

November  12,  1640,  the  humble  petiuon  of  Mr.  Peter 
Smart,  prisoner  in  the  KingVbench,  complaining  of  the  hard 
mge  he  had  met  with,  was  read  in  the  house  of  commonsi, 
irim  it  was  referred  to  the  c6mmittee  appointed  to  consider 
Ae  petition  of  Dr.  Leighton  and  others.  The  house  further 
onjoedy  ^  That  Mr.  Smart,  in  all  his  particulars,  shall  have 
Ae  same  liberty  as  that  granted  to  Dr.  Leighton,  and  shall 
have  copies  of  the  records  in  the  king's-bench  and  the  high 
commiswon  gratis.'^ 

Ou  Jmimiy  12th  following,  an  order  passed  the  house, 
''ThatDr.Easdale,  Roger  Blanchard,  and  Phineas  Hodson, 
D.  D«.  shall  shew  cause  to  this  house  why  they  do  not  pay  the 
monies  «dj|iM]ged  to  be  paid  to  Mr.  Peter  Smart,  upon  a 
jnd^^nient  m  the  king's-bench,  against    the    said   Easdale, 

•  GtWDger's  Biog.  Hiif.  ▼ol.  ii.  p.  170.  ^. 

f  Pryftoe*!  Cut.  Doome,  p.  78, 93;  498. — Doring  Mr.  Soiart's  confine* 
MH 11  prisoDy  he  receWed  a  letter  from  Mrs.  Smart,  dated  Witten«<3illMurC, 
April C,  1632.:'Tliis  letter,  ^rhich  is  said  to  be  *'  larded  with  cant,  and  to  be 
•  fpediaen  of  female  casuistical  puritanism,"  was  as  follows: — 


"  Most  loving  and  dearly  beloved  bnsbaod, 

**  The  grace  and  blessing  of  God  be  with  yon,  eren  as  nnto  mine 
**  owne  sonle  and  body,  so  do  I  dayly  in  my  harty  prayer  wish  unto  yon 
'*aad  my  children;  for  I  doe  dayly  twise,  at  the  least,  in  this  sort 
"  rcaember  yon.  And  I  do  not  doable,  deere  husband,  but  that  both  yon 
** and  1,  as  we  be  written  in  the  booke  of  life,  so  we  shall  together  enjoy 
"  the  aime  CTerlastingly,  f  hrought  the  saveing  grace  and  mercy  of  God, 
**  Mr  deare  Father,  in  his  Soonne  oor  Christ :  and  for  this  present  life,  let 
**«  wholly  appointe  ourselves  to  the  will  of  our  God,  to  glorifie  him, 
** whether  by  life  or  by  death;  and  even  that  mercifull  Lord  make  at 
**  worthy  to  honor  him  either  way,  as  pleaseth  him.  Amen.  Ye  what  great 
"  fiase  of  r^oysing  have  we  in  our  most  gratious  God,  we  can  not  bnc 
**  briit  fonrth  into  the  prasiog  of  such  a  bountiful!  God,  which  niaide  .yon 
**  worthy  to  salTcr  for  bis  name  and  worde  saike :  for  it  is  given  to  yon  of 
**  God,  not  only  that  ye  should  believe  in  him ;  but  also,  that  ye  shonid 
"  saler  for  his  saik,  1  Peter,  4,  5.  Yf  ye  suffer  rebuke  in  the  name  of 
**  Christ,  that  Is,  in  Christ's  canse,  for  bis  truths  sake,  then  ar  ye  happy 
**  and  hlesied ;  for  the  glory  of  the  spirit  of  God  resteth  upon  von>  and 
•** therefore  rejoice  in  the  Lord, and  againe  I  say  rejoice;  for  the  distressed 
'^chnrch  doth  yet  suffer  dayly  thinges  for  her  mortification,  and  for  thin 
**  ennse,  ii  contemned  and  despised.  But  alas!  if  thy  servant  David,  if 
"  Ihiae  oaely  Soonne  our  Saviour  Christ  livede  in  shame  and  contempt,  and 
**weere  a  noklng  stocke  for  the  people;  wbie  should  not  we  then 
**  patiently  snff'er  all  things,  that  we  might  enter  into  glory,  through  many 
**  Ironblet,  Tezationi,  shame,  and  ignominy,  &c. — Tfa&.J[ile8sinf  of  God  be 
*'  with  aU,  Amen,  pray,  pray. — ^Your  loving  and  faithfnll  wife  until! 
"  death, 

^'  SvsAsnrA  Skast.' 

JlnKrvfiMi  0flf$al,  f,  61^70. 


*• 


fl4  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS- 

Blanchardy  and  Hodson,  at  the  suit  of  the  said  Peter  Smait 
about  ten  years  since." 

On  January  22ndy  Mr.  Rouse  presented  the  report  of  the 
conunittee  concerning  Mr.  Snvurt  to  the  house  of  commonf , 
upon  which  the  house  resolved : 

1.  **  That  the  several  proceedings  of  the  high  commission 
court  of  York  and  Canterbury,  against  Mr.  Smart,  and  thfe 
several  fines  by  them  imposed  upon  him,  are  illegal  and 
unjust,  and  ousht  not  to  bind. 

2.  **  That  the  degradation  of  Mr.  Smart,  and  his  depriva- 
tion from  his  prebend,  and  other  ecclesiastical  livings,  are 
unjust  and  illegal ;  and  that  he  ought  to  be  restored  to  all  of 
them,,  together  with  the  mean  profits. 

3.  **  ITiat  Dr.  Cosins  and  others,  the  prosecutors  of  Mr. 
Smart,  ought  to  make  him  satisfaction  for  his  damages 
sustained. 

4.  **  That  Dr.  Cosins  (a  chief  actor  in  Mr.  Smut's  prose- 
cution) is  guilty  of  bringing  superstitious  innovations  into  the 
church,  tending  to  idolatry ;  and  of  speaking  scandalous  and 
malicious  words  against  his  majesty's  supremacy  and  the 
religion  established. 

5.  *'  That  Dr.  Cosins  is,  in  the  opinion  of  this  house,  unfit 
and  unworthy  to  be  a  governor  in  either  of  the  universities,  of 
to  continue  any  longer  head  or  governor  of  any  college,  or'to 
bold  and  enjoy  any  ecclesiastical  promotions."* 

The  house  then  referred  it  to  the  committee,  to  prepare 
snch  things  as  might  be  thought  fit  to  be  transmitted  to  the 
house  of  lords  concerning  Dr.  Cosins ;  and  also  to  consider 
of  the  most  proper  way  of  making  Mr.  Smart  reparations  for 
the  damages  he  had  sustained.  When  Mr.  Rouse  delivered 
the  charge  against  Dr.  Cosins,  at  the  bar  of  the  house  of  lords^ 
be  said,  among  other  things,  '^  That  by  the  arms  of  the  priests 
Mr.  Smart  had  been  oppressed  and  ruined.  He  fell  tipo^ 
their  superstitions  and  innovations,  and  they  fell  upon  him 
with  their  arms ;  they  beat  him  down ;  yea,  they  pulled  him 
up  by  the  roots,  taking  away  all  the  means  of  his  support ; 
jet  leaving  him  life  to  feel  his  miseries.  There  is  no  cruelty 
uke  priestly  cruelty;  and  this  cruelty  cast  him  into  lon^ 
continued  misery,  whence  he  could  obtain  no  release  by  tag 
priestly  mercy.  And  now  it  is  prayed,  that  as  these  aeUn" 
quents,  by '  their  cruel  oppressions  of  Mr.  Smarts  have 
ifdvanced  the  cause  of  popery,  so  they  may  in  a  suitably 
degree  be  punished;  that  in  tiieni  priestly  cruelty,  and  (chs 

« 

•  Rasliwortb'i  Collec.  vol.  v.  p.  41, 136>  168.— NoIwd'i  CoUec  veL  1. 
M3S,7S4,  f      .  ^   f      . 


8SIART.  ^5 

voy  cause  of  popeiy^  may  appear  to  be  punished  and  sup- 
pimed;  and  Mr.  Smart,  suffering  for  the  cause  of  protestancy, 
may  be  so  repaired,  that  in  him  pious  constancy,  and  the 
ouise  of  protestancy,  may  appear  to  be  righted  and  repaired."* 
Mr.  Rouse,  in  a  speech  before  the  house  of  commons, 
March  16,  1640,  denominated  Mr.  Smart  ^  the  proto- 
auulyr;''  and  he  was  usually  called,  ^  the  protonuutyr  in 
diese  latter  days  of  persecution."t 

Mr«  Smart,,  therefore,  received  some  reparations  for 
damages,  but  whether  adequate  to  his  losses  and  sufferings, 
IB  extremely  doubtfid.  His  case  was  several  times  before 
the  lorda,  who  passed  various  orders  in  favour  of  his  repa- 
ratioiBs.^  By  an  order  which  they  passed  in  1642,  he  waft 
rettorad  to  his  prebend  in  Durhaili,  and  presented  to  the 
vicarage  of  Acliff  in  that  county  .$  In  1644  he  was  witness 
agtfost  Archbishop  Laud  at  his  trial,  and  was  living  October 
31,  1648,  beii^  then  seventy-nine  years  of  a^*||  Mr.  Smart 
vas  a  tolerable  poet,  a  pious  and  judicious  mmister,  a  reverend 
and  grave  divine,  and  a  zealous  enemy  to  superstition  ;f  but 
Us  enemies  say,  that  he  was  of  a  most  forward,  fierce,  and 
ungovernable  spirit;  and  that  he  was  justly  imprisoned  and 
doly  rewarded  for  his  excessive  obstinacy  .*•  This,  however, 
11  the  first  time  we  have  heard  that  excessive  obstinacy  was 
iMbf  rewarded  thus.  It  is  said,  '^  he  had  not  preached  m  the 
cathedral  church  at  Durham,  though  a  prebendary  of  it,  for 
•even  years,  till  he  preached  that  seditious  sermon  for  which 
he  was  questioned.  And  while  he  held  and  enjoyed  his  pre- 
ferment, and  his  health  too,  he  seldom  preached  more  than 
ooce  or  twice  a  year.'^  Tltis  account  comes  from  one  of  his 
prosecutors,  being  his  bitter  enemy;  and  appears  extremely 
tuajMciou!).  For  if  Mr.  Smart  had  been  so  indolent  and 
Qattentive  to  his  ministerial  function  as  here  represented,  how 
vai  it  that  he  gained  so  high  a  reputation  among  his  brethren  f 
The  puritans,  it  is  well  known,  invariably  abhorred  the  con- 
iud  of  idle,  worldly  shepherds,  over  the  flock  of  Christ.f  f 

IGs  Works. — 1.  The  Vanity  and  Downfal  of  Superstition  and 
I^>pith  Ceremonies,  in  two  sermons,  in  the  cathedral  church  of 
Imiam,  preached  in  July  1628,  printed  1628.— 2.  A  brief  but  true 

*  Rashwortb's  CoIIec.  yoI.  v.  p.  211. 
*  f  Greer's  Ezamioattoo,  toI.  \,  p.  1 19.— Wood*8  Atbenas  Ozon.  yoI.  Ii.p.  18« 
1  niastratioD  of  Neal,  p.  137—142. 

S  Nal8on*9  CoUec.  toI.  it.  p.  406.— Neal's  Puritani,  vol.  ii.  p.  909« 
I  lUostratioD  of  Neal,  p.  161. 

f  Prynne's  Cant^  Doome,  p.  93. — Wood's  Athena  Ozoa.  fol.  ii.  p.  If. 
**  IHnitration  of  Neal,  p.  5,  162. 
^f  Bio^raphia  Britaa.  ^ol.  Iv.  p.  283.    Edit.  1778.  ^ 


96  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

historical  Narrative  of  some  notorious  Acts  and  Speeches  of  Mr. 
John  Cozens,  and  some  other  of  his  Companions,  contracted  into 
Articles. — 3.  Various  Poems  in  Latin  and  Eoglish.— 4.  Yarioua 
Letters. 


RiCHABD  Blackerby. — This  eminently  holy  and  learned 
divine  was  bom  at  Worlington  in  Suffolk,  in  the  year  1574^ 
and  educated  in  Trinity  college,  Cambridge,  vfhere  be  coni' 
tinned  nine  Tears,  and  made  amazing  attauiments  in  useful 
literatnre.  Here  he  sat  under  the  ministry  of  the  famous 
Mr.  Perkins,  by  means  of  whose  preaching  he  was  effectually 
converted  to  God.  For  several  years  he  laboured  under  the 
most  painful  awakenings  of  conscience,  approaching  almost 
to  melancholy.  While  he  was  groaning  under  these  cdnvic^ 
tions,  his  father,  who  was  unconscious  of  the  cause  of  his 
dejection,  called  him  home,  hoping  that  a  change  of  air 
might  remove  his  complaint ;  but  his  father  was  not  afware  of 
.his  disease,  and  the  remedy  proved  ineffectual.  AfterwiiffdSi 
he  found  peace  with  God,  and  enjoyed  comfort  in  his  lywii 
JM>ui,  through  faith  in  Jesus  Christ,  which  he  never  lost  to  his 
dying  day.  Upon  his  leaving  the  university,  he  became 
domestic  chaplain  first  to  Sir  Thomas  Jermin  of  Kushbrobk 
in  Suffolk,  then  to  Sir  Edward  Lukenor*  of  Denhaih  in  the 
same  county.  Here  he  continued  till  he  married  the  daughter 
of  Mr.  Timothy  Oldman,  minister  of  Denham,  whose  father 
was  greatly  persecuted,  and  at  length  forced  to  abscond,  in 
the  days  of  Queen  Mary.  Mr.  Blackerby,  after  remairiiAg 
two  years  with  bis  father-in-law,  was  called  to  preadi  at 
Felt  well  in  Norfolk.  In  this  situation  he  continued  some 
time,  but,  on  account  of  his  nonconformity,  was  at  last  obliged' 
to  remove  to  Ashdon  in  Essex,  where  he  'abode  twenty-dl^ee 
years,  and  was  employed  in  the  education  of  youth.  Sorihe 
of  his  scholars  became  men  of  considerable  eminence.  Dr.' 
Bernard,  whom  he  recommended  to  Archbishop  Usher,  an4 
who  afterwards  became  that  learned  prelate's  chaplain  and 
wrote  his  life,  was  one  of  them.  Although  Mr.  Kackerby, 
on  account  of  his  nonconformity,  could  not,  with  a  good 
conscience,  accept  of  any  ecclesiastical  preferment,  or  under^ 
take  any  pastoral  charge,  within  the  pale  of  the^natipnal 
church,/  y^t  he  constancy  preached  at  one  place  or  anotii^, 
as  he  found  opportunity.     During  the  last  ten  years  of.  the 

*  Sir  Edward  was  member  in  seyeral  parliaments,  and  a  person  of  'coa- 
fiderable  eminence.  He  was  a  gentleman  of  great  piety,  an  able  patriei^« 
a  zealons  promoter  of  a  further  reformation,  and  a  great  friend  to  the 
fersecoted  ooncoafolrmiats.^ilf^.  Chronology,  tel,  ii«  p.  593.  (S.) 


•hOfe  l^mod,  be  preached  regularly  at   Hennio^m   in 
Eifi^  iir  StoJ^f,  or  jH^ikw  ip  Suffbk^^ 

Mr.  Blackerby  was  a  nian  of  a  most  holy  and  f^zempkuf 
dmnctpr,  as  wiU  ai>pear  from  tbe  account  siven  of  Uin  by 
Mr,  Q9fk.  f*  During  his  loug  life/'  says  this  audior,  ^*  bt 
fteyer  AO^nned  to  lose  one  moment  of  time  in  idleness.  As  a  * 
WfB  mmo^  he  speut  «U  his  leisure  hours  in  providing  fiv 
iniB|oit9lity-  He  ix>se  early,  bodi  winter  and  summer,  and 
fffi9t  tbe  whole  d9y  in  reading,  meditation,  prayer,  and  the 
MitnictiQD  .of  others.  He  was  remari^aUy  punctual  and  coo- 
f^tSB^QW  HI  Ihe  observance  of  family  religion.  He  instructed 
^  pMllilf  /daily  in  true  christian  piety  and  useful  learning, 
tad  ^ICsltod  b^ore  Ihem  continually  in  vnsdom,  love,  ami 
tf^  tftftfas*  Young  students,  upon  their  leaving  the 
JmfttSfkfp  put  themselves  under  his  tuition,  to  be  further  pre- 
pmifyr  ttie  pidbiic  ministry ;  to  whom  he  taught  Hebrew, 
Pfm^  tfl$  .Sdiptures,  read  divini^,  and  gave  excellent  in* 
Mncligw  .rdatisise  to  learning,  doctrine,  and  future  life.^ 

In  )ua  Auhlic  ministry,  when  he  was  suspended  in  out 

^^  lie  m(A  to  another.  By  this  means,  thou^  he  lived  ip 
^PH^f  Jhe  was  seldom  kept  silent  for  any  considerable 
||QMd*  His  method  in  preaching  consisted  chiefly  in  ope&- 
fng  ii^  meaniiig  of  scripture,  and  in  making  appropriate 
I^MflrvaliQQs,  fol£>wed  widi  a  close  application.  He  studied 
^i^d  to  understand  the  scriptures,  had  great  skiU  in  die 
4Mi|^nfdy  and  lived  much  in  holy  converse  vrith  God.  Hit 
{wenching  was  accompanied  with  so  abundant  an  out-pour- 
ttg  i>f  .the  Spirit,  that  he  had  reason  to  believe  God  made  him 
die  spiritual  Seither  of  above  two  thousand  persons.  Indeed, 
tlie  word  of  God  fiEdling  from  his  lips,  soon  became  tha 
savoyir  of  life  unto  life  to  those  who  heard  it,  or  they  became 
emaged  against  it.  And  though  persons  of  sesired  con- 
IQQiices  sometimes  became  violendy  outrageous  against  his 
freadling,  the  signal  judgments  of  God  commonly  found 
duffi  out.  At  Hundon  he  met  with  considerable  oppoaitioB 
ftmn  many  of  the  principal  persons  in  the  place,  who  united 
tiigf^her  and  procured  his  suspension,  but  who  were  afiter*- 
ivanii  .blasted  in  dieir  estates,  some  brought  to  beggary,  and 
all,  excepting  one,  died  miserable  deaths.  The  sabbath 
filter  hit  spspension,  one  of  them  boasting  in  the  church- 
jvdy  that  now  they  bad  got  Blackerby  out  of  the  pulpit ;  a 
.WMWrn  atai^iw  by,  and  hearing  him,  replied,  ''  Blackerl^ 
%ill  pceach  in  Hundon  pulpit,  when  you  are  crying  m  helL ' 

•  Clark*!  Livat,  taut  to),  part  i.  p.  67,  M. 
▼OL.  III.  M, 


W  LIVES  or  THE  P0RITANS. 

And  tlie  wj  sabbadi  after  this  man  was^lmriedi  itr. 
Bicckarby  obtained  bis  liberty,  and  preached  on  that  dqr  m 
Hvndon  pulpit. 

Mr.  Blackerby  was  eminently  distinguished  ibr  personal 
feli^n  and  triie  holiness.  To  promote  this,  vras  indeed  Us 
chief  business.  Though  he  was  not  without  his  infirmities; 
yety  to  all  impartial  judses,  he  was  free  from  the  allowance  of 
any  iniquity.  His  whole  deportment  was  as  if  God,  his  holy 
law,  and  the  day  of  judgment,  were  constantly  before  hu 
eyes.  He  was  always  deeply  impressed  with  the  majesty  and 
holiness  of  God,  and  maintained  a  constant  watchfulness 
over  his  heart  and  life.  He  practised  mortification  and  sdtf- 
denial,  and  was  justly  reputed  **  one  of  the  holiest  men  livina.'' 
.Nevertheless,  he  was  deeply  humbled  under  a  sense  of  nis 
-manifold  infirmities^  and  imperfections.  This  he  often  di^ 
covered  to  a  grand-child  of  his,  whom  he  used  to  address  ai 
follows :  ^'  Oh,  thou  little  thinkest  what  a  vile  heart  I  hate^ 
and  how  I  am  pli^ed  with  proud  thoughts.  Child,  if  dioH 
hast  any  acquaintance  with  God,  pray  for  me,  that  God  woaU 
purify  this  blthy  heart.  Oh !  if  God  did  not  enable  me,  iA 
some  measure,  to  keep  a  watch  over  it,  I  should  act  to  the 
shame  of  my  fece."  While  he  brought  these  bitter  accusal  ^ 
tions  against  himself,  he  exercised  the  greatest  candow 
towards  oAers,  even  diose  who  difiered  from  him  in  matlerii 
of  subscription  and  church  discipline.  He  used  to  obserft^ 
with  the  nunous  Mr.  Perkins,  '^  That  when  a  man^ia  ooee 
acquainted  with  his  own  heart,  he  will  be  apt  to  think  eveiy 
one  better  than  himself:  and  an  appearance  of  the  love  c^ 
God  in  any,  will  make  him  put  the  best  construction  on  aD 
Aeir  words  and  actions.''  Yet  no  hope  of  preferment,  nor 
any  painful  suffering,  would  prevail  upon  him  to  act  contrary 
Id  die  convictions  of  his  own  mind.  Though  he  could  not^ 
with  a  safe  conscience,  conform  to  the  church  of  England, 
with  the  view  of  obtaining  a  living,  or  to  secure  himself  Atttn 
the  iron  hand  of  persecution ;  yet,  in  those  things  wherein  it 
appeared  to  be  his  duty  to  conform,  no  man  was  more  exact 
than  hamself •  Like  many  other  nonconformists,  he  had  no) 
ofa}ection  to  die  use  of  some  parts  of  the  Book  of  Commonj 
Prayer.  •  .    -^ 

He  was  a  wise,  afiectionate,  and  faithful  friend,  and  never 
aufieied  sin  to  pass  unreproved.  In  the  discharge  of 'this 
most  difficult  duty,  he  majiifested  sO  much  love,  serioutaesir, 
and  sweetness  of  spirit,  that  while  he  touched  the  consd^aoei 
of  those  whom  he  reproved,  they  still  loved  him.  ^*  His 
reproofs,"  as  one  observes,  '<  were  dipt  in  oil;  driven  into  the 


BLACKERBY.  99 

iMtrl^  and  received  with  alt  acceptation,  because  of  the  over* 
pmuagldoidness  with  which  they  were  attended."  When  he 
ma.  in  comfumy  with  persons  of  wealUi,  and  heard  them 
iWMTy  or  use  profiEuie  language^  he  would  withdraw  from 
dw  comi^uiy  with  a  sad  countenance;  and  would  address 
diem  in  private,  with  so  much  affection  and  seriousness,  that 
tfa^  wdud  frequendy  thank  him.  On  one  of  these  occa- 
iooBp  a  gentleman  said  to  him,  i*  Had  you  reproved  me  at 
tahk  I  would  have  stabbed  you,  but  now  I  thank  you." 
^  He  was  a  strict  and  zealous  observer  of  the  sabbath.  As 
iwqparatoiy  to  the  holy  observance  of  this  day,  he  constantly 
pffeadied  m  his  own  house  on  the  Saturday  afternoon.  He 
rose  earlier  on  the  sabbath  than  on  other  days ;  and  prayed 
six  tiioei  with  his  family  every  sabbath,  besides  expounding 
the  acriptima.  He  was  particularly  zealous  in  recommending 
to  othttn  dlie  holy  observance  of  this  day.  Being  once 
iBvited  to  preach  at  Linton  in  Cambridgesliire,  where  a  foir 
was  annually-kept  on  the  Lord's  day,  he  so  convinced  the 
idhabitants  of  the  sinfulness  of  the  practice,  that,  it  is  said^ 
diey  would  hold  the  fair  no  more  on  that  day.  He  was  of  a 
aaoit  tender  and  contrite  spirit;  and  enjoyed  so  much  the 
pretence  and  blessing  of  God  in  holy  duties,  that  he  often 
said  at  die  conclusion,  he  would  not  for  many  worlds  have 
misted  the  opportunity.  This  holy  man  was  crucified  to  the 
world,  and  the  world  was  crucified  to  him.  He  lived  above 
die  world,  having  his  affections  set  on  better  things.  His 
passionate  fondness  for  the  things  of  this  world  was  so  fieir 
subdued,  that,  though  he  had  a  most  tender  affection  for  his 
relations  and  friends,  the  loss  of  them  did  not  discompose  his 
mind,  nor  interrupt  his  conununion  with  God.  When  his 
ddett  daughter,  whom  he  dearly  loved,  was  taken  away  by 
death,  he  preached  her  funeral  sermon  with  the  utmost  com- 
posure, and  said,  he  believed  she  feared  God  from  three 
years  pld.  He  preached  as  a  man  who  had  not  lost  his  God, 
though  he  had  lost  his  dearest  child.  The  love  of  the 
creature  could  never  draw  his  heart  from  the  Creator.  He 
enjoyed  the  abundant  manifestations  of  God's  love.  His 
holy  and  heavenly  dcportmept  was  accompanied  with  a 
settted  peace  of  conscience,  and  a  full  assurance  of  eternal 
1^.  lie  often  declared  before  his  death,  that  for  more  than 
tartv  years  he  never  had  a  single  doubt  of  his  sdvation. 

When  the  persecuting  prelates  were  laid  aside,  and  Mr. 
iNackerby  could  take  the  pastoral  charge  without  subscrip- 
tion and  observing  the  ceremonies,  he  was  chosen  pastor  of 
Great  Thuijfow  in  Suffolk,  wh^re  he  continued  the  rest  of  bis 


i0D  LIVES  OP  THE  PORITAN& 

6aj9.  ,Widi  gmit  zeil  md  ftidifiiliiefft,  he  hfcamrf  to  M«^ 
mote  die  glory  of  God  and  the  good  of  souk  to  the  «e|y  m/L 
He  wa^  taken  Ul  m  the  pulpit,  was  carried  hoBie>  and  oMk 
tinaed  in  a  weak  state  about  sis  weeks,  but  kfept  his  bed  ttif 
two  days.  He  died  in  die  year  1648,  seed  seytntj-fcuT 
jears.  Mr.  Blackerby  was  ^  an  eiedlent  ung^dit,  ilkd  ae^ 
counted  the  best  Hebiean  in  Cambridce.'^  Uriagei'  atf^ 
^  he  was  perfecdy  skflled  in  the  learned  languages.'^  At  hik 
death,  he  expressed  his  strong  hopes,  dial  in  the  day  of  jtM%- 
ment  tfa«e  would  be  many  hundreds  of  his  posteii^  siGmfaig 
at  die  right  hand  of  Christ.  And  it  is  said,  that  dMite  %ho 
knew  ius  children  believed  they  were  all  heirs  of  isfeiMl  fift : 
diere  were  fiiv^urable  hopes  of  all  his'  gimiidcliilA[en,  inany 
of  whom  were  eminent  persons;  and  inany  off  Inm  K'^ea'^ 
grandchildren  were  truly  pious  christians.^  The  ckeakil 
Mr.  Samuel  Faircioug^,  who  was  ejected'  in  IdGSy  MMM 
one  of  his  daughters.)  It  is  said,  that  on  nzetvitk  tf  ikii 
heavenly  maiesty  and  holiness  ^hidl  always  attended  Ifav 
Blackerby,  me  excellent  Mr.  Daniel  Rogers  of  WedtetaMd 
ttsed  to  say,  he  coidd  never  come  into  Ms  presentee  witfiWil 
trembfii^.| 

Thomas  Temple,  D.  D.— This  karmid  dhtM  ^M* 
brother  to  Sir  John  Temple,  ma^er  of  die  rolls,  and  one  kS. 
his  majesty's  privy  councfl  in  Ircliand.  He  was  feHo^  %f 
Trimty  coflege,  Dublin,  and  afterwards  resided  for  sonlie  ^§Hm 
in  Lincoln  coAege,  Oxford.  He  was  beneficed  first  at  ^%p*' 
wick  in  Nordiamptonshire,  then  at  Battersea  tn  Sm^.  4te 
diis  last  place  he  "was  labouring  in  the  year  16S9,  havii^  HEfK 
Samuel  W^s  for  Ins  assistomt.!  Upon  die  comrnenccBKJBt 
of  die  civil  war,  he  espoused  the  cause  of  die  pariianHM; 
and,  in  1643,  was  appointed  one  <^  the  licensers  of  ifaa 
press,  and  nominated  one  of  die  assembly  of  divines,  and  ha 
coostandy  attended  durii^  the  session.  He  was  one  of  Ae 
committee  for  the  examination  and  oit&nation  oi  raif^tera.^ 
In  1645,  lie  was  chosen  one  of  the  committee  of  accomnao* 
d^don.tt  In  each  of  these  public  offices  he  discovered  gifSal 
leaiinug  and  moderation.    In  the  year  1648,  he  united  wMi 

•  Clark's  Lifet,  p.  58— 6S. 

4  Granger's  Biog.  Hist.  vol.  ii.  p.  I9S.  'J  CUrk*s  Lifftf  p»#4» 

JPHlmerls  Noncon.  Mem.  iol.  iii.  p.  2T9. 
Clark^s  LWes,  p.  65. 
f  dOaay^s  Accoont,  vol.  it  p.  407, 540. 

•  •  Neat's  Paritaas,  vol.  iii.  p.  46, 5S,  89. 

f  f  ftpen  of  AccomnodaUoD,  p.  1$,  •    .  _ 


TE1IPLE--J.  WILKINSON.  10| 

^  rati  of  ^  London  mhuBtera  in  tfieir  protestation  ftgainft 
liw  king's  deaths*  Wood  denominates  him  ''  a  forward 
fnkdberJ'i  He  frequently  preached  before  the  pariiament, 
lid  several  of  his  sermons  were  afterwards  published^  Ofie  of 
tttdi  19  entitled^  **  Chrisf  s  Government  in  and  over  his 
9taple,  delivered  before  the  honourable  House  of  Commons 
al  dieir  Fast,  October  26, 1642,  on  Psalm  ii.  6./'  164S.  But 
Hrheo  he  died  we  have  Hot  been  able  to  learn. 


#o«if  Wilkinson,  D.D. — ^This  venerable  divine  was 
tern  m  dw  parish  of  Halifax  in  Yorkshire,  and  educated  in 
die  uidveiiity  of  Oxford,  where  he  was  hi^y  celebrated  for 
leamiiy^  He  became  fellow  of  Magdalen  collie,  was 
fitfor  to  Prince  Henry,  and  afterwards  made  principal  of 
lfq;0sdeiih&all,  in  the  same  university.  By  his  recommenda- 
tilN^  4m  weU-biown  Mr.  Thomas  Hobbes  of  Malmesbuiy, 
^m  taken  into  die  family  of  Lord  Hardwicke,  soon  after 
CMted  Eari  of  Devonshire,  in  the  quality  of  tutor  to  his 
iea  WSliam  Lord  Qivendish.$  Upon  die  commencement  of 
die  civil  wars,  he  espoused  the  cause  of  the  parliament;  and 
Oxford  being  garrisoned  by  the  royal  forces,  he  fled  to  the 
parlifunent's  quarters,  when  he  was  succeeded  in  the  above 
o<Bce  by  Dr.  Thomas  Read.  But  m  the  year  1646,  Dr. 
Wilkinson  was  restored ;  and  by  an  ordinance  of  partiamen^ 
dated  May  1,  1647,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  visitors  of 
die  university  of  Oxford.    In  May,   1648,  he  was  made 

Eetideut  of  Magdalen  college,  in  the  place  of  Dr.  01iver.| 
•e  did  not,  however,  live  long  to  occupy  diis  public  office ; 
far  lie  died  January  2,  1649,  and  his  remains  were  interred 
in  the  church  of  Great  Milton  in  Oxfordshire.  Though  h^ 
WIS  a  man  of  great  learning  and  piety,i  Dr.  Walker  is  pleased 
to  say,  upon  the  slender  authority  of  a  scurrilous  and  abusive 
btter  written  against  the  puritans,  ^'  That  he  was  known  not 
to  have  preadied  above  once  in  forty  years ;  that  he  had  out> 
lived  die  little  learning  he  once  possessed ;  and  was  become 
Ae  very  sport  of  boys."**  How  far  this  account,  from  so 
base  an  authority,  and  evidently  designed  to  reproacli  hit 
Bemory,  is  worthy  of  credit,  we  will  not  attempt  to  determine; 

.•  Gdamy't.CttDtin.  ¥•!.  ii.  p.  74S. 

<^  Wood's  Athene  Ozon.  toI.  i.  p.  895. 

i  VTatson*!  Hiit.  of  Halifax,  p.  626. 

(  Biog.  Britan.  vol.  iv.  p.  2599.     Edit.  1747. 

I  VTalker's  Attempt,  part  i.  p.  120, 1S4. 

1  Neal's  Puritana,  ▼ol.  iii.  p.  4S1. 

••  Walker*!  Attempt,  part  i.  |U  127. 


lot  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

bat  certain  it  is,  that  the  parliament,  to  -whom  he -was  wdt 
known,  and  by  whom  he  was  so  highly  esteemed,  formed  m 
very  diiSerent  opinion  of  him. 

Fuller  observes,  "  that  Dr.  Lawrence  Hmnphrey,  die 
famous  old  puritan,  having  bequeathed  to  Magdalen  collq^ 
a  considerable  sum  qf  gold  left  in  a  chest,  and  not  to  be 
opened  except  in  some  case  of  great  emergency ;  Dr.  Wil« 
kinson,  while  he  was  president,  took  this  gold,  and  shared  it 
betwixt  himself  and  the  fellows  of  the  college.  Though  one 
must  charitably  believe,''  he  adds,  "  that  the  matter  was  not 
so  bad  as  is  reported,  yet  the  most  favourable  account  gave  a 
general  distaste.'**  Dr.  Heylin  says,  "  the  sum.  amounted  toi 
upwards  of  twelve  hundred  double  pistoles,  value  sixteen 
shillings  and  six-pence  each ;  and  that  die  old  doctor  had  one 
hundred  for  his  share  of  the  spoil,  and  the  fellows  thirty  each.* 
But  he  observes,  that,  according  to  tcadition,  the  money  waa 
left  by  the  founder  of  the  college,  and  not  by  Dr.  HumphrqU 
Wood  says,  '^  the  sum  ai^ounted  to  no  less  than  fourUm 
hundred  pounds ;  and  Dr.  Henry  Wilkinson,  the  vice-preii* 
dent  of  the  college,  not  John  Wilkinson,  was  the  chief 
divider  of  the  spoil.^ 


John  Geree,  A.  M.-.-He  was  bom  m  Yorkshire,  in  die 
year  1600,  and  educated  in  Magdalen  college,  Oxford.  Hk 
first  ministerial  labours  were  at  Tewkesbury  in  Gloucesterahine* 
But,  says  Wood,  he  was  schismatically  inclined,  and  e 
nonconformist  to  certain  ceremonies  of  the  church  of 
JEngland,  for  which  he  was  silenced  by  Bishop  Goodnm ; 
yet  he  was  so  universally  beloved,  that,  after  he  had  re- 
ceived his  lordship's  censure,  he  was  supported  by  hie 
brethren.  Under  this  censure  he  remained  a  considerable 
time;  but  in  the  year  1641,  he  was  restored  to  his  cure  by 
the  conmiitte^  of  religion.  In  1645,  he  became  miniatar  ot 
St.  Alban^s  in  Hertfordshire ;  and,  having  laboured  fliero 
about  four  years,  was  made  preacher  at  St.  Faith's  undo*  St* 
Paul's,  London.  He  was  a  diorough  puritan,  and  at  all  thfee 
places  waa  much  followed  by  those  of  his  own  persuaaiott^ 
He  wrote  with  considerable  abili^  against  the  baptisti,  wae 
op|>osed  to  the  war  betwixt  the  king  and  parliameiity  and 
against  taking  away  the  life  of  the  king.  He  died  ill  the 
month  of  February,  1649>  ag^  fprty-nipe  yeaips,  Hia  deaths 


•  FoUer'f  Cborcb  Hist.  b.  Ix.  p.  284, 

-f  HeyUn's  Ezamen.  Histor.  p.  268. 

t  Wood*!  AtheacB  Ozon.  toI.  u.  p.  749*  \  Ibid*  p.  ei.. 


J.  6EREE-SHEPARD.  Ua 

it  is  said,  was  occasioned  by  his  eitremie  frief  for  Oi^  fi^sust  v^ 
King  Charles.*  Mr.  Baiter  deiyjOAOik^t  tjc  *  aa  •iiianr 
nonconfomust  divinc."t  He  cmsc  yjrx  .  >ir  » •.«  »'.  •^••j^^^ 
ingly  beloved  by  his  people.  tLn:  ib^-  w^iic:  ::.:-  j#  mfu  « 
year  upon  his  widow  fur  lift:,  feui  >*d;&'-'::  •-r-  uj^^a-i^  «. 
his  children.l  Mr.  S'jepiieL  Oi-tr*?*  stu  »lurr  iMjrz.^  -^■.•m^ 
-was  his  elder  brother,  il:  _--.-liiir  .•ii-*j»jl  .*#►  ;  *^  -♦r.-r- 
nonconformisu  ic  ::V:*i^  xts  um  *w.jramf.. 


or,  a  Viad:ixj:ii  ••'  iir  tv   ymtw  *jif     -.a^^'^i*         '-a^f     • 

Answer  u  ii»*      ?^it'rss^c    Hr —«**■.  -^^  —        i«w^     .^^ 

■lav  vhbr^r:  ImirsiraARa  i    jm     i..  'Mr^uur    ^      '-^      .    « 

6.  VuiCj'.-ae-  r-cru— I ►«."*.. "sn      r  :■   jr           .^ms     .^m'.^m 
IMS. — ^T    C'lairtf  rr       k  mi    "  „rr««    -r-.^     '•^w.«n.«^ti«      M^ 

'  n  l*a»^   1— .-•.■i^.  ...     :  8-'  -               —  —  *»      --► - 

12.  Tut  iif R-    ir-  •   i '••»--      **•  ■ — .  .— •-                   .^ «•.».- 


r  ■ 

E' 

1-^    ■ 

b:ci 

2: 

^H&  * 

STl*' 

.—•"" 

•    -T-i^- 

^-^ 

Tr- 

vtrrr 

c^r-T  .- 

ran 

aur 

hks- 

1J3: 

i*»»^.rr 

»-« 


•  « 


-  V« 


lot  LIV«S  OP  Tfi«  l^illTANS. 

6ontnry  to  his  conscteiice.*  He  next  removed  to  Hedddil  ui 
Nortkumberl'andy  wheie>  as  in  other  places^  his  labour*  "Wt^re 
made  a  l>lessii^  to  many  souls.  But  even  in  this  remo^ 
Comelr  of  the  land,  die  eye  of  Laud  was  upon  him,  and 
this  tyrannical  prelate  would  not  suffer  him  to  preach  without 
a  perfect  conformity  to  the  ecclesiastical  injunctions  and  the 
nev^  ceremonies.  ^JThus,  being  shut  out  from  all  prospect 
of  future  usefulness,  he  resolved  to  withdraw  from  the  stormy 
and  retire  to  New  England.  Previous  to  his  departure,  he 
t«ry  narrowly  escaped  being  t^en  by  the  bishop's  officers. 
And,  towards  tli^e  close  of  the  year  1634,  having  tsdcen 
shipping  at  Harwich,  the  ship  had  not  been  many  hours  at 
set  before  a  moUt  tremendous  storm  arose,  in  which  they  wer« 
in  tiie  utmost  danger  of  being  lost.  An  eminent,  but  profEine 
^cer  on  the  shore,  observing  their  distress,  was  heard  to  say, 
^  As  for  that  poor  collier,  I  pity  hiipi  much  :  but  as  for  ibia 
puritans  in  the  other  vessel,  bound  for  New  England,  I  am 
not  Concerned;  for  their  faith  will  save  them."  The  ship  at  latf 
returned  safe  into  the  harbour.  The  next  day  Mr.  Shepfattf 
went  ashore  to  bury  his  first-bom  son ;  but,  on  account  of  ^e 
watchful  pursuivants,  who  were  still  anxious  to  take  hinci,  h% 
dare  not  be  present  at  the  funeral,  f 

In  the  month  of  July,  1635,  Mr.  Shepard,  after  havmg 
wun  narrowly  Escaped  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  bishop's 
6mceri$l  sailed  froin  Gravesend  in  company  with  Mr.  Wilson^ 
Mr.  Jones,  and  others,  and  arrived  at  Boston  in  New  En^* 
I^d,  in  the  beginning  of  October  following.  Previous  to  hu 
Arrival,  Mr,  Hooker  and  his  conffregation  having  removed  froin 
Cambridge  to  the  banks  of  the  nver  Connecticut,  Mr.  Shepard 
was  chosen  pastor  of  the  church  at  Cambric^e,  and  mere 
continued  to  the  (lay  of  his  death.  When  the  antinomiah  and 
familistic  errors  broke  out  in  the  new,  colony,  this  worthy 
divine,  by  his  endeavours  and  influence,  was  the  happy  means 
of  stopping  the  progress  of  the  i^ectious  malady.  He  was 
in  excellent  preacher,  and  took  great  pains  in  his  preparations 
for  the  pulpit.   He  used  to  say,  '^  GoA  will  curse  that  man's 

•  II  is  obsenred  of  Dr.  NeUe,  that,  wlben  he  was  Bisbop  of  Lincoln,  aM 
"when  ainr  man  preached  before  King  Jamet  tk&X  had  renown  of  pietT, 
h^,  UBwillmg  the  king  shonld  hear  him,  would  in  the  sermdn-tilne  entertiMit 
the  king  whb  a  merry  tale,  after  which  be  wonld  laugh,  aM  tell  thuse  sear 
him,  he  could  not  hear  the  preacher  for  the  old  bishop.'*  It  is  added  s 
**  When  he  was  Archbishop  of  Yorl£,  his  head  was  so  filled  with  Arminiaa 
impiety,  that  in  the  next  Icing's  reign  be  Was  loolced  updn  by  ^e  puiiUaaSeat 
to  be  one  of  the  great  grievance  of  fbe  kiDgdora."~l,«  N«hU  iditei^ 
Yol.  i.  part  ii.  p.  146,  147. 

f  Mather's  Hist,  of  New  Eoglafld,  b,  iH,  p.  84^87. 


SHEPARD.  105 

latk>tfrt  vfho  goes  idly  up  Bsd  down  all  the  week,  tnd  diea 
goes  into  Ins  study  on  a  Saturday  afternoon.  God  knows 
mat  we  have  not  too  much  time  to  praj  in,  and  weep  m, 
md  get  our  hearts  into  a  fit  firame  for  the  duties  or  dw 
sabbath/' 

Mr.  Shepard's  mat  care  and  attention  to  die  duties  of  die 
pastoral  office  wiU  appear  fipom  the  following  extracts  col- 
lected from  his  diary :— ^  August  15,  1641, 1  saw  four  evils,^ 
says  he>  ''  attending  my  ministry. — 1.  llie  devil  treads  me 
down  by  riiame^  discouragement,  and  an  apprehension  of  the 
unsavoury  spirits  of  the  people. — 0.  I  am  become  too  care* 
Ifess^  because  I  have  done  wc»l,  and  have  been  enlaiged  and 
respected.^-^.  Weakness  and  infirmities:  as  the  want  of 
light,  life^  and  spirit/— 4.  The  want  of  success.— I  saw  these 
tbings>  and  hate  cause  to  be  humbled  for  them.  I  have  this 
day  found  my  heart  heavy,  depressed,  and  untoward,  faf 
musibg  upon  die  many  evils  to  come.  But  I  was  comforted 
by  reieoUeetk^,  that  diough  in  myself  I  am  a  dyii^,  condemned 
sinner,  I  am  alive  and  reconciled  by  Christ;  that  I  am 
mmUe  to  do  any  Aing  of  myself,  yet  by  Christ  I  can  do  all 
things  \  and  that  though  I  enjoy  all  these  only  in  part  in  this 
World,  I  shaU  shordy  have  them  in  perfection  in  heaven. 

'^  March  19,  1642 ;  I  said,  as  pnde  was  my  sin,  so  shame 
would  be  Iny  punishment.  I  had  manv  fears  of  £li*s  punish- 
ment, for  not  sharply  r^Nroving  sin.  Here  I  considered  thai 
the  Lord  may  make  one  good  man  a  terror,  and  a  dreadAil 
example,  that  all  the  godly  may  fear,  and  not  slight  his  com- 
mands as  Eli  iiid. 

^'  October  10th.  When  I  saw  gifts  and  honours  conferred 
upon  others,  I  began  to  affect  their  excellencies.  The  Lord 
therefore  humbM  me,  by  letting  me  see,  that  all  this  was 
diabolical  pride.  And  he  made  me  thankful  for  seeing  i^ 
puttii^  me  in  mind  to  watch  against  it  in  future." 

His  very  humble  and  contrite  spirit  will  appear  from  the 
following  extracts,  written  on  days  of  specuu  fasting  and 
{Hrayer : — **  November  3rd.  I  saw  sin  to  be  my  greatest 
evil ;  and  diat  I  am  vile ;  but  Grod  is  good,  against  whom  I 
have  sinned.  I  saw  what  cause  I  had  to  loame  myself.  It 
v?ai8  a  good  day  to  me.  I  went  to  God,  and  trusted  in  hinu 
I  considered  whedier  all  tfie  country  did  not  fare  the  worse 
for  my  sins.     I  saw  it  did,  and  was  dee|dy  humbled. 

'^  Aprfl  4th.  May  not  I  be  the  cause  of  the  church's  nre^ 
sent  sorrows  f  My  heart  hath  been  lonn  et  a  distance  nom 
the  Lord.  The  Lord  first  sent  a  terrible  storm  at  sea;,  and 
my  deliverance,  in  being  snatched  from  j^parent  death. 


lOe  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

86  sweet,  that  I  hoped  my  future  life  would  be  whoHy' 
devoted  to  trod.  I  then  set  my  fece  towards  New  England, 
where  I  resolved  to  be  the  Lord's  in  all  manner  of  holiness. 
Afterguards  the  Lord  took  my  dear  wife  from  me.  Thif 
made  me  resolve  to  delight  no  more  in  creatures,  but  in  the- 
Lord  alone.  When  God  threatened  my  child  with  blindnets, 
his  affliction  was  sweet  to  me,  but  much  more  his  commandf 
and  promises.  Then  I  could  do  his  will  and  leave  all  thingi 
to  him.  But  how  is  my  gold  become  dim !  I  have  no  cause 
to  blame  the  Lord  who  has  persuaded  me;  but  the  Lord 
pardon  my  sin.  To  serve  Satan  without  promise,  and 
forsake  the  Lord  against  his  promise,  is  grievous  indeed! 
With  respect  to  my  people,  I  have  not  pitied  them,  nor 
prayed  for  them,  nor  visited  them,  nor  loved  them,  so  much 
as  i  ought  to  have  done.  The  gospel  which  I  have  preached 
has  not  been  seen  in  its  glory,  nor  been  believed,  nor  proved 
effectual.  Becau9e  I  have  greatly  neglected  to  seek  to  Christ 
for  supplies,  all  hath  been  dead  work;  and  the  fruit  of  pride* 
I  have  now  had  a  long  sickness,  as  if  the  Lord  would  use  ne 
no  more.  Oh !  my  God,  who  is  like  unto  thee,  pardoninf 
juid  subduing  mine  iniquities!"*  These  are  some  of  the 
severe  censures  which  this  eminently  holy  man  pronounced 
against  himself. 

Mr.  Shepard,  when  on  his  death-bed,  was  visited  by  nuuiy 
of  his  friends  and  brethren  in  the  ministry.  Several  youog' 
ministers  having  called  to  see  him,  he  addressed  them  as 
follows:  "Your  work,"  said  he,  "is  great,  and  reqoiret 
"  great  seriousness.  For  my  own  part,  1  never  jMreacned  a 
^  sermon  which,  in  the  composing,  did  not  cost  me  prajfers, 
^'  with  strons  cries  and  tears.  I  never  preached  a  sermon' 
**  from  which  I  had  not  firsLgot  some  good  to  my  own  soul. 
"  i  never  went  up  into  the  pulpit  but  as  if  I  were  going  to 
'*  give  an  account  of  myself  to  God."t  Before  his  ^pwrUm, 
addressinshis  friends,  he  said, "  Oh !  love  the  Lord  Jesus  very 
dearly.  That  little  part  which  I  have  in  him  is  no  smmU 
comfort  to  me  now.'  He  died  of  a  quinsey,  August  25, 
l649y  aged  forty-three  years.  He  was  a  person  of  great 
learning,  a  hard  student^  an  admirable  preacher,  and  an 
excellent  writer.  His  work  on  the  "  Parable  of  the  Tea 
Virgins,"  observes  Dr.  Williams,  is  a  rich  frmd  of  experi- 
mental and  practical  divinity:  the  dress  is  plain,  but  tke 
strain  of  thought  is  extremely  animated  and  ^searching4 
Fuller  has  honoured  him  v^th  a  place  among  the  learned 

•  Mather*8  Hist,  b^  iii.  p.  91—93.  f  Ibid.  p.  238. 

1^  Cbristian  Preacher,  p.  485. 


CROOK.  107 

uriio  were  fdlows  of  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge.* 
The- two  Mr.  ThomaB  Shepards^  successively  pastors  of  the 
dioick  at  Chariestown  in  New  England,  were  his  son  and 
gnuid8oii.f 

His  WoEKS.— 1.  The  Doctrine  of  the  Sabbath,  1649.— 2.  Certain 
Select  Cases  Resolved^  1660.-3.  Subjection  to  Christ  in  ail  hit 
OrtJuawef  and  Awpointnients,  the  best  means  to  preserve  onr 
Ubertv,  186(L-*4.  The  Sincere  Convert,  1052.-5.  A  Treatise  of 
liAuries,  I663.r-U  The  Parable  of  the  Ten  Yir^s,  1000.-7.  The 
SwnwBdiever,  1071. — S.  The  Chorchmenibersbip  of  Children,  and 
their  sialit  to  Baptism.-^.  New  England's  Lamentations  for  Old 
EaghiiA  Bnms.— 10.  A  Treatise  of  Hearing  the  Word.— 11.  Wina 
§om  Oaspcl  Wantoas;  or.  Cautions  against  Spiritual  Drunkenness. 

Samubl  CnooKy  B.  D. — ^This  excellent  divine  was  bom 
at  Great  Wakfingfield  in  Essex,  January  17, 1574;  educated 
in  Peaibroke-hally  Cambridge ;  and  afterwards  chosen  fellow 
of  Fiiminnel  college.     His  father  was  the  learned  and  labori- 
ooi  Dr.  Crooky  preacher  to  the  honourable  society  of  Gray's* 
inm,  and  descended  from  an  ancient  family.    He  was  highly 
,  esteemed  in  the  university,  for  his  pregnant  parts,  great 
induatfy,  and  answerable  proficiency  in  all  the  branches  of 
usefid  and  polite  literature.     He  was  chosen  reader  of  rhe- 
toric and  philosophy  in  the  public  schools,  which  offices  he 
filled  widi  great  applause.     While  at  Cambridge  he  was  a 
constant  hearer  and  a  great  admirer  of  the  excellent  Mr. 
Perkins.     He  preached  first  for  a  short  time  at  Caxton,  near 
Cambridge;  then,  in  the  year  1602,  accepted  an  invitation  to 
die  pastoral  charge  at  Wrington  in  Somersetshire,  receiving 
his  presentation  to  the  living  from  Sir  Arthur  Capel.     In 
gratitude  for  the  advantages  which  he  had  enjoyed  at  the 
miveraity,  he  gave  to  the  library  of  Pembroke-hall,  Basil's 
WoriLS,  Greek  and  Latin;  to  Emanuel  college,  all  theCouncils, 
Greek  and  Latin ;  and  to  the  university  library,  the  Works  of 
Gregory  Nazianzens  and  Gregory  Nissens. 

Mr.  Crook,  upon  his  settlement  at  Wrington,  took  inde- 
fat^able  pains  in  his  ministry,  and  his  usefulness  surpassed 
all  expectation.  He  constaiMy  preached  three  times  a  week, 
and  sometimes  oftener,  to  the  end  of  his  days.  As  he 
pieadied  so  he  lived.  His  life  was  one  continued  comment 
ap<m  his  doctrine.  He  was  much  admired  and  esteemed  bj 
hm  peofJe,  and  their  affectionate  attachment  continued  to 
incicaae  to  die  last.    As,  during  his  preparations  for  the 

•  HIit.  9t  Guibriagc,  p.  147.  f  Mather's  Hist.  b.  iii.  p.  8t. 


KIS  lAYIS  OP  THB  PURITANS. 

mnuBtry^  he  had  hid  in  riMyj  to  mm  he  leid  otft  HbenAjv 
Hb  termoaf  were  grave,  jiuneioitiy  end  «ppropriate ;  aad  hie 
apfdicatioiif,  by  a  sweet  eloquence,  ferrent  zeal,  and  h>Te  Up 
souls,  were  addressed  to  me  hearts  of  his  hearelw.  H# 
did  not  serve  God  with  that  which  cost  him  nothing,  \^t 
laboured  much  in  his  preparations  for  the  pulpit.  His  CQik> 
4tant  motto  was,  '^  I  am  willing  to  spend  and  he  spenf  In 
time  of  sickness,  the .  {Aysician  observing  that  he  migkt  ImM 
longer  if  he  woaU  preach  less,  be  said^  ^*  Alas !  if  I  may  not 
labour  I  cannot  five.  What  [^d  wiu  life  do  me,  if  I  b^ 
hindered  from  the  end  of  livinc  P*  When  labouriog  vaidet 
the  infirraides  of  old  age,  he  woiud  not  desist  from  bis  belor ad 
work,  but  often  preached  when  with  the  utmost  difficulty 
he  could  scarcely  walk  to  the  house  of  God;  and  even  th^ 
his  sermons  were  delivered  with  his  usual  vivacity  i*  He  fed 
his  flock,  not  wilh  akry  notions  and  vain  sjpecoIatioQs,  but 
with  Ihe  substantial  provision  of  the  gpspeC  He  prondod 
milk  for  babes,  and  stroi^  meat  for  men.  Kotwilhstmdiilg 
his  excellent  endowments,  and  die  high  adniratiou  in  whadb 
be  was  held  by  sJl  who  knew  him,  he  was  not  lifted  up  wMi 
prid^  but  walked  in  all  humility  before  God  and  jnen.  He 
is  said  to  have  been  the  first  who  brought  extemporary 

Csyer  into  use  in  that  part  of  the  country,  in  which  exercisu 
soreatly  eacelled. 

fie  laboured  in  the  mimstry,  widi  very  little  iuterruptia^ 
above  forty-seven  years.  During  this  period  he  was  ik0 
means  of  tu-inging  many  wandering  sinners  to  Christ.  Once^ 
indeed^  die  bishop  put  a  stop  to  his.  Tuesday  lecture  ;  luiC  jt.ii 
said,  '^  God  was  pleased  so  to  order  .it,  that  the  lecture  w<ai 
soon  revived,  and,  die  Inshop  who  interrupted  it  was  cast  oM 
ef  his  office.''-!-  During  a  ufeof  nearly  seventy-five  yeani>  be 
witnessed  many  changes  in  the  church  of  Christ  Nor  waa 
he  without  his  sufferings  in  the  civil  wars.  Rude  sohbeii 
tgrjraniuz€«d  over  him  in  bis  own  house,  not  permitting  him  la 
be  quiet  in  his  study.  There  they  followed  him  vridi  dravMil 
swords,  vowing  his  instant  death,  for  not  joining  them  in  ttieir 
bloody  cause.  The  Lord,  however,  was  plei»ed  to  delivuT 
hsm  from  the.r^pe  of  his  enemies. 

Mr.  Crook,  during  his  last  sickness,  often  protested  that 
fhd  dotttriue  he  .had  taught  was'  the  truth  of  God,  as  ha 
should  answer  at  the  tribunal  of  Christ,  to  which  he  ima 
kosOsuing.  He  received  the  sentence  of  his  approaching 
death  with  cbeerftOness ;  and  seeing  he  had  no  proqpool  uf 

•  Clark's  Lives  aonexed  to  his  Msrtyrolttfie,  p.  202r-20e» 

♦  IbM.  p.  20<MW8.  -^     -^      *:  '  ^ 


bridges 


poutd  ■■■Her  h^ 
10,  16«64     He  tow.   tut  n 
oiBllifUiy    ■■   "va 
S     He 


iiML 


nu     • 


? 


•  CUrfc**  Uv<n 

f   Hiit.  af  CaMknCfc  p   14T 
WMilackr't  ll«v.  p.  flft 
il«h  fMlM,  ML  W.  y .  ft. 


tW  ■■^.VflSuQ^.    ^ 


.—11 


110  LIVES  OK  THE  PURITANS. 

Sars^  and  his  remains  were  interred  in  St  CMave's  diureh.* 
e  was  esteemed.a.good  scholar  and  an  excellent  preadMr* 

His  Works. — 1.  The  Two  Witnesses,  in  seyeral  Lector^  at  St 
Lawrence  Jewry,  on  Rev.  xi.,  with  the  great  Question  dufiwmedf 
Whether  the  two  Witnesses  were  slain  or  do  ?  1643. — ^This  work  wm 
made  public  by  an  order  firom  the  committee  of  the  house  of  eon** 
inons,|dated  April  27, 1643. — 2.  Chiiisf s  Waming-pieoe,  giving  Notics 
to  eyery  oue  to  watch  and  keep  their  Garments,  delivered  in  a  SsfiMin 
at  Margaret's,  Westminster,  before  the  House  of  Commons,  at  their 
solemn  Fast,  October  30,  1644— 1644.--3.  Lex  Talionis;  or,  God 
paying  every  Man  in  his  own  Coin,  a  Fast  Sermon  before  the  Hoose  of 
Commons,  July  30, 1645,  on  1  Sam.  ii.  30.,  1646.— 4.  Joseph  Pandlelcd 
by  the  present  Parliament,  in  his  Sufferings  and  Adininoement,  a 
Sermon  preached  before  the  House  of  Commoi|s  on  their  solemn  Day 
of  Thanksgiving,  Feb.  19, 1645,  on  Gen.  xlix.  23, 24.,  1646. 


Edward  Symmonds,  A.M. — This  pious  man  was  bom 
at  Cottered  in  Hertfordshire,  and  educated  at  Peter-nousei 
Cambridge.  Upon  his  leaving  the  university,  he  entered  into 
the  ministerial  oflSce,  and  appears  to  have  preaqhed  at  Fowey 
in  Cornwall.  In  the  year  1630  he  became  rector  of  L^tde 
Kayncin  Essex,  where  he  continued  till  the  commencenmit 
of  the  civil  wars.  He  omitted  the  use  of  the  cross  in  baptism 
and  wearing  the  surplice,  for  which  he  was  brought  before  a 
justice  of  peace ;  but  whether  the  prosecution  was  dropped, 
or  he  was  punished  for  this  two-fold  marvellous  crime,  we  are 
not  able  to  learn.  ^^  His  omission  of  the  cross  and  surplic^ 
and  his  friendship  with  Stephen  Marshall,  plainly  intinuiie^'* 
says  Dr.  Walker,  **  that  he  was  something  mcliimbla  to  the 
puritans  ;"f  and  we  venture  to  add,  that  the  former  alone 
sufficiently  proves  that  he  was  a  puritan  and  a  nonconformist. 
He  was  nevertheless  brought  into  many  troubles  durii^  die 
ciyil  wars,  by  the  committee  of  scandalous  ministers.  Ai^ 
pearing  before  the  conunittee,  he  was  sequestered  for  preecft- 
jpg  and  publishing,  **  That  the  king,  beii^  the  aupeanie 
magistrate,  hath  immediate  dependence  upon  God,  to  whom 
only  he  is  accountable— that  the  title  of  the  Lord's  anointed  is 
proper  and  peculiar  to  the  king :  that  rojral  birth  is  equimdeat 
to  royal  unction :  that  authority  is  a  sacred  thing,  and  essentiel 
to  the  king^s  person :  that  resistance  is  against  the  way  of 
God,  destructive  to  the  whole  law  of  God,  inconsistent  widi 
the  spirit  of  the  gospel,  the  perpetual  practice  of.  chiistiiuutyy 
the  calling  of  ministers,  common  prudence,  the  rule  of 

•  Wood's  Athens  Ozoii.  vol.  ii.  p.  82,  88.— ^afkei^  Attempt^  part  iL 
p.6»  ^  Walker's  Atteoipt,  part  ii.  p.  9aU  .   . 


snai06Q&  ui 

bmiMiHiiyi 
even  die  kte 

monds  ackmwib^B"^ 
WBB  fardwr 
aflbnung,  ''' 
compl J  with 

king;  and  dnt  ikcj  aie  noc  K>  be 
mand  ■mwifiiii^  to  die  vdi  4C  God,  x  x 
the  coBBind  of  the 
.believe  vhaisocvcr  if 
ieemttm  a  dicime  mrntoKt  w  a 
Baa:  aid  that  if  David's 
Saul's  gan 
£rom  his  castiei^ 
die  loids  and 

<mler,  dated    March   S,    I<&42. 
aequestered  into  the  haadb  of  Mr.  Pi  jwr 
ivas    appointed    to   preach 
order.* 

Mr.  STmflKMi 
other  hanbhipa. 
.Dr.  Walker,  were  peraons  at 
fiunilj  eaperience 
to  lee  tor  aifetv 
fcflgdi  into  Frace.     The  ^^ 
incorrect  in  asaeiliiia,  '^  that  Mr. 
miseries  upon  Ums^  bt<jiw  he  Kr.tut  mjl  p 
wridi  them  in  rehdiion." 
meddled  not  with  state 
yn  the  peaceable  powfira  of  »ar  j?nap.     H 

?9ur  1649,  siM^  bis  rcmainft  w«Pt  ansr^ic  n  ^-  ?^t^  vuv  -^. 
aulVwIuuf,  \^mikm  *^  He  v»  &  i^trwa  ir  xn»si  ^^^--v 
courage,  wisdom,  and  karanngi  u.  ^ut»If!aE  aoft  i  imnusMs 
preacher;''t  andAoogh  he  irfi  i  r  mua  nirs^  ttgt  rnsc 
through  his  zeal  for  the  ro^al  caaa^  i^  via  m  strrr  n  um 
life,  and  so  pbun,  psi'  1 1  kf.  woe  yrjiaoi^  n  vnttrua^  ---^ 
be  was  looked  upon  at  a  pamn^  He  iwmimery  *  i  •  «f 
Sobject's  Belief,"  l(^:  ana  "^  J&  VoidflamuL  vr  i- 
Chalks." 


■   » 


IM  UVES  or  THE  PURITANS. 

An  Bssw  Wyke  waft  a  zealoHS  nimst^  of  die  baptbit 
penoMOBy  and  apprehended  in  the  county  pf  Suffolk,  for 
preaching  and  dippmg.  When  lie  was  brougM^  before  the 
ooounittee  of  the  county,  to  be  examined  about  his  authority 
to  preach  and  the  doctrines  he  delivered,  he  refused  to  give 
my  account  of  either.  He  alleged,  that  a  freeman  of  England 
was  not  bound  to  answer  any  such  interrogatories,  either  to 
accuse  himself  or  others ;  but  he  signified,  that  if  Ihey  had 
any  thing  against  him,  diey  ought  to  bring  forward  thek 
diarge,  and  produce  their  evidence.  This  was,  indeed,  con- 
■idered  as  great  obstinacy,  and  as  hirh  contempt  of  tbenr 
fmtkoiity;  tiberefore  he  was  immediately  sent  to  ji^.* 

It  does  not.  appear  how  long  he  remamed  in  prison  ;  but 
-Airing  his  confinement  a  pam^let  was  published  either  ^ 
Umsdf  or  some  of  his  (hends,  entitled,  **  The  Innocent  in 
'Prisop  Complaiiui^ ;  or,  a  true  Relation  of  the  Proceedmgs 
of  the  Committee  of  Ipswich  and  ihe  Committee  of  Biuv 
fit.  Edmunds  in  the  county  of  Suffolk,  against  Andrew  Wyke, 
a  witness  of  Jesu^  in  the  same  county,  who  was  cpimp^itefl 
to  prison,  June  5,  l€46."f  This  work  ^ves  a  circum^iaiitial 
«^COunt  of  bis  adversaries'  proceedings  against  l^i^,  t^ 
^clsiims  bitt^riy  against  the  comnnttee  for  its  persec^vtuw 
jmndples  iind  iHegm  conduct.  Widiholding  from.o4ier9  the 
viessihg  of  christian  liberty,  came  with  an  ill  ^race  fio^n  ^pap 
persons,  wbo,  only  a  few  years  before,  ¥4iiie  they  grouefl 
'Under  the  irom  rod  of  the  tyrannical  pontes,  bad  eame^jr 
«^eadedfor  the  same  ble$sing. 

March  16,  1630,  Mr.  Wyke,  together  with  several  p^htan^ 
-Was  conunitted  to  prison  at  Coventry,  to  be  tried  for  lop 
i^imes.  He  is  represented  as  having  kissed  a  soldier  tiiree^ 
^times,  and  said,  '^  I  breathe  the  Spirit  of  -God  into  tbee/* 
During  hia  confinement^  he  preached  every  Lord's  day  at  vm 
«gate  of  the  prison,  when  multitudes  of  people  stood  jn  lii# 
irtreet  to  hear  him.  But  how  lone  his  tribulations  coottouei^ 
-or  when  lie  (fied,  we  are  not  able  Ieam.t 

Henut  Tozeb,  B.  D — ^TTus  learned  person  w^  bomj(l 
North-Tawton  in  Devonshire,  in  the  year  l602,  and  educated 
in  Exeter  college,  Oxford,  where  he  took  his  desr^o^  «nd 
was  afterwards  chpsep  SMWectpr  and  fellow  of  me  bpuse. 
Having  entered  into  die  ministesial  offi^^y  it  isaaid,  that;lva 

•  Bdwardf's  GangrsBDA,  partiii.  p.  ISO,  170. 
+  Crosby's  Baptists,  vol.  K  p.  835. 
t  Wkittocke*!  Mem.  p.  4S0,4«e. 


■  TOZER.  IIS 

Was  useful  in  moderating,  reading  to  novices,  and  lectnriog  in 
die  chapel.  He  was  an  able  and  a  laborious  preacher,  had 
much  of  the  primitive  religion  in  his  sermons,  and  scfemed  to 
be  a  most  precise  puritan  in  his  lotjks  and  life,  on  which 
account  his  sermons  and  expositions  in  the  church«r«  of  St. 
Giles  and  St.  Martin  in  Oxford,  were  much  frequented  by 
the  puritanical  party.  In  the  year  1643,  he  fias 
one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  but  declined  his 
*'  choosing,"  says  Wootl,  "  to  remain  a!  ()\i'jrL  ^lA 
before  the  king  or  parliament,  rather  than  \rtAar^  tmm^.-d 
among  rigid  Calvinisbf."  He  wu  a  n^itad  «t^.^/fc'.»r>M^  aui 
having  preached  at  Christ's  Church  beic#r»:  Lit  mi^^^.  v  iC 
St.  Mary's  before  the  parliament,  hi^  «a»  a$#yrjdMbt«  i^  vie 
chancellor  of  the  university,  in  Up^'j.  to  Ui^t  uc  O'.^ciuri 
'degree ;  but  this  in  like  mMismtr  he  ref u»ea.* 

Mr.  Tozer  was  a  divine  of  purttaL  pruinpj»« :   y^..  un 
account  of  his  unsliaken  lovaiti  ajud  ti*^  uw  uf  £ii»  OttmBiia 
Prayer,  after  it  hvs  set  asidt',  he  eiperKAr.  vz  m#ui»  ir  uuui*  tixm 
the  opposite  party,  of  which  the  f<>>ii'/wiur  u'-'-juir  ic  i:iv^ 
by  the  pen  of  Dr.  Walker: — ^  Lh.  Hat*-**:*,  iia^n^  -"nr":! 
from  the  college,  the  ^o^vnajj^fUL'    nv^f  ta^    *    \r    '.uirw 
devolved  upon  Sir.  I'ozer  at  MAWt^rvx  :  irr  ciii  ii»  uevm*  \«r 
disgrace  his  post,  but  shewed  lumwi'f  a  A-.Hr  ruunitiiuft  it^mv^ 
the  illeeal  visitation,  IfMly  aus  revj»iu>.:M  '.■;^)r*i't<  <*•> 
tained  m  the  highest  degr*^  tite  noffui*    .«  Qj*'  •.^ysgi* 
made  a  noble  stand  in  defeitot  ^  lu»  w x  ''»^swjtL  tmc  lur 
of  the  other  fellow «,  wberi  tbaC  aiiir^.^^  u^ixtsTtu*  »»  i^  ut 
foot,  after  the  surrender  of  tint  rw^^t^^A  v^  '->«*   y«rMM^sif : ' 
March  21,  UiKf  I  find  him  u^a  k  <:£«vja.  i^*r»  n«  ^mu^m 
at  Merton  college,  haiiug  bM  ml/^umic  v.  ^ijtu  •  r  *  ^^^ jiium^ 
ing  the  Conunon  Praver  in  tlK  •jjuki^,  li'^r  *b»   \r.tiiiHUi> 
for  the  direct/jr}'  came  jjii  fgrot :  .'.jv.  •>  up  nq:  i^ni  )\r  tfur 
admonished  one  of  tli^  bMiw;.  5-^  r*^u«ar   v,    aft^^M   W 
chapel-prayers  on  th^  aoc^puuL'     li^  ukC  m«v^.  •.uM»t»f(«« 
shewed  '^  tlie  utmost  ditUkit  K*  tb'jM;  'X  a«»  ^aruaa^at  lafrir^ 
and  always  cotmteuaiH.^:^  acid  paU'^uaKJt  li«»  /<*-«u««ir  ^    ... 
college.    Although  the  vi«afjr%idi(  a^jifsu  ir  ».  mi    ^4   1 
term  ;^  yet,  as  Dr.  Fdl,  titt:  ty»<aan«'>»dj.r  umc  in^^*^.-*^.' 
open  it  at  the  osaal  timt  ia  ti^  aivi^roiv   vitirju  <i  •    .••.«« 
to  that  order,  so  did  Mr.  7 oks  aMv  a  iu>  v'*-^-'  '  '-^u- 
'' These  iafanuatioBfe,*'  «a»ft  uw  aulMr.  «  u^^    •Mt»#i'   u.^ 


▼OL.  IJI. 


1 

f 


M  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

gotten  Irom  ^  spies  and  setters  ,of  the  house ;  for  wUeh 
diey  were  afterwards  rewarded  widi  the  fidlowships  of  those 
who  by  that  means  were  ejected.  A  most  exceUent  ^ncou^  . 
mgemeiit  to  informers!  And  let  me  add/'  says  he,  ^  ihat  k 
dinect  contradiction  to  the  very  letter  of  the^tntutes,  tiMj 
ondered  one  of  them  to  receive  the  rents  of  the  cbliege,  and 
soon  after  made  him  sub-rector/  thou^  he  was  at  dnt 
lime,  or  only  a  few  months  before,  no  more  dian  batehebMr 
of  arts.** 

To  the  above  criminations  Mr.  Tozer  desired  timie  to  piak 
m  his  answer,  which  was  granted  him.     When  he  returned 
his  answer,  he  disowned  their  authority,  saying^' ^'  That  the 
things  about  which  he  was  auestioned,  concerned  the  disc^ 
fjiUne  oi  die  college;  and  that  he  had  soitie  tiane  befai« 
answered  in  the  nsime  of  the  whole  college,  that  they  eoidd 
not,  without  peijury,  submit  to  any  other  visitors  than  fXnose 
to  whom  their  statutes  directed  diem."    This  mswer  b^HC 
unsatisfactory  to  the  visitors,  they  ordered  him  to  be  ejecte{ 
and  committed  the  execution  of  the  sentence  to  the  loldiors 
of  the  garrison.    However,  Mr.  Tozer  still  kept  possesiiioi 
of  hb  college  for  some  time ;  and,  June  S9, 164»,  the  visitors 
sent  for  him  again,  and  in  direct  oppo^tion  to  the  staCuttea 
of  the  hoiwe,  peremptoiily  foibade  him  to  proceed  to  ik 
election  the  day  following ;  and  to'  effectually  prevent  hitk, 
Ibey  expelled  lum  -boA  from  the  coHege  and  the  univeriii^. 
He  refosed  after  all  to  ddiver  up  the  keys  of  the  college'  mtA 
to  be  perjured,  when  they  proceeded  to  apfyrehend  wlti 
hnprison  him.    There  is  one  circumstance  more  concemu^ 
\^  ^vSmngA  which,  says  our  authoif,  must  not  be  omitl^ 
ifki.  ^*  That  the  second  of  the  satiie  months  hie  was  draped 
out  of  St  Martinis  church  by  the  soldiers,  and  forbiddeq'  to 
officiate  diere  any  more;  because,  forsooth!  he  preached 
pestilential  doctrme.''     The  visitors,  however,  afterwards 
moderated   dieir  sentence;    allowed  him  the   use.  of.  His 
phamber  in  the  college ;  and  appointed  him  the  profits  of  a 
travelling  fellowship,  to  be  allowed  him  for  three  years: 
^'  but^"  our  author  adds,  *^  Vi^hether  it  was  ever  paid  h^'OT' 
not^  I  cannot  say."*  Upon  the  appointment  of  thfis  aUoWSMM, 
be  went  to  Holland;  and  becatne  minie^r  to  ikt  l&ti^Mk 
merdiants  at  Rotterdam,  where  be  died  ^ptember  1 1;  mM, 
aged  forty-reight  years,  and  his  remains  were  hitevi^  Itt4u4 
English  church  at  that  place.    Dr.  Thomas  Marshall,  who 

•  Walker's  Attempt, part  il.  p.  1 15. 


LOVlB.  ,  115 

meeeeded  him  in  die  preacher's  office,  says,  <'  he  was  always 
liken  ibr  an  honest  and  a  conscientious  puritan/'* 


WoBKs.r-'l*  Directions  for  a  (xodly  Life,  especially  for  com* 
vmieating  at  the  Loiti's  Table,  ie28.r— 2.  A  ChriMtiaa  AmendmeBt, 
sSennon  on  New-years-day  at  St  Mary's  Ch.  in  Ox.  on  2  Cor.  v.  17., 
U8S^— 8.  Dicta  et  facta  Christi  ex  quatoar  EvaDgelistis  collecta,  st 
la  ordine  disposita,  1634. — i.  Christian  Wisdom,  or  the  Excellency, 
fce.  of  true  Wisdom,  a  Sermon  on  1  Kings  x.  24.,  1639.---5.  A  Sermon 
'iBJohn'Xviii.3.,1640. 


Chmbtovher  Love,  A.  M . — ^This  person  was  the  son 
of  Mr.iCbristopher  Love,  bom  at  Cardiff  in  Glamoiganshire, 
jn  tiie.jwr  1618,  and  educated  at  New-inn-hall,  Oxford.'  He 
^was  the  youngest  child  of  his  parents,  and  the  son  of  dieir 
<id  age ;  his  mother,  who  was  of  a  respectable  family,  was 
ifiRy  years  old  when  he  was  bom.  Though  they  never  in- 
'teadeid  him  for  the  ministry,  they  gave  him  a  good  education, 
from  a  child  he  was  remarkably  fond  of  books ;  and  though 
Us  parents  were  too  indulgent  to  him,  allowing  him  too  great 
liberty  for  play  and  sinful  recreations,  he  never  neglect^  his 
learning.  He  felt  greatly  concerned  for  his  own  improvement ; 
-dierefore  he  devoted  much  of  his  time,  both  night  and  day, 
to  his  beloved  studies. 

He  was  fifteen  years  of  age  before  ever  he  heard  a  sermon. 
At  diis  period,  Mr.  Erbery  going  to  the  town,  he  was  induced 
through  curiosity  to  hear  him;  and  he,  with  some  others,  was 
greatly  entertained  with  the  novelty  of  it.  Although  he  went, 
•8  he  used  afterwards  to  observe,  only  to  see  a  man  in  a 
inlpit ;  yet,  there  God  was  pleased  to  meet  with  him,  and| 
ij  that  sermon,  gave  him  such  a  sight  of  his  sins  and  his 
ndone  condition,  that  he  confessed  he  returned  home,  as  be 
expressed  it,  ^^  with  a  hell  in  his  conscience."  When  he 
came  to  his  father's  house,  being  dead  to  all  his  former  carnal 
pleasures  and  sinful  pastimes,  his  father  greatly  wondered  at 
the  sudden  change ;  and,  concluding  him  to  be  seized  with 
some  strange  fit  of  melancholy,  recommended  him  to  asso- 
ciate fmd  play  with  his  old  companions,  but  he  refused*  He 
could  now  take  no  pleasure  in  their  company.  His  father 
WHDitimes  advised  him  to  go  to  gentlemen's  houses,. and 
•ttend  his  usual  games ;  but  the  very  thoughts  of  them,  were  as 
dacgers  in  his  heart ;  therefore,  he  begged  to  be  excused.^ 

Mr.  Love  having  fiilly  relinquished  the  card-table,  deured 

•  Wood'b  Atbenae  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  72,— Bioj.  BriUn.  vol.  ▼!.  p.  4076. 


116  LIVES  OF  T»B  PURITANS". 

leave  of  bis  father^  upon  die  next  lecture  day,  to  go  to  chorck; 
but  this  he  absolutely  refused,  conceiving  it  to  have  been  the 
occasion  of  his  present  sadness.  Also,  to  prevent  his  attend* 
ance  at  churchy  his  father  locked  him  up  in  a  high  chamber 
of  the  house^  thinking  by  diis  means  to  confine  him  there  t31 
the  service  was  over.  Such,  however,  was  his  courage,  and 
his  de^re  to  hear  the  word,  that  he  made  his  escape  by  tying 
a  cord  to  the  window,  and  sliding  by  it  down  the  side  of  tl^e 
house;  and  so  went  to  the  church,  where  the  Lord  was 
pleased  so  to  deepen  his  convictions,  that  it  ended  in  a  soiind 
conversion  of  his  soul  to  God.  Upon  his  return  home,  he 
found  his  father  greatly  exasperated.  His  situation  was  now 
deplorable.  While  his  earthly  parent  was  exceedingly  dis- 
pleased, the  thoughts  of  an  almighty  and  offended  God  weie 
almost;  insupportable.  It  was  no  small  aggravation  of  bn> 
distress,  that  for  some  time  he  had  not  a  friend  on  earth  to 
whom  he  could  unbosom  his  complaint.  Afterwards  he 
made  known  the  anguish  of  his  mind  to  Mr.  Erbery,  who  was 
instrumental  in  further  promoting  his  edification  and  benefit : 
neveitheless  the  Sovereign  Disposer  of  all  events  was  pleased 
to  suspend  the  manifestations  of  his  love,  and  keep4iim  under 
a  doiul  for  many  years.* 

About  the  same  time  some  others,  who  had  been  his  cornh 
panions  in  vice,  were  brought  to  an  acquaintance  with  God. 
They  who  had  been  ^iihiliar  associates  in  games  and  sinful 
pleasures,  now  often  assembled  together  for .  the  purpose  of 
feating  and  prayer.  That  they  might  not  neglect  their  schooU 
hours,  nor  displease  their  parents,  they  met  together  in  die 
n^t  season,  when  their  parents  thought  they  were  in  bed. 
For  mJEiiiy  months  they  held  these  nocturnal  assemblies, 
sdttteg  ^art  two  nights  in  thb  week  for  these  devotional  exer- 
cises. Mr.  Love's  father  seeing  him  continue  in  this  course, 
appeared  to  draw  his  affection  from  him,  and  looked  upon  hira 
as  a  hopeless  youth.  He  who  had  been  called  a  youi^ 
gamester y  was  now  stigmatized  a  young  puritan*  Mr.  Erb^rj 
perceiving  his  distressed  situation,  waited  upon  his  fatiier,  aiid 
requested  him  to  allow  his  son  to  come  to  his  house,  and  he 
would  promote  his  improvement  in  learning,  and  take  |>roper 
care  of  him,  to  which  his  father  gave  his  consent.  :  i  • .  -  ^ 

In  diis  new  situation  he  continued  for  some  time,  lQ>his 

^reat  advantage  and  comfort,  of  which  he  retmned  a  livdjr 

sense  to  the  day  of  his  death.     His  father  going  to  iMxAot^ 

procured  a.  place^for  him  as  an  apprentice,  entered  into  an 

•  Sloane's  MSS.  Ko«  S946.  ■' 


LOVE.  117 

agreement  with  the  master,  and  even  paid  the  stipulated 

pmnium :    but  youns  Love  was  exceedingly  averse  to  the 

ntaation^  and  eamesjUy  entreated  his  father  to  send  him  to 

Oiford.     Though  his  father  consented  to  his  wishes,  he  did 

it  in  displeasure,  withholding  his  pecuniary  aid;  and,  during 

kb  abode  at  the  university,  he  was  supported  partly  by  his 

^  modier,  and  partly  by  Mr.  Erbery.     He  who  was  appointed 

to  endure  inany  troubles,  began  thus  to  bear  the  yoke  in  his 

^th.     Upon  his  arrival  at  Oxford,  not  knowing  any  person 

m  the  place,  nor  whom  to  choose  for  his  tutor,  as  he  sat  by 

the  fire  at  the  inn,  there  came  several  young  scholars,  whose 

disconrse  was  wholly  against  the  puritans,  railing  against 

them,  and  cursing  tliem,  especially  one  Mr.  Kogers,  whom 

diey  stq^atized  an  arch-pinitariy  aiid  declared  there  was  none 

other  besides  him  who  was  head  of  any  house  in  Oxford. 

Having  heard  what  they  had  to  say,  he  resolved  to  make 

«ome  further  inquiries  concerning  this  Mr.  Rogers,  hoping 

that  he  was  just   such   a   tutor  as  he  wanted;  and  after 

guning  satttfactory  information,  he  intrusted  himself  to  his 

cue  and  tuition. 

While  at  the  university,  Mr.  Love  had  but  little  to  subsist 

Qpon ;  but  he  was  careful  of  what  he  received,  and  extremely 

provident  of  his  time,  making  suitable  improvement  in  his 

studies.     He  sought  the  acquaintance  of  religious  persons, 

who,  in  those  times  of  danger,  were  particularly  cautious 

whom  they  admitted  into  their  society.     He  enjoyed,  how- 

ci^er,  little  or  no  comfort  for  several  years.     God  seemed  to 

keep  at  a  distance  from  him,  which,  caused  him  to  sigh  and 

mourn.   The  remembrance  of  his  foimer  misspent  life  was  to 

htm  a  source  of  constant  and  bitter  lamentation.     In  the 

midst  of  these  painful  conflicts,  he  walked  as  in  the  valley  of 

the  shadow  of  death.     ^Fhe  terrors  of  death  and  hell  com* 

^ssed  him  about,  and  the  thoughts  of  God  made  him  afraid. 

The  apprehensions  of  death  were  an  astonishment  to  him. 

Under  wese  afBictive  terrors  and  convictions,  he  desired  to 

five,  as  he  used  to  say,  ^^  that  he  might  have  a  little  longer 

Kspite  out  of  hell."     Having  little  or  no  hope  of  escaping 

hiture  misery,  he  feared  that  every  step  he  took  would  launch 

him  into  endless  torment.    The  waves  and  billows  passed  over 

hit  soul,  and  had  he  not  been  supported  by  the  grace  of  Christ, 

he  would  have  been  overwhelmed  in  the  mighty  storm.  Amidst 

all  these  painful  conflicts,  he  lifted  up  his  heart  to  God  in 

devout  prayer  and  supplication,  ami  was  at  length  enabled  by 

faith  to  look  witliin  the  vail,  and  obtain  a  glimpse  of  God,  as 

a  father  and  a  friend,  through  Jesus  Christ.    He  chose  rather 


in  LIYES^  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

to  sufler  affliction  with  the  people  of  God,  than  to  liv«  in  die  : 
pleasures  of  sin.    He  was  enabled  to  come  unto  the  Lord, 
and  to  cast  anchor  on  die  promise  of  his  word ;  and  thea  he 
enjoyed  comfort. 

He  knew  that  grace  was  absolutely  necessary  to  make  a 
sood  christian;  so  learning,  in  his  opinion,  was  of  great 
importance  to  make  an  able  minister  of  die  gospel.  He  was, 
dierefore,  constandy  assiduous  to  enjoy  both.  He  was  a 
good  proficient  in  the  school  of  Christ,  as  well  as  in  the 
school  of  the  prophets.  The  Lord  greatly  blessed  his  close 
application  to  his  studies;  and,  to  qualify  him  for  making 
known  the  glorious  gospel  of  the  blessed  God,  he  filled - 
his  earthen  vessel  with  die  treasures  of  wisdom  and  know>. 
ledge. 

JJuiing  the  above  painful  conflict,  he  was  generally  looked: 
upon  as  melancholy.  As  he  had  but  few  friends  to  whom  he? 
could  unbosom  his  complaint,  most  persons  were  totally 
unacquainted  with  the  cause  of  his  dejection.  At  the  usndlj 
time  of  attending  his  meals,  as  I  have  heard  him  say,  (the 
writer  of  his  life  observes,)  he  used  to  come  to  his  meal^ 
¥^en  he  would  scarcely  take  any  nodce  of  those  who  sat 
with  him  at  table,  but  wondered  that  they  could  eat  and  drinki 
with  such  merry  hearts.  While  at  the  table,  he  thought  tlier 
moments  long  till  he  again  retired  to  his  study,  where  he 
spent  nearly  all  his  dme,  devoting  certain  hours  every  day.^tio^ 
his  academical  pursuits,  and  the  rest  to  the  study  of  the  holy/ 
scriptures.  He  allowed  himself  very  litde  sleep,  and  litde  iX' 
no  dme  for  recreation.  He  was  steady  in  his  attachment  to 
the  house  and  ordinances  of  God,  and  conscientiously,  exact. 
in  all  the  dudes  of  private  devotion.  For  his  zeal  in  dfte^ 
cause  of  God,  he  was  often  prosecuted  in  the  bishops'  cotirtft; 
but  none  of  diese  diings  moved  him,  or  damped  his  reli|^onS) 
ardour.* 

Mr.  Love  having  entered  the  ministerial  function,  became  a 
very  popular  and  useful  preacher,  but  was  persecuted  for 
nonconformity.  Even  during  his  abode  at  Oxford^  for 
nefosing  in  convocation  to  subscribe  Laud's  superstitknttf 
canons,  he  was  expelled  from  the  house,  never  to  sit  thei«: 
any  more.  Upon  leaving  the  university,  he  went  tx>  London^ 
where  he  was  invited  by  the  sheriff,  who  was  a  person'  of 
eminent  piety,  to  become  his  domestic  chaplttn.  In  tfaist 
KtUation  he  was  exceedingly  beloved,  and  made  i&stmmeDtai 
in  the  conversicm  of  several  in  the  ^mily«    He  receiitod 

•"Sloaoe'tfMSS.  Ko.SMftv  . 


LOVE.  Ili 

ia?itation  to  become  lecturer  at  St.  Aiiii%  Aldersgate;  bat 
the  Bishop  of  London  opposed  his  settlement,  and  for  diree 
jears  refused  his  allowance.  Mr.  Love's  popularity  exasp^ 
rated  the  minds  of  his  enemies^  and  he  no  sooner  entered 
upon  his  public  ministry,  dian  he  was  silenced  from 
preaching. 

He  had,  indeed,  certain  conscientious  scruples  against  die 
ordination  of  the  church  of  England,  and,  therefore,  went 
into  Scotland,  with  a  view  to  have  obtained  presbyterian  onfi- 
aation;  but  diere  he  met  ^ith  a  disappointment.  That 
church  had  decreed  to  ordain  none  besides  diose  who  should 
settle  among  them ;  nevertheless,  large  offers  were  made  to 
him,  in  addition  to  ordination,  if  he  would  have  continued  in 
the  north.  On  his  return  fit)m  Scotland,  he  was  invited  by 
Ae  aldermen  and  other  worthy  persons  of  Newcastle,  to 
preach  for  diem  on  a  Lord's  <lay;  and,  in  his  sermon  in  die 
afternoon,  he  openly  expressed  his  sentiments  against  the 
errors  in  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  and  the  superstitious 
ceremonies  in  die  national  church.  For  diis,  he  was  imm»> 
diately  committed  to  the  common  gaol,  a  most  filthy  place, 
among  thieves  and  murderers,  having  nothing  but  straw  to  lie 
upon;  During  his  confinement,  die  people  flocked  to  the 
prison ;  and  not  being  admitted  to  his  company,  he  preached 
to  diem  through  the  grates  of  the  prison.  Afterwards,  his 
friends  being  allowed  to  go  into  the  prison,  they  cleaned  it 
far  his  comfor^  and  there  he  preached  to  all  who  came,  and 
was  made  remarkably  useful.  Having  suffered  confinement 
for  some  time,  he  was  removed  to  London,  and  tried  in  the 
court  of  king's-bench,  and  acquitted.  About  the  com- 
mencement of  the  national  troubles,  for  maintaining  in  his 
sermon  the  lawfiilness  of  defensive  war,  in  certain  cases, 
agaimit  the  civil  magistrate,  he  was  accused  of  treason  and 
rebellion,  but  was  publicly  acquitted,  with  the  recovery  of 
damages.* 

During  the  wars,  Mr.  Love  was  chosen  to  be  preacher  to 
die  garrison  of  Windsor,  then  under  the  command  of  Colonel 
John  Venn ;  on  which  account  the  royalists  nick-named  him 
**  Venn's  principal  fireman  at  Windsor."  Notwithstanding 
diis  foul  caiunmy,hi8  ministerial  labours  were  gready  esteenied, 
even  by  those  who  differed  from  him  in  matters  of  ceremony ; 
and,  our  author  adds,  "  I  am  bold  to  say,  that  no  man  was 
more  generally  beloved  than  he  was,  and,  I  believe,  as  great  a 
seal  was  set  unto  his  ministry  as  God  doth  usually  set  to  the 

•  Sloase'i  MSS.  No.  d945.*-Mr.  Uve't  Trial,  p.  6S.  Edit.  Ittl. 


IjJO  LIVES  OF  THE  PUtllTANS. 

m^istry  of  any  of  his  servants."  When  God  visited  the  town 
and  castle  with  the  'plague,  and  maey  were  cii^  off,  he  still 
pontinu^ed  in  the  place;  and,  not  afraid  of  the  ravages  of 
death,  he  visited  the  abodes  of  the  aiBicted  and  dying  where^ 
ever  he  heard  of  them.  To  promote  their  comfort  and  sal- 
vation, he  exposed  himself  to  infectioa  and  death ;  and 
through  this  period  of  extreme  danger  the  Lord  protected 
him  ftom  bom.  Though  many  fell  on  the  right  hand  and 
on  the  left,  his  life  was  precious  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord. 
Having  made  the  '^Lord  his  refuge,  and  the  Most  High  his 
habitation/!  he  was  not  **  afraid  of  the  pestilence  that 
walked  in*  darkhess,  nor  of  the  destruction  that  wasted  at 
noon-day."  •        , 

Upon  the  establishment  of  the  presbyterian  government, 
he  was  ordained  according  to  their  method,  in  Aldermanbury 
church,  January  23,  1644,  by  Mr.  Horton>  Mr.  Bellers,  and 
Mr.  Roberts;  which  was  done  by  fasting  and  prayer,  and 
laying  on  of  hands.  In  his  examination,  being  asked  whether 
he  thought  he  could  suffer  for  those  truths  of  Christ,  of 
which  he  had  then  made  a  profession,  if  he  should  be  called 
$o  to  do,  he  thus  answered  :-t-'^  I  tremble  to  think  what  I 
should  do  in  such  a  case,  especially  when.  I  consider. how 
many  have  boasted  what  they  could  suffer  for  Christ ;  and  yet 
when  they  have  come  to  it,  they  have  denied  Christ  and  his 
truths,  rather  than  suffered  for  them.  Therefore,  I  dare  not 
boast  what  I  shall  do ;  but  if  this  power,  be  given  m*^  of  God, 
then  I  shall  not  only  be  \^illing  to  be  bound,  but  to  die  for  the 
sake  of  the  Lord  Jesus."  On  this  occasion,  he  received 
.excellent  conunendations  of  his  gifts  and  graces,  particularly 
from  Mr.  Ley,  by  whom  he  was  examined.* 

In  the  year  1645,  Mr.  Love  being  called  to  preach  before  the 
commissioners  at  the  treaty  of  Uxbridge,  he  addressed  his  an* 
die^ce,  saying,  *'  That  they  were  not  to  expect  any  good  from 
ihe  treaty ;  for  they  (meaning  the  king's  commissioners)  came 
from  Oxford  with  hearts  full  of  blood,  and  there  was  as  grc^at 
-  a  distance  between  the  treaty  and  peace,  as  between  heaven 
and  hell.  He  inveighed,"  says  the  noble  historian,  ^^  so  sedi< 
tiously  against  all  who  followed  the  king,  and  against  the 
persons  of  the  commissioners,  that  he  could  be  understood  to 
intend  nothing  else  but  to  stir  up  the  people  to  mutiny ;  and 
therein  to  do  some  act  of  violence  to  the  commissioners."t 
Another  writer  says,  ^^  That  instead  of  friendship,  he  vomited 
Qut  nothing  but  threatening  and  vilifying  contradictions  to  die 

•  Sloane^s  MSS.  No.  S946. 

f  Clarciidoii^  l^iM.  Tol.  ii.  p.  445, 44i. 


.  LOVE.  121 

Mica-iiiakers,  altogether  unbecoming  one  of  his  faction.'' 
ThiB  scurrilous  author  further  adds,  *^  I  shall  conclude  with  our 
supposed  martyr,  by  asserting,  that  he  who  had  the  ignorance, 
Umd  zeal,  and  impudence,  to  term  episcopacy  and  the  Com- 
moB  Prayer  Book,  the  tXDo  plasue-soreSy  several  times  in  one 
pitachment,  had  need  have  set  forms  of  sermons  enjoined  him, 
as  well  na  prayers"* 

Hie  king's  commissioners,  indeed,  complained  of  the 
lemioa  to  the  commissioners  of  the  opposite  party,  who  laid 
the  case  before  the  parliament ;  upon  which  Mr.  Love  was 
sent  for  to  London,  and  he  underwent  an  examination ;  the 
result  of  which  was,  that  the  congregation  at  Uxlnridge  were 
disappdiated  of  a  preacher,  and  even  after  the  psalm  was 
song,  be  was  unexpectedly  invited  to  supply  the  place,  when 
be  deliverod  the  same  sermon  which  he  had  preached  the  day 
before  at  Windsor.  He  was,  therefore,  acquitted  by  order  of 
the  houfe  of  conunons  ;f  yet  Neal  says,  he  was  confined  to 
Us  own  house  during  the  treaty,  and  then  discharged.^  **  The 
Presbyterian  house  of  commons,"  it  is  said,  '^  who  cles^-ed  Mn 
Love  from  any  slander,  for  prattling  such  stuff,  did  plainly 
demonstrate  what  little  desire  they  had  for  peace,  and  tiiereby 
intimated  their  abominable  hypocrisy  to  the  whole  world."} 
This  affords  die  reader  a  specimen  of  the  ignorance,  the 
bigotry,  and  the  bad  spirit  of  this  party  historian. 

Mr.  Love,  indeed,  allowed  that  he  cautioned  the  people 
ai^mist  placine  too  much  confidence  in  the  treaty ;  ^'  because," 
lud  he,  '^  while  our  enemies  go  on  in  their  wicked  practices, 
and  we  keep  to  our  principles,  we  may  as  soon  make  fire  and 
water  to  agree ;  and,  I  had  almost  said,  reconcile  heaven  and 
hell,  as  their  spirits  and  ours.  They  must  grow  better,  or  we 
must  grow  worse,  before  it  is  possible  for  us  to  agree. "||  He 
ako  said,  **  men  who  lay  under  the  guilt  of  much  innocent 
blood,  are  not  meet  persons  to  be  at  peace  with,  till  all  the 
gailt  of  the  blood  be  expiated  aild  avenged,  either  by  the 
iword  of  the  law,  or  the  law  of  the  sword :  else  a  peace  can 
sever  be  safe  nor  just."i[  He  further  added,  ^'  that  there  was  a 
graeration  of  men  who  carried  blood  and  revenge  in  their 
aearts  against  the  well-affected  in  the  nation,  who  hated  not 
odv  their  bodies,  but  their  souls,  and  would  drink  a  health  to 
dwnr  damnation."  Though  there  might  be  too  much  truth  in 
these  expressions,  they  were  certainly  very  unseasonable  and 

•  Foalit'i  Hist,  of  i>lots,  p.  108, 155. 

f  Lome's  Trial,  p.  68.— Whitlocke*s  Mem.  p.  123. 

1  NeaVi  Poritaof,  vol.  iii.  p.  233. 

S  Foolis*!  Hift.  of  Plots,  p.  155.  g  Ibid.  p.  154^ 

I  I/Estraoge's  Dissenters*  Sayings,  part  ii.  p.  62* 


lae  LIVES  OF  XBE  PURITANS. 

Uttbecoming  in  this  critical  jnncture.  ^^  Many/'  My»  Fuller, 
**  condemned  his  want  of  charityi  but  more  his  want  of 
discretion."* 

Mt«  Love  .was  appointed  one  .of  the  assembly  of  diviaea; 
when  he  became  minister  of  St.  Lawrence  Jewry,  London; 
Md.is  said  to  have  been  chosen  to  the  pastoral  office  at  St. 
Ann's,  Aldersgate-streety  where  he  had  before  been:  chosen 
Ieotur^r.+  Hfi  united  with  the  London  ministers  in^declaiii^ 
ilgainst  die  king's  death.t  He  was  afterwards  engaged  in  a 
fonspiracy  .which  cost  him  his  life ;  and  as  he  was  a  principal 
sufferer  on  account  of  this  plot,  it  was  called  Love's,  plot.  It 
was  formed  l^  a  number  of  gentlemen  and  ministers,. and 
designed  to  raise  money  by  private  contribution,  to  rforwavd 
liwB  expedition  of  Charies  II.  into  England ;  but  die  vigihmce 
of  the  commonwealdi  discovered  and  defeated  the  object. 
I^e  principid  persons  concerned  in  this  affiur,  were  «onie 
disbanded  officers  who' had  served  the  parliament;  in  the  wafs: 
as.  Majors  Adams,  Alford,  and  Huntingdon;  Colonels 
Vaugban,  Sowton,  Titus,  Jackson,  Bains,  rad  Barton;  and 
Captains  Adams,  Potter,  Far,  Mauwey,  and  Starkly  and  Mr; 
Oibbons.  The  ministers  were  Dr.  Drake,  and  Messrs.  Case, 
Watson,  Heyrick,  Jenkin,  Jackson,  Jacquel,  Robinson^ 
Cawton,  Nalson,  Haviland,  Blackmore,  and  Love.  These'had 
their  private  assemblies  at  the  houses  of  Major  Adams, 
Colonel  Barton,  and  Mr.  Love ;  and  held  a  correspondence 
with  the  king,  who  desired  them  to  send  codumissioners  to' 
Breda  to  further  his  designs,  and  he  would  sufficiently  rewacd 
them  when  God  should  restore  him  to  his  kingdoms. 

But  so  large  a  confederacy,  could  not  easily  be  concealed: 
from  the  watchful  eyes  of  the  new  government,  which  had  ittf 
spies  in  all  places.  Major  Adams  being  apprehended  km 
suspicion,  was  the  first  who  discovered  the  conspiracy  to  the 
council  of  state.  Upon  his  information,  warrants  wece  issuedf 
fer  apprehending  most  of  the  above  persons;  but  sevenk 
absconded  and  withdrew  from  the  storm.  The  ministers  vriia 
were  apprehended,  were  Dr.  Drake,  and  Messrs.  Jenkiny 
Jaiikson,  Robinson,  Watson,  Blackmore,  .  Haviland, .  and 
Love;  but  seven  of  them,  petitioning  for  mercy,  and^  pro^ 
mising  submission  to  the  government  in  future,  vvere  ideasfMk 
But  Mr.  Love  and  Mr.  Gibbons  were  made  publiaexamplea^ 
as  a  terror  to  others. . 

Mr.  Love  was  brought  before  a  new  high <  court 

•  Poller's  Church  Hist  b.  xl.  p.  214. 

-^  Sloane's  MSS.  No.  3945. 

%  Calamy*j  Contia.  toL  iUp.  744. 


L07E.  isr 

oBotod  ibrllie  purpose,  as  was  the  cnstam  in  those  tunes  for 
Hds  ctiminab,  when  Mr.  Attorney-general  Prideux,  June 
90,  \65ly  read  the  fiJlowiii^  indictment  against  him  for  high 
tRSion :  '*  That  he,  the  said  Christopher  Lore^  as  a  trutor 
''sid'an  enemj  of  this  commonwealdi  and  free  state  of  Eng- 
^  kad,  and  out  of  a  traitorous  and  wicked  design  to  stir  up 
''aaew  and  bloody  war,  and  to  raise  insurrections,  seditions^ 
'^  aad  rebellions  within  this  nation,  hath,  at  several  times  in 
''file yean  1648,  1649»  1650,  and  1651,  m  London,  and  at 
"  sdier  idaees  within  the  commonwealth  of  England,  together 
'''widi  ttie  persons  mentioned  above,  traitorously  and  malici- 
"  oasly  combined,  confederated,  complotted,  contrive<l,  and 

to  stir  and  raise  up  forces  against  the  jniesent 
of  this  nation,  since  the  same  hath  been  settled 
'^  in  a  CdHinioiiwealth  and  free  state,  and  for  the  subversioii 
"and  ahenidui  of  the  same :  that  he  hath  traitorously  and 
"naliGioaal^  declared  and  published  Qiarles  Stuart,  eldest 
"  SOB  of  die  bte  king,  to  be  king  of  England,  without  con- 
'^  sent  of  pnriiament :  that  he  hath  traitorously  and  mahciously 
"  kvited  and  assisted  the  Scots  to  invade  this  commonwealth 
**  of  Bngland :  that  the  said  Christopher  Love,  at  divers  times 
''between  Mtfch  29>  1650,  and  June  1,  1651,  in  London 
"  and  otber  places,  hath  traitorously  and  maliciously  main- 
"  tuned  correspondence  and  intelligence  by  letters  and 
"  liessa^^es  with  die  said  Charles  Stuart,  and  widi  the  queen 
"  Us  mother,  and  with  sundry  of  his  council :  and  that  he 
"  hadi  likewise  holden  correspondence  with  divers  persons  of 
"the  Scots*  nation,  and  hath  assisted  them  with  money, 
"  anns,  and  other  supplies,  in  the  present  war  against  the 
"  parliament,  to  the  hazard  of  the  public  peace,  and  in  breach 
"  of  die  laws  of  die  land."* 

To  diis  charge  Mr.  Love,  after  demurrii^  !iP^^  ^^  jwis- 
ittion  of  the  court,  pleaded  not  guiUjf.  The  vntnesses 
hoi^t  against  him  were  eight  of  his  confederates,  above 
laeatioDed.  Mr.  Jackson,  afterwards  an  ejected  noncon- 
famist,t  was  summoned,  but  he  refused  to  be  sworn,  or  to 
tibe  evidence,  because  he  believed  Mr.  Love  to  be  a  good 
lasL  He  said,  ^'  I  fear  I  should  have  a  hell  in  my  conscience 
tsiny  dying  day,  if  I  should  speak  any  thing  circumstantiaily 
(iqiidiGial  to  his  life."  The  court  reminded  him  of  his 
mjptioB  to  die  public,  and  that  the  very  existence  and 


'•UtrtTrlal,  p.  1,2. 
i  Rb  loi  tlMB  eight  of  the  ministen  coneemed  in  thk  plot  wcfli  ijected 


£St  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

safety  6£  alt"  government  depended  upoto  what  they  requii 

After  all  Mr.  Jackson  refused  to  be  sworn ;  for  which  he  was 
immediately  committed  to  the  Fleet,  and  fined  five  hundred 
pounds.* 

During  the  trial,  which  lasted  six  days,  the  court  concluded 
that  Mr.  Lo^  had  carried  on  a  criminal  correspondence  with 
both  the  king  and  the  Scots.  Kespecting  the  king,  it  was 
sworn,  that  about  a  month  after  his  late  majesty's  death, 
several  of  diem  had  assembled  in  Dowgate  and  other  places, 
to  cpncert  measures  to  forward  the  king's  agreement  with  .die 
Scots;  for  which  purpose  diey  applied  by  letters  to  the 
queen,  and  sent  over  Colonel  Titus,  who  had  one  hundred 
pounds  to  defray  his  expenses.  The  colonel,  having  de*  . 
]iver<id  his  message,  sent  back  letters  by  Colonel  Alford, 
which  were  read  in  Mr.  Love's  house ;  with  die  copy  of  a 
letter  firom  the  king  himself,  when  Mr.  Love  was  present. 
Therefore,  upon  these  and  similar  facts,  the  counsel  for  the 
commonwealth  insisted,  that  here  was  criminal  correspond- 
ence to  restore  the  king,  contrary  to  the  ordinance  of 
January  SO,  1648,  which  declares,  '^  That  whosoever  shalt 
proclaim,  declare,  publish,  or  any  ways  promote  Charles 
Stuart,  or  any  other  person,  to  be  king  of  England,  without 
consent  of  parliament,  shall  be  adjudged  a  traitor^  and  suffer 
the^ains  of  death  as  a  traitor." 

THie  other  branch  of  the  charge  was  Mr.  Love's  corre- 
spondence with  the  Scots,  and  assisting  them  in  the  war  against 
the  parliament.  To  support  this  article.  Captains  Potter 
and  Adams,  and  Mr.  Jacquel,  swore  that  letters  came  from 
Scodand  to  Colonel  Bamtield,  with  the  letter-  L  upon  them, 
giving  an  account  of  the  battle  at  Dunbar,  and  of  the  affairs 
of  the  Scots  for  three  months  after  Christmas.  There  came 
letters  also  from  the  Earls  of  Argyle,  Lothian,  and  Loudon, 
who  proposed  raisii^  ten  thousand  pounds  to  buy  arms,  and 
to  hire  shipping,  with  a  view  of  landing  five  thousand  men  in 
England.  The  letters  were  read  in  Mr.  Love's  house ;  b.ut 
the  proposals  were  disliked,  and  only  forty  pounds  were 
raised  to  defiay  the  expenses  of  the  messenger.  At  another- 
tune  a  letter  was  read  from  General  Massey,  in  which  r  he  ' 
desired  them  to  provide  anus,  and  specified  his  own  necesei* 
tied,  and  those  of  Colonel  Titus;  upon  which  it  was  agreed 
to  raise  two  or  three  hundred  poun4s  by  contribution,  wA 
every  one  present  wrote  down  what  he  would  lend ;  among . 

«  Love'83'rM]ip.M,58. 


LOVE.  las 

yAkm  was  Mr.  Liove,  who  not  only  contributed  himself,  but 
coried  about  a  paper  to  encourage  others.  This  was  con- 
fldered  by  the  counsel  of  the  cou'^inonwealth  as  sufficient  to 
bring  Mr.  Love  within  tlie  ordinance  of  July  1,  1649,  which 
decfiuesy  ^  That  if  any  persons  shall  procure,  invite,  aid,  or 
wist  any  foreigners  or  strangers  to  invade  England  or  Ire- 
land; or  shall  adhere  to  any  forces  raised  by  the  enemies  of 
Ae jmiliament  or  commonwealth,  or  keepers  of  die  liberties 
of  Kngland;  all  such  persons  shall  be  deemed  and  adjudged 
gnfllyirfliig^  treasoit."* 

In  his  defence,  Mr.  Love  behaved  \nth  too  much  freedom 
and  boldness^  and  set  too  high  a  value  upon  his  ministerial 
Attmctar,  which  the  court  was  inclined  to  treat  with  neglect. 
He  objected  to  the  witnesses,  who  were  forced  into  the 
service  to  save  their  own  lives;  and  observed,  that  as  to 
aeveni  of  die  fects  attempted  to  be  proved  against  him,  there 
was  only  one  witness;  and  that  some  of  them  had  sworn 
Uadj,  or  at  least  their  memories  had  failed  them  in  some 
things,  iriiich  was  no  wonder  after  so  long  a  time.  He  called 
for  no  witness  to  disprove  the  evidence ;  but  in  his  defence 
nid,  '^  None  of  the  witnesses  4wear  that  I  ever  desired,  per- 
maifed,  or  directed  any  person  to  write  any  letter,  to  any 
pemms  whose  names  are  mentioned  in  the  chaises,  or  to  any 
penon  in  or  of  the  Scots*  nation :  or  that  ever  any  letter  was 
written  in  my  house ;  but  only  that  letters  supposed  to  be 
come  firom,  or  sent  to  Scotland,  were  read  there,  which  I  do 
not  deny :  or  that  I  ever  did  so  much  as  read  a  letter  in  my 
haose,  or  elsewhere,  that  was  supposed  to  come  from  tiie 
Soots,  or  pretended  to  be  sent  into  Scotland :  or,  that  I  ever 
gave  my  particular  consent  to  sending  any  letter  :  or,  that  I 
ever  collected  one  penny  of  money  for  the  king,  or  for  the 
Scots,  or  for  any  person  in  Scodand :  or,  that  1  ever  invited 
aoy  person,  or  foreign  force,  to  invade  either  England  or 
raand,  as  I  am  expressly  cliargcd :  or,  finally,  that  I  ever 
ptolftBd,  contrived,  or  endeavoured  to  raise  forces,  tumults,  or 
Qsurrections  widiin  this  nation, .  and  against  the  present 
SMnunent«"t 

Towaids  the  close  of  his  defence,  he  confessed  that  there 
Ittl  lieea  several  meetings  at  his  house ;  and  that  a  com- 
■Mon  bad  been  read  there ;  but  that  he  utterly  dissented 
fc^Vi  It.  ■  He.. acknowledged  further,  that  he  was  present  at 
As.f^dM  of.letteis,  or  of  some  parts  of  them:  f^  But," 
^htf'^XiWtMiigmnant^f  the  danger  that  I  now  see  I  am 


a»  LIVES  OF  THE  1PURITANS. 

in*  The  tct  of  Augosi^,  1660,  makes  it  treason  to  boM 
any  correspondeDce  with  Scolbuidy  or  to  send  letters  tfaidier 
iCMily  in  a  way  of  commence,  the  two  nations  being  at. war. 
Here  my  counsel  acquaints  me  with  my  danger,  because, 
being  present  when  letters  were  read  at  my  house,  I  am  guilty 
of  concealment ;  and,  therefore,  I  lay  myself  at  your  feet  fw 

ttiercy. 

^^  I  hare  been  called  a  mal^nant  and  apostate ;  but^God 
is  my  witness,  I  never  carried  on  a  malignant  inteiest:  I  shall 
retain  my  covenanting  principles ;  from  which,  by  the  grace 
of  God,  I  will  never  depart.  Neither  am  I  an  incemfiaiy 
between  die  two  nations  of  England  and  Scotland :  but  I  am 
grieved  for  their  divisions ;  and  if  I  had  as  much  blood  in  mj 
veins  as  there  is  water  in  the  sea,  I  would  count  it  virell  spent 
to  quench  the  fire  that  our  sins  have  kindled  between  diem. 
I  have  all  along  ei^ged  my  life  and  estate  in  the  parliament^ 
quarrel,  against  the  forces  mised  against  die  late  king ;  jMTt 
from  a  prospect  of  advantage,  but  from  conscience  and  dmjr: 
and  I  am  so  far  from  repentii^,  that,  were  it  to  do  again  npdfi 
tlie  same  unquestionable  authority,  and  for  the  same  dedarsS 
ends,  I  should  as  readily  engage  in  it  as  ever,  diough  I  swish 
from  my  soul,  dia^  the  ends  of  that  just  war  had  been  h^Om 
accomplished.  But  as  to  treason,  I  do  not  know  msf  act^ 
mine  proved  against  me,  that  brings  me  under  anyone  80t4iiMr 
inexistence.  I  never  wrote  any  letter  nor  sent  any  lotterto  uy 
of  die  Scots'  nation;  yet  I  confess  dieir  proceedings  widiidle 
king  are  agreeable  to  my  Judgment.  And  diough  I  disomtUidie 
fiommtsfiion,  and  instructions  mentioned  in  the  indictmeait,  ( 
have  desired  an  agreement  between  theking and  die. Scots, 
agreeably  to  die  covenant;  and  they  having  declwred4iim-to 
be  their  kii^yl  have,  as  a  private  man,  dewed  and  pragfed 
diat  they  might  accomplish  their  ends,  upon  siuth  tefvia'aa 
are  cansstent  widi  die  safety  of  refigion  and  the  terms  itf  "die 
covenant.  For  I  thought  that  if  the  king  and  Scbts  beeune 
nhited,  itjweuld  advance  the  cause  of  God,  die  jnteieils  ctf 
true  religbn,  and  the  good  of  die  tiadon. 

'^  Therefore,  I  humbly  beseech  your  lordship  anddM  COlhrl^ 
to  nat  a  frur  and  candid  construction  upon  all  diat  I  hwedone, 
ead  that  thingsemay :  not  be  taken  in  the  ^orst  sense.  1 4iCMii 
your  lordship  say  at  Guildhall,  that  ke  is  noi  gyHt^  mkim 
mindisn^t fpriUy.  The  Loid  kno^wi, diatiift>die  upr^bliMli 
of  my  heart,  I  have  done  vrhat  I  have  deiie ;  md  i  atodtt 
amaked  when  I  heard  m^j^f rtharged  ^wMi  iti^aaott.  3Wi|gk 
I  acknowledge,  that  for  not  revealing,  as  mine  accusers  have 
done,  Iiaai,%iyour  acts,  guilty  of  iccnoadMent^'a^  I 


%tmild J  beg  flie  mefcy  ol  the  eourty  praim 
Gody  to  live  a  quiet  and  peaceable  life,  in  in  codbnetB  and 
honesty.  And  duu  I  ccmmiit  nqrself  and  my  aU  to  God  and 
TOUT  itt<%nientf,  in  die  words  of  Jeremiah  to  the  rulers  <tf 
Israel :  As  for  me,  behold  lam  in  your  hmtdSf  to  do  with  me 
as  seemethgood  and  meettoyou;  bSk  know  ye/or  certain,  thai 
if  ye  put  mte  to  death,ye  shall  surely  bring  itinocent  blood  upon 
yourselves*  But  I  hope  better  things  of  you,  though  I  thus 
speak.''* 

The  court  allowed  Mr.  Lore  die  benefit  ot  counsel  learned 
in  the  law,  to  argue  the  exceptions  against  die  indictment; 
but  afber  all  diat  Mr.  Hale,  afterwards  the  famous  Judge 
Hale,  could  say  in  bdialf  of  the  prisoner,  the  court  pronounced 
sentence  of  deadi  upon  him  as  si  traitor.  Hie  senloioe 
being'  pronounced,  Mr.  Love  said,  **  My  lord,  I  have  received 
sentence  of  death  in  myself,  that  I  should  not  trust  in  myself, 
but  in  God,  which  raiseth  the  dead.  And,  my  lord,  though 
jou  have  condemned  me,  neither  God,  nor  my  own  con- 
science, doth  condemn  me."  He  was  then  carried  to  the 
Towcr.t 

.  Great  intercessions  were  made  to  the  parliament  for  die 
preservation  of  his  life.  His  wife  presented  one  petition,  or 
probably  more,  in  die  most  movii^  language ;  and  he  pr&- 
•mited  no  less  than  four  himself.  Several  parishes  in  London 
presented  their  petitions  to  die  house  of  commons,  as  did 
iqpwards  of  fifty  ministers;  but  all  that  could  be  obtained 
was  the  respite  of  his  execution  for  a  month.t  The  last  of 
his  petitions,  read  in  the  house  August  14tli  and  l6th,  was 
die  foUowii^  :$ 

*^  To  the  supreme  authority,  the  parliament  of  the  com- 
^  monwealth  of  England. — ^The  humble  petition  of  Chris- 
^'  topher  Love,  a  condemned  prisoner  in  the  Tower  of 
^  London ;  sheweth,  that  your  petitioner  doth  humbly  adore 

the  wonderful   goodness   of   God,   and  most  thankfully 

acknowledge  the  great  mercy  of  the  parliament,  for  so 
**  seasonaMe  and  acceptable  an  act  of  grace,  to  such  an 
^  offending  suppliant,  that  when  there  was  but  one  step 
*^  between  him  and  death,  the  number  of  his  days  being 
^  accomplished,  and  he  almost  cut  off  from  the  land  of  the 
^  living,  then  you  mercifiiUy  interposed,  and  gave  him  his 
^  life  for  a  mondi  longer,  ^ch  was  to  him  as  a  resurrection 

•  l0we*t  Trial,  p.  0S~7l.  f  Ibid.  p.  181- 

'   t  Granger's  Biog.  Hht.  vol.  iii.  p.  4S. 

S  L<nre*i  Case,  p.  4, 5.   £dit.  16&l.--LoTe'8  Viodication  of  hit  PrUiciplet, 
p.  5— 14.    fidlUISil. 


ISB        •      LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

*'  from  the  dead :  The  consideration  whereof  melteth  th^ 
'^  heart  of  your  petitioner,  and  makes  him,  after  a  more 
*^  narrow  search  into  bis  heart  and  way s,  more  deeply,  sensible 
''  than  ever  of  his  sin  agaihst  God,  and  more  sorrowful  for 
*^  his  high  crimes  and  offences  ^against  the  parliament,  in 
''  his  late  and  great  miscarriages.  '^  , 

^'  He  humbly  acknowledgeth  he  hath  so  highly  Yiolated 
'^  the  laws  of  the  commonvyrealth,  as  that  thereby  he  hath 
*'  rendered  himself  guilty  of  the  sentence  of  death  justly 
^^  passed  upon  him  by  the  high  court  of  justice.  He  doth 
**  also  herewith  humbly  offer  to  your  honours  a  free  and 
'^  full  narrative,  under  his  hand,  of  the  whole  design,  to  the 
^  best  of  his  remembrance,  which  he  leaveth  to  your  grave 
'^  wisdoms'  favourable  interpretation,  fully  resolving  that  he 
*^  will  neither  plot,  contrive,  nor  design  any  thing  ''prejur 
^'  dicial  to  the  present  government ;  but  will,  in  l^s  place 
*'  and,  calling,  oppose  any  designs  whatsoever  that  may  tend 
^'  t6  the  ruin  of  the  commonwealth. 

/^  Your  dying  petitioner,  with  all  humble  importunity, 
**  prostrates  himself  at  your  feet,  and  puts  his  mouth  in  tl^ 
^'  du^t;  and  oh !  that  there  may  be  hope !  craving  your  tender 
'^  mercy,  begging  his  life  at  your  hands ;  promising  nevier 
**  to  employ  that  life-  against  you,  which  he  shall  receive 
^*  from  you ;  but  doth  hold  it  his  djuty,  in  his  place  and 
^^  calling,  to  lay  out  himself  for  the  glory  of  God,  the. good 
*^  of  his  people,  and  the  peace  and  safety  of  this  conunon- 
**  wealth.     And  your  petitioner  shall  ever  pray,  &c-' 

"  Chkistopher  l^OVE." 

In  the  nan^ative  accompanying  this  petition,  Mr.  Love 
admits,  many  of  the  things  objected  against  him  at  his  t^rial.  It 
is  dated  from  the  Tower,  July  22,  1651,  but  much  too  long 
for  our  insertion.*  But,  as  Mr.  Neal  justly  observes,  the 
affairs  of  the  commonwealth  being  now  at  a  crisis,  and 
King  Charles  II.  having  entered  England  at  the  head  pf 
sixteen. thousand  Scots,  it  was  thought  necessary  to  strike 
the  presbyterian  party  with  some  degree  of  terror,  by  making 
an  example  of  one  of  their  favourite  ministers.  We  are 
informed,  that,  at  this  juncture.  Colonel  Fortescue  was  sent 
to  General  Cromwell,  then  in  the  north,  with  a  petitioQ.  in 
behalf  of  Mr.  Love;  but  that  both  (he  general  and  the  rest 
of  the  officers  declined  meddling  in  the  affair.i  -  Ot&er  his^ 
torians,  however,  affirm,  that  Cromwell  actually  sent  a  letter 
of  reprieve  and  pardon  for  Mr.  Love;  but  that  the  postboy 

•  L6V9*8  CaM,  p.  5—14.  f  Wbmocke'i  Mem.  p.  474.       .  .  ( 


LOVE.  U9 

was  stopped  on  the  road  by  several  persons  belon^uDig  to  th« 
late  king's  aiinyy  who  opened  the  Scotch  mail,  and  findinc 
this  letter  of  reprieve  for  Mr.  Love,  they  took  it,  and  wiS 
indignation  tore  it  in^  pieces;  declaring,  that  he  who  had 
been  so  great  a  firebrand  at  Uxbridge,  was  not  fit  to  live.* 
If  this  story  be  true,  our  divine  fell  a  sacrifice  to  the  ungo* 
vemable  rage  of  the  royalists. 

Upon  the  arrival  of  the  mail  from  Scotland,  and  there 
being  no  letter  from  Cromwell  in  behalf  of  Mr.  Love,  it 
was  concluded  that  his  silence  was  an  absolute  denial. 
Mr.  Love  was  therefore  ordered  to  be  executed  on  Tower- 
hill.  During  lus  confinement,  after  his  trial,  he  received 
many  encouraging  and  affectionate  letters  from  his  numerous 
friends,  particularly  from  Dr.  Drake,  Mr.  Robinson,  Mr. 
Jenkin,  wad  Mrs.  Love,  which  are  now  before  me.  The  last 
t^at  he  received  from  Mrs.  Love,  written  the  day  before  his 
execution,  and  well  worthy  of  the  pious  reader's  penisal| 
was  the  following: 

'*  Mj  heavenly  dear, 

"  I  call  thee  so,  because  God  hath  put  heaven  into 
thee  before  he  hath  taken  thee  to  heaven.  Tliou  now  bo 
boldest  God,  Christ,  and  glory,  as  in  a  glass ;  but  to-morrow 
heaven's  gates  will  be  opened,  and  thou  shalt  be  in  the  full 
enjoyment  of  all  those  glories  which  eye  hath  not  seen,  nor 
ear  heard,  neither  can  the  heart  of  man  understand.  God 
hath  now  swallowed  up  thy  heart  in  the  thoughts  of  heaven ; 
but  ere  long  thou  shalt  be  swallowed  up  in  the  enjoyment  of 
heaven !  And  no  marvel  there  should  be  such  quietness  and 
calmness  in  thy  spirit,  whilst  thou  art  sailing  in  this  tern- 

Eestuous  sea,  because  thou  perceivest,  bv  the  eye  of  faith,  a 
aven  of  rest,  where  diou  wait  be  richly  laden  with  all  the' 
glories  of  heaven !  O,  lift  up  thy  heart  with  joy,  when  thou 
layest  thy  dear  head  on  the  block,  in  the  thoughts  of  this, 
that  thou  art  laying  thy  head  to  rest  in  thy  Father's  bosom ; 
which,  when  thou  dost  awake,  shall  be  crowned,  not  with  an 
earthly,  fading  crown,  but  with  an  heavenly,  eternal  crown  of 
glory!  Be  not  troubled  when  thou  shalt  see  a  guard  of  sol- 
diers triumphing  with  their  trumpets  about  thee ;  but  lift  up 
thy  head,  and  ^ou  shalt  behold  God  with  a  guard  of  holy 
angels  triumphing  to  receive  thee  to  glory!  Be  not  dis- 
mayed at  the  scoffs  and  ffeproaches  thou  mayest  meet  with 
in  thy  short  way  to  heaven ;  for,  be  assured,  God  will  not 

•  Kennel's  Hist,  of  Bag.  vol.  iii.  p.  ld&— £chard*8  Hilt,  of  Eof .  tol.  U. 
p.  706. 

VOL.  III.  '  K 


130  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

only  glorify  thy  body  and  soul  in  heayen,  but  ho  will  also 
.  jjAftke  the  memory  of  thee  to  be  glorious  on  earth-! 

'^  Ov  let  iiot  one  troubled^hought  for  thy.  wife  and-  babe^. 
rise  within  tihee !  thy  God  will  be  our  God  and  our  portkm. 
Ho  will'  be  a  husband ,  to  thy  widow,  and  a  &tbeF  to  tliy 
children :  the  grace  of  thy  God>  wiU  be  sufficient  for  m» 

'^  Now,  my  ^r,  I  desire  willingly  lundcheerf^y  to  r€siM 
my  rigli^  in  thee  to  thy  Father  and^  my  Fathar,  who  halb  we 
^reateftt'  int^est  m  ihee :  and  confident  I>  am,  thoughjBm 
Baye  separated  us  for  a  time,  yet  God  will  ere  long  ming-ai 
together  again,  where  we  sliaU  eternally  enjoy  one-anMneri^ 
nem  to  part  more !  ' 

^^  Oy  let  me  hear  how  God  bean  up.  thy  heart,  an^^kt 
me  taiSbe  of  those  comforts  which^  support  tbee^  ijist^ibey 
.may  be  as  pillare^  of  marble  to  beai;  up  my  sinking  jmrit  I 
loan  itrriie  no  more.  Fa^well,  forewell)  iny  d^u-,  tub^vip 
i^ieet  where  we  shall  neyer  bid  farewell  more^;  tilbiwinA 
time  I  leaye  thee  in  the  bosom  of  a  loying,  tendcfrheaited 
Father;  and  so  I  rest, 

<f  Till  I  sifaall  f(Hr.eyer  rest  in  heaven, 

*^Mary  LoyE." 

This,  ezcdlentc  letter  discoyers^  tbei^ipe  tnumphCby^eiLtbft 
world 'in  Mrs.  Loyje,  which,  her.  husbandi  so  bappily'eab^ 
perienced.  She.  wajs,,  not  only  surrounded  by.  tbeic>  tl^pce 
children,  but.  with  child  of  .a  fourth  ;  y^t.sbe  paissedt.oiffit 
this  circumstance  in  silence;,  and  thQughifQrmfirly.w«alL'ia 
gmce,  yet  she  now  enjoy^:  strong,  confidence  and>gittit 
<iamfort,  and[  animated  her  husbabd. by  the  mostencoiiiM^ 
ing  coosldeiations.  Thus,  <f  by  faith,  out:  of  weakneBB^sM 
was  made  strong."  The .  iiext>  .morning^  being  the  day.  iii| 
whidi. he  sufSordd,  Mr*  Loye  returned, her  titefotlQwiiif 
fare.WelLepistl€(; 

MMy  mcfst  gracious  beloyed, 

'^^lanl  now  going  from  a  prispa  to  a. palace*,  i 
iiaye  finished;  ray  work:;  I  amnow.  to.receiyie  rajr,  wQgfliN 
I  am  going  to  heayen,  where  there  are  two  of  n^.  chUdlfii.; 
and  leayingtheeon earth,  wbett^therearethrefiot'tQ^  oa||miK 
those  two  aboye  need  joot  atjy  care ;  hut  the  thiree  bdfow  QWl 
thine.  It*  con^ifcirts  me  to  tMnk:  two  of  nxy.  chilai€;^»A<^ill 
the  bosom^f  Abrah[^m,  and:  tbr^  of  the|qii  w|n  bift  iH;  u|m 
arms  aud  care  of  so  tender,  and  gpodlji  acinoth^  i  .  I  ki^giW: 
thou  art  a  woipan  of  a.sorrow^i8plrit,.y6t;bejQ8i)^i^^ 
Though  i\\y  sorrows  b^  gr^t  forthj  hi^b.and's  going  out 
of  the  world,  yet  thy  paiiis  shall  be  the  less  in  brir  ^" " 


LOVE.  ISl 

f fay  child  into  the  xfoAA :  thou  shalt  be  a  jojffot  molhcr, 
though  thou  art  a  sad  widow !  God  bath  many  nMfdea; 
in  Ktoreforthee :  the  prayen  of  a  dying  husband  will  not  be' 
lost.  To  my  sha^e  I  speak  it,  I  never  prayed  so  much  for. 
thee  at  Itberty;  as  I  have  done  ih  priscm.  I  cannot  write' 
moi^ ;  but  I  Mire  a  ftWpt^actical  cdUHseb  to  Iteve  with  t^ 
viz. 

<'  1*  Keepiulde^  li'  sound,  otthodb^c,  tad  soul-settching 
iliin&Cry.  0&  tdei^  ai^  many  dfitdv^it  gbhe  out  iiitothe 
WY>rti ;  buV  Chtist^s  sh^epf  ktaOMr  hi^  vOlce,  and  a  sUAnge^ 
Will  th^y  tiot  folfow.  Att^d  bh  thht  ministry  which  teai&i 
the  way  of  God  in  tilith,  and  fallow  Soldnlon^s  ddvice : 
Cease  to  hear  the  imiruciian  that  causdh  to  err  from  the  tDOj/ 
fff  kfiowiedge. 

^<  2.  Brink  up  thy  children  in  the  kiiowledge  and  ad- 
mbiiitidh  of  uieLottf.  Tte  motheir  oudit  to  be  the  teacher 
in  the  iathdPs  absenoe.  'I%e  nioi/Vb  z^hSch  hts  mother  taughi 
hbn.  Tunothy  was  instructed  by  his  gnlndmottier  Lois,  and 
his  mother  Eanic^: 

^^  3.  Pray  in  thy  iiiihily  daily,  that  thy  dwelling  may  be 
in  the  number  of  the  faihilles  that  do  call  upon  God. 

'^  4.  Lad[)otir  for'  a  medk  and  quiet  spirit,  which  is  in  the 
sight  of  God  of  gte^t  price. 

^  5.  Pore  hot  on  the  comforts  thou  wantest;  but  on  the 
mercies  thou  hast. 

<<  6.  Look  rather  to  God^s  end  in  afBicting,  than  at  the 
measure  and  d^ree  of  thy  afflictions. 

^'  7.  Laboar  to  clear  up  thy  evidences  for  heaven,  when 
God  takes  fromi  thee  the  comforts  of  earth,  that,  as  thy 
sufferings  do  abound,  so  thy  consolations  in  Christ  may 
much  more  abound. 

^^  8.  Though  it  is  good  to  maintain  a  holy  jealousy  of  the 
deceitfulness  of  thy  heart,  yet  it  is  evil  for  thee  to  cherish 
fears  and  doubts  about  the  truth  of  thy  graces.  If  ever  I 
had  confidence  touching  the  graces  of  another,  I  have  con* 
fiqonce  of  grace  in  thee.  I  can  say  of  thee,  as  Peter  did 
of  Sylvaniis,  /  am  persuaded  that  this  is  the  grace  of  God 
wherein^  thou  standest.  Oh,  my  dear  soul,  wherefore  dost 
thou  doubt,  whose  heart  hath  been  upright,  whose  walkings 
have  been  holy !  I  could  venture  my  soul  in  thy  sours 
stead.    Such  confidence  have  I  in  thee ! 

<<  9.  When  thou  findest  thy  heart  secure,  presumptuous 
and  proud,  then  pore  upon  corruption  more  than  upon 
grace:  but  when  thou  nndest  thy  heart  doubting  and 
unbelieving,  then  look  on  thy  graces,  not  on  thy  infijraiities. 


132  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

"  10.^  Study  the  covenant  of  grace  and  merits  of  Christy 
Und  then  be  troubled  if  thou  canst.     Thou  art  interested  in. 
such  a  covenant  th^t  accepts  purposes  for  performances, 
desires  for  d^s,  sincerity  tor  perfection,-  the  righteousness 
of  another,  viz.  that  of  Jesus  Christ,  as  if  it  were  our. 
own.    Oh,  my  love,  rest,  rest  then  in  the  love  of  God,  in. 
the  bosom  of  Christ ! 

"11,  Swallow  up  thy  will  in  the  wiU  of  God.  It  id  a 
bitter  cup  we  are  to  drink,  but  it  is  the  cup  our  Father  hath. 

Sut  into  our  hands.  When- Paul  was  to  go  to  suffer  at. 
erusalem,  the  christians  could  say.  The  mill  ofthe  Ijord. 
be  done.  O  say  thou,  when  I  go  to  Tower-hill,  The  wiU.oJ. 
the  Lord  he  done. 

'^  12.  llejoice  in  my  joy.  To  mourn  for  me  inordinately,, 
argues  that  either  thou  enviest  or  suspectest  my  happiness. 
^^joy^  of  the  Lord  is  my  strength.  O,  let  it  be  thine  also  I . 
Dear  wife,  farewell!  I  wUl  calfthee  wife  no  more :  I  shall 
see  thy  mce  no  more ;  yet  I  am  not  much  troubled ;  for 
now  I  am  going  to  meet  the  bridegroom,  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  to  whom  I  shall  be  eternally  married ! 

"  Thy  dying, 
<^  Yet  most  affectionate  mend  till  death, 

^^  Christopher  Lovb." 
From  the  Tower  of  London, 

August  22,  1651, 
The  day  of  my  glorification.* 

On  this  fatal  day,  at  two  o'clock  in  the  afiemooil,  Sfr. 
Love  mounted  the  scaffold  with  great  intrepidity  and  reso* 
lutioii.  -  The  ministers  who  accompanied  him  were  Mr. 
Simeon  Ashe,  Mr.  Edmund  Calamy,  and  Dr.  Thomas 
Manton.  Upon  the  scaffold,  Mr.  Love^  taking  off  his  hat 
twice  before  the  people,  made  a  long  speech  to  theni], 
addtiBssing  them  as  follows : 

<^  Beloved  christians,  I  am  this  day  made  a  spectacle 
unto  God,  to  angels,  and  to  men.  I  am  made  a  grief  to  the 
godly,  a  laughing-stock  to  the  wicked,  and  a  gazing-^slodc 
to  all ;  yet,  blessed  be  Grod,  I  am  not  a  terror  to  mysdf : 
though  there  is  but  a  little  between  me  and  death,  th^re  it 
but  a  little  between  me  and  heaven.  There  are  only  two 
steps  between  me  and  glory :  my  head  must  lie  down  upon 
the  block,  and  I  shall  ascend  the  throne.  I  am  exchanging 
a  pulpit  for  a  scaffold,  and  a  scaffold  for  a  throne.    I  fun 


•  Xove's  SennoDs  on  Grace,  Appfo.  p..  !2U— 8U.    £4it.  1810. 


LOVE.  I3S 

exchanging  a  pnard  of  soldiers  for  a  goard  of  angeb^  to 
cany  roe  into  Abraham's  bosom. 

<<  I  speak  the  truth,  and  lie  not  I  do  not  bring  a 
reyengetul  heart  upon  this  scaffold.  Before  I  came  to  this 
place,  and  upon  my  bended  knees,  I  begged  mercy  for 
them  who  denied  mercy  to  me ;  and  I  have  prayed  God  to 
forgive  them  who  would  not  forgive  me ;  and  I  have  from 
my  h)eart  forgiven  the  worst  enemy  I  have  in  the  world. 
Now,  in  the  presence -of  God,  I  tell  you,  that  as  I  would 
in  my  trial  confess  nothing  that  was  criminal,  so  I  denied 
nothing  that  was  true,  that  I  may  seal  it  with  my  blood. 
What  1  then  denied  and  protested  before  the  high  court  of 
justice,  I  now  deny  and  protest  before  you. 

<^  I  am  for  a  regulated  mixed  monarchy,  which  I  judge 
ta  be  one  of  the  b^  governments  in  the  world.  I  oppose d, 
in  my  place,  the  forces  of  the  late  king ;  because  I  am  against 
screwing  up  monarchy  into  tyranny,  as  much  as  against 
those  who  would  pull  it  down  to  anarchy.    I  was  afwayi 


my  judgment  against  the  engagement :  I  pray 
God  to  forgive  them  who  impose,  and  them  who  take  it^ 
and  preserve  them  who  refuse  it.  Neither  would  I  be 
looked  upon  as  owning  the  present  government :  I  die  with 
my  judgment  against  it.  And  I  die  cleaving  to  all  those 
oaths,  vows,  covenants,  and  protestations,  which  were  im- 
posed by  the  two  houses  of  parliament.  I  have  abundant 
peace  in  my  own  mind,  that  I  have  set  myself  a^inst  the 
sins  and  apostacies  of  the  time.  Although  my  faithfulness 
hath  procured  me  the  ill-will  of  men,  it  hath  secured  me 
peace  with  God :  I  have  lived  in  peace,  and  I  shall  die  in 
peace. 

"  But,  before  I  draw  my  last  breath,  I  desire  to  justify  God 
and  condemn  myself.  Though  I  come  to  a  shamefid  and 
untimely  death,  God  is  righteous.  And  though  he  cut  me 
off  in  the  midst  of  my  days,  and  in  the  midst  of  my 
ministry,  because  I  have  sinned,  he  is  righteous,  blessed  be 
his  name.  My  blood  shall  not  be  spilt  for  nought.  I  may 
do  more  goodf,  and.  bring  more  glory  to  God,  by  dying 
upon  a  scaffold,  than  if  I  had  died  upon  my  bed.  I  bless 
God,  I  have  not  the  least  trouble  on  my  spirit ;  but  1  die 
with  as  much  quietness  of  mind  as  if  I  were  going  to  lie 
down  upon  my  bed  to  rest.  I  see  men  thirst  after  my 
blood,  which  will  only  hasten  my  happiness  and  their 


liH  LIVES  OF  THE  IHJRITANS. 

k 

iruin.  For  ^hougli  I  am  pf  a  me^  parenta^,  my  Uood  im 
the  blood  of  a  christian,  of  a  minister,  of  an  innocent  mw^ 
9md  .of  a  martyr ;  and  ibis  I  speak  yithout  vanity.  Had  I 
renounced  ipj  oqwexk^nt,  defaimchod  jmy  conscience,  ,wd 
endangered  my  soul,  t  pjglijt  have  escaped  this  pl^ace ;  Ipjdj 
|>lessea  be  God,  I  b^ve  ;piade  the  best  choice :  I  have 
^:Ji9sen  a^ictjion  rather  th^  sin.  And,  therefore,  welcome 
scaffold,  yfelcojp^^  a^e,  welcome  block,  welcome  death, 
welcome  .all,  becsM^  jtbey  will  send  me  to  my  Fathc^^s 
bouse. 

^,'  I  bless  God,  a^  without  y^ity  it  is  spoken,  that  I 
h^ye  formerly  h%d  ipMce  iTear  in  the  drawing  of  a  tooth  tJbap 
I  haye  now  in  the  cutting  off  my  head.  Thus  I  CQm^t 
mysejif  to  God,  and  to  jreceive  tl^e  fatal  blow.  I  am  pom- 
tbfrted  in  this,  jthat  t^i^n  qien  Jdjl  me,  they  cannot  d^fqii 
ipoje:  and  .t^Wgh  it^ey  tbfw^t  me  iput  of  the  wprld,  thejr 
ipannot  tjbrij^  me  014  9^  ^i^ye^i*  I  am  going  Uf  i& 
{leavehly  Jerusale;!^,  jto  thp  imimmerable  company  ^  wgels| 
to  Je^  Qhrist,  the  fj^iatc^r  of  the  new  povenan^  to  ibfi 
spirits  o|^  j\j^  9ien  mad^  perfect,  and  to  God  the  jud^  of 
fU ;  in  whose  presence  there  is  fulness  of  joy,  and  ^i  i^lu^f^e 
light  hand  there  are  ple9sures  for  eyermore.  I  conclude  in 
tte  words  of  the  apostle,  ^  I  am  now  ready  to  be  offered  up, 
and  the  time  of  my  departure  is  at  hand ;  I  haye  fii^isjl^ 
my  course;  I  haye  kept  the  faith:  henceforth  there  is  laid 
up  for  me  the  crown  of  righteousness ;  and  iiot  for  me  onlj^ 
but  for  all  them  who  loye  the  appearance  of  our  Lor4 
^esus  Christ:'  through  whose  blood  I  expect  salyatictt 
and  the  remission  of  sins.    And  so  the  liord  bless  joq 

Haying  finished  bis  speech,  ^e  turned  to  Tichbu|m  tht 
sheriff,  and  said,  <«  IVjay  |  pray?"  "  Yes,"  said  th« 
sheriff;  <^  but  consider  the  time."  Then,  turning  to  th^ 
people,  he  said?  '^  Beloyed,  I  will  pi^Iy  pray  a  little  ^rlule 
,  trith  you,  to  commend  ipy  soul  \o  God,  and  I  hay^  ^oiie." 
He  then  prayed  with  a  loud  ypic^,  saying : 

<^  Most  glorious  and  eternal  majesty,  thpu  art  r^hteopv 
and  holy  in  all  thou  doest  to  the  spns  of  men.  Thoi^h  thou 
bast  suffered  nien  to  cond^om  thy  seryant,  thy  servant  will 
not  condenm  thee.  He  justifies  ^heet,  though  thou  ^i^tcsft 
him  off  in  the  midst  of  his  days,  and  in  t^e  midst  oi  his 
ministry ;  blessing  thy  ^lori^\is  na,Ene,  th^  tho^iunh  hft  bt 
takQ^  away  from  the  lanp  oi'ibe  Uvilng,  be  i^  i|Qt  l^^t^  QVJ^ 

•  Love's  Trial,  p.  m~-l98.-r-toY«*i  Case,  p.  lir«. 


LOTE. 

of  the  book  of  life.  Father,  my  hour  fs  come.  Thy  poor 
GKflture  can  say,  without  vanity  and  falsehood,  he  hath 
desiied  to  fflorUy  thee  on  earth ;  glorify  thoa  him  now  in 
heay^n.  He  hath  desired  to  bring  the  souls  of  other  men 
to  heayen ;  let  now  his  soul  be  brought  to  heaven.  O  tJion 
hlflwd  Godi  whom  thy  creature  hath  served,  who  hath 
made  thee  his  hope  and  his  confidence  from  his  youth ; 
fbnake  him  hot  now  in  his  drawing  nigh  to  thee.  Now 
that  be  is  in  the  valley  of  the  shacfow  of  death,  Lord,  be 
thou  life  unto  him.  Smile  thou  upon  him,  while  men 
frown  upon  him.  Lord,  thou  hast  settled  the  persuasion  in 
his  teart,  that,  as  soon  as  the  blow  is  given  to  divide  his' 
head  from  bis  body,  he  shall  be  united  to  his  Head  in 
beavea.  Blessed  be  God,  that  thy  servant  dies  in  these 
iiopes.  Blessed  be  God,  th^  thou  hast  filled  thb  soul  of 
fli^  tervant  with  joy  and  peace  in  believing.  O  Lord, 
fht«k  upon  that  poor  brother  of  mine,  who  is  a  companioit 
iridi  me  in  tribnhtion ;  and  who  is  this  day  to  lose  his  life 
as.  wtll  as  myself.*  O  fill  him  full  of  the  joys  of  the  H^ly 
Ghoat,  when  he  is  to  give  up  the  ghost  Lord,  strengthen 
omr  ballrts,  that  we  may  give  up  the  ghost  with  joy  and  noit 
with  grief.  We  entreat  thee,  O  Lord,  think  upon  thy  poor 
dttircbes.  O  that  England  may  live  in  thy  sight !  O  that 
London  may  be  to  thee  a  faithful  city !  and  tliat  rigliteous- 
Hen  nkay  be  among  the  pc(^le ;,  that  so  peace  and  plenty 
nay  be  Within  their  walls,  and  prosperity  within  their 
habitations.  Lord,  heal  the  breaches  of  these  nations. 
Miike  Eiigland  and  Scotland  as  one  stafi*  in  tlie  Liofrd'a 
hand;  that  £phi^iih  may  not  envy  JudaK,  nor  Judah  vex 
Eirihiaim ;  but  that  both  may  fly  upon  the  shoulders  of  the 
Phiiistines.  O  that  men  of  the  protcstant  rcHgioti,  engaged 
ia  the  s^tne  cause  and  covenant^  may  not  delight  to  spill 
eath  other's  blood,  but  engage  against  the  conunbii  adver* 
aaiy  of  religion  and  liberty !  G^  shew  mercy  to  all  who 
fear  huti.  Lord,  think  upon  our  covenant-kee^Mng  brethren 
of  the  kingdom  of  Scotland.  Keep  them  faithful  U}  ibee; 
and  let  not  those  who  have  invaded  them  overmead  their 
had.  Prevent  the  shedding  of  more  christian  blood,  if  it 
•eeta  good  in  thine  eyte.  God,  shew  mercy  to  thy  poor 
serylint,  i#ho  is  now  giving  up  the  ghost.  O  blessed  Jesa% 
atoply  thy  blood,  not  only  for  my  justification  unto^  life,  bdt 
aitto  for  riiy  comfort,  for  the  quieting  of  my  soul,  that  so  I 
may  be  in  the  joys  of  heaven  before  I  come  to  the  possisi^ 

^  His  feUo'w-so^erer,  who  was  beheaded  (he  fame  day,  for  befog  con* 
'      Hi  the  Mun^  ploC,  was  Mr.  Gllbbonf. 


136  LIVES  OF  THE  PURlTANSj 

sion  of  heaven.  Hear  the  prayers  of  all  thy  people  that 
.  have  been  offered  up  for  thy  servant.  And  though  thoii 
hast  denied  prayer  concerning  my  life,  let  the  fruit  of 
prayer  be  seen,  by  bearing  up  my  heart  against  the  fear  of 
death.  O  God,  shew  mercy  to  all  tliat.fear  thee,  and  to  all 
who  have  engaged  for  the  life  of  thy  servant:  Let  them 
have  mercy  in  the  day  of  their  appearing  before  Jesus 
Christ.  Preserve  thou  a  godly  ministry  in  this  nation,  and 
restore  a  godly  magistracy,  and  cause  good  days  to  be  the 
heritage  of  thy  people,  for  the  Lord's  sake.  Now,  Lord, 
into  thy  hands  I  commit  my  spirit.  And  though  thy  servant 
may  not,  with  Stephen,  see  the  heavens  open ;  yet,  let  him 
have  the  heavens  open :  and  though  he  may  not  see  upon 
a  s'baffold  the  Son  of  God  standing  on  the  right  hand  of 
God ;  yet,  let  him  come  to  the  glorious  presence  of  Je$U8 
Christ,  and  this  hour  have  an  intellectual  sight  of  the 
glorious  body  of  his  Saviour.  Lord  Jesus,  receive  my 
spirit.  And,  Lord  Jesus,  stand  by  thy  dying  servant,  who 
in  his  life  hath  endeavoured  to  stand  by  thee.  Lord,  hear 
and  pardon  all  his  infirmities ;  wash  away  his  iniquity  by 
the  blood  of  Christ ;  wipe  off  reproaches ;  wipe  off  guilt 
from  his  person ;  and  receive  him  pure,  and  spotless,  and 
blameless  before  thee  in  love.  And  all  this  we  beg  for  the* 
sake  of  Jesus  Christ.    Amen  and  amen.'' 

Mr.  Love  having  ended  his  prayer,  turned  to  the  sherii^^ 
and  said,  ^^  I  thank  you,  sir,  for  your  kindness :  You  have 
expressed  a  great  deal  of  kindness  to  me."  He  then  asked- 
for  the  executioner,  who  coming  forwards,  he  said,  ^^  Ait 
thou  the  officer  ?"  and  being  answered  in  the  affirmative,  lie 
said,  with  his  eyes  lifted  up  to  heaven,  ^^  O  blessed  Jesus  i 
who  hast  kept  me  from  the  hurt  of  death,  and  from  the  fear 
of  death:  O  blessed  be  God!  blessed  be  God!"  Then, 
taking  his  leave  of  the  ministers  and  his  other  friends,  he 
said,  "  the  Lord  be  with  you  all."  He  then  kneeled  down 
and  made  a  short  prayer ;  and,  rising  up,  he  said,  <^  Blessed 
be  God,  I  am  full  of  joy  and  peace  in  believing.  I  lie 
down  with  a  world  of  comfort,  as  if  I  were  to  lie  dowa  ia 
iny  bed.  I  shall  rest  in  Abraham's  bosom,  and  in  the 
embraces  of  the  Lord  Jesus."  As  he  was  preparing  to  lay^ 
his  head  on  the  block,  Mr.  Ashe  said,  ''  Dear  brother,  how* 
dost  thou  find  thy  heart  ?"  Mr.  Love  replied,  "  /  Mess  Gody 
w,  J  am  as  full  of  joy  and  comfort  as  ever  my  heart  can' 
hold.  Blessed  be  God  for  Jesus  Christ.^*  He  then  laid 
himself  down  upon  the  scaffold,  with  his  head  over  the 
block  j  and,  stretching  forth  his  bands,  the  executicioer. 


LOVE.  137 

severed  his  head  from  his  body  at  one  blow.*  His  mortal 
raBuns  were  afterwards  interred,  with  great  lamentation, 
in  the  chancel  of  the  cburch  of  St.  Lawrence- J  ewiy. 

Mr*  Love  was  a  zealous  presbyterian,  a  most  popular 
pteacber,  and  highly  beloved  among  his  brethren.  But  his 
memory  has  greatly  suffered  by  tlie  reproaches  of  high- 
choich  historians,  and  by  none  more  than  Clarendon,  who 
oyS)  '<He  was  guilty  of  as  much  treason  as  the  pulpit 
ooidd  contain.  And,  therefore,  when  he  appeared  upon  the 
scaiRdd,  he.  seemed  so  much  delighted  with  what  he  had 
done,  that  he  could  not  even  then  forbear  speaking  with 
bUtemeti  and  animosHt/  against  both  the  kins  and  the 
hishopt.  And  in  a  raving  fl^  he  laid  his  heaa  upon  the 
block,  without  so  xspicYi  as  praying  for  the  king,  any  further 
than  he  propagated  the  covenant.^f 

Thete  are,  indeed,  most  heavy  charges.    But  if  Mr.  Love 
was  really  guilty  of  so  '  much  treason,'  it  was  in  behalf  of 
ihekbigy  and  with  a  view  to  promote  the  royal  cause ;  there- 
fiire,  according  to  the  noble  historian's  own  principles,  the 
change  is  null  and  void.     But  if  the  historian  refer  to  his 
preaching  at  Uxbridge,  or  on  any  other  occasion,  the 
chaige  is  asserted  in  like  manner,  without  the  smallest  evi- 
dence, and,  from  all  that  I  have  been  able  to  collect,  appears 
equally  groundless  and  contrary  to  truth.    With  respect  to 
Mr.  liove^s  <  speaking  with  bitterness  and  animosity  against 
both  the  king  and  the  bishops,'  when  he  was  on  the  scaffold, 
the  charge  is  altogether  without  foundation,  and  stands 
diametrically  opposed  to  matter  of  fact ;  ^  appears  from 
Love's  speech  at  length,  now  before  mc.f    And  as  to  his 
laying  his  head  upon  the  block,  <  in  a  raving  fit,'  we  are  at 
a  loss  to  understand  his    lordship's  meaning,   unless  he 
undesignedly  insinuates,  that  Mr.  Love  died  in  the  enjoy- 
moit  of  the  most  happy  and  exquisite  religious  feelings. 
Dr.  Calamy  assures  us,  "  That  he  died  neither  timorously 

•  Love's  IVial,  p.  128, 129. 

f  Clarendon's  Hist.  vol.  iii.  p.  338. — Dr.  Grey  informs  ns,  that  be  bad 
net  with  the  foHowing  manuscript  note,  upon  the  margin  of  Nalson*» 
IntrodnctioD,  relative  to  Mr.  Love's  character  and  death  : — *'  It  might  be 
**  observed,  (says  the  note,^  as  a  circumstance  contributing  to  make  his 
**  death  appear  the  more  judicial,  that  when  Archbishop  Laud  was  be* 
**  iMaded,  this  Mr.  Love,  in  a  most  inhuman  triumph,  flourished  his  band- 
^kerchief  dipt  io  the  blood  of  that  great  and  venerable  prelate;  which/' 
tke  doctor  immediately  adds,  '*  will  fully  justify  Lord  Clarendon's  cha- 
•■cler  of  Mr.  Love."  Every  reader,  however,  will  easily  perceive  the 
Ulacy  of  the  doctor's  argament. — Grey's  Examination  of  NeMl,  vol.  iii. 
p.  128.   * 

I  hoife§  Trial,  p.  121— 1!28,— Love's  Case,  p.  14—27. 


198  LIVES  OF  TH6  PURITANS. 

Mor  proudly,  but  with  great  Alacrity  and  cbeerfhliiM,  as  if 
he  mid  been  goine  to  bed.''*  Dr.  Manton,  who  attended 
Mr.  Love  upon  me  scaflbld^  who  preached  his  funeral 
sermon,  and  who  knew  him  much  better  than  the  historiiuis 
who  have  aqiersed  his  character,  says.  <^  He  was  a  man 
eminent  in  grace,  of  a  singalar  life  ana  conversation,  and 
a  pattern  of  piety  most  worthy  of  imitation,  "f  *  Airatbhr 
wnter,  who  was  intimately  acquainted  with  him,  gives  an 
exceilent  account  of  his  christiaki  character  and  his  riiinis* 
terial  qualifications  and  usieMness;  and  adds: — ^<  In  all 
hiis  relation^  as  a  minister,  a  christian^  a  subject,  a  husband, 
a  friend,  and  a  father,  he  served  his  g^ieration  cm  the  eartii, 
and  made  a  swift  progress  in  his  way  to  heaven.  He  lived 
too  much  in  heaven  to  live  long  out  of  heaven ;  imd  sure 
I  am  that  he  lived  a  life  oi  heaven  upon  earth;  His 
fellowship  was  with  the  Father  and  with  bis  Son  dtim 
€hrist"t 

His  WoRK8.~I.  The  Debauclied  Cavalier,  1642.— 2.  Eng^andll 
Distemper,  1645.  This  is  the  Sermon  preached  at  Uxbridge.— r 
$.  Short  and  plain  AnimadvcrsioDs  on  some  Passages  in  Mr.  DelTI 
l^rmon  before  the  House  of  Commons,  1646.— 4.  Answer  to  an 
VkiUcensed  Pamphlet,  1647.— 6.  A  Vindication  of  England's  Dis- 
temper, 1661.^6.  Love's  Case,  1651.— 7.  Love's  Trial,  1651.— 
S.  Love's  Advocate,  1651. — 9.  A  Full  Narration  of  the  late  Dan* 
g^erous  Desi^  against  the  State,  1651. — 10.  His  Speech  and  Prayer 
upon  the  Scaffold  on  Tow^-hill,  1651.— 11.  The  Truth,  and  GHowthi 
and  different  Degrees  of  Grace,  1652. — 12.  A  Sermon  at  the  FunehJ 
of  Mrs.  B.,  1652.  This  was  the  last  sermon  he  preached. — 13.  Heaivcsn^i 
Glory  tteirs  Terror,  1653.  — 14.  The  Soul's  Cordial,  166a— 15.  A 
Treatise  of  Election  and  Effectual  Calling,  1653. — 16.  Scripture^ules 
to  be  observed  in  Buying  and  Selling,  1653.-17.  The  true  Doctrine 
of  Mortification  and  Sincerity,  in  Oppoi^ition  to  Hj^pocrisy,  1654.— 
18.  Combat  between  the  Flesh  and  Spirit,  1664.— 19.  The  Stolh  oi* 
Substance  of  Practical  Divinity,  1654. — 20.  The  Christian's  Direcfbry; 
1654.-21.  The  Dejected  Soul's  Cure,  1657.— 22.  The  Ministry  of 
the  Angels  to  the  Heirs  of  Salvation,  1657. — ^23.  The  Omnipresenoe 
of  God,  1657.--24.  The  Sinner's  Legacy  to  his  Posterity,  1657.— 
35.  The  Penitent  Pardoned,  1657.— 26.  A  Discourse  of  Christ's 
Ascension  and  Coming  to  Judgment,  1657. — 27.  The  natural  Maails 
Case  stated,  1658. — Many  of  Uie  above  articles  wet^  published  after 
the  author's  death;  and  some  of  them  came  forth  with  ike  higlr 
oommendations  of  his  brethren^ 

*  ClarendoB  and  Whitlockc  Compared,  p.  SOS. 
.  +  MantoB^s  Funeral  Sermon  for  Mr.  Love. — Thii  lentaoB  h  knH^M'^ 
**  The  Saint's  Triumph  over  Death."  The  government,  miderslainnii|p  tlidfl^ 
Dr.  Manton  intended  to  preach  Mr.  Love's  funeral  sermoh,  expreraed  lomtf 
displeasure,  and  the  soldiers  dlreatened  to  shoot  h'lvtk.  However,-  he  inm 
liot  to  be  terrified  by  sBch  dani^ers,  but  preached  it  a^  Mr.  Love's  ditnrcii  ia 
Lawrence- Jevrry^  to  a  Dumerous  congregation. — Palnurs  Noncon,  JUm* 
vol.  i.  p.  427.  j;  SloaniB'#  MfiS.  Ne.  3M& 


SAXTON.  ISO 

Saxto^,  a.  M. — This  venerable  divine  was  born 
4t  or  Bear  Bramley,  in  the  parish  of  Leeds,  in  Yiorkshire, 
aod  educated  in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  where  he 
took  his  degrees  in  arts.     He  was  admitted  preacher,  first 

?Aitcihbisbop  Hutton,  then  by  Archbishop  IVlatthews,  bcrfk 
tibe  province  of  York.  He  obtained  the  king's  presen- 
iaJ&w  as  well  as  that  of  Sir  Edward  Stanhope,  to  the  rectory 
of  Bdlington  iu  his  native  county,  as  appears  from  the 
book  of  admissions  in  the  register's  office  at  York;  where^ 
December  1, 1614,  he  made  the  usual  subscription  willingly 
d  ex  mono*  He  afterwards  saw  cause  to  change  his 
Ojmiioii;  wd  he  became  so  alienated  from  the  disciplme 
indceieqioAies  of  the  church,  that  he  is  said  to  have  called 
the  mnAice  the  whore^s  smock.* 

Him^g  espoused  the  sentiments  of  the  puritans,  and  not 
heiw  qsaaroed  to  avow  his  opinions,  he  could  find  no  rest 
ia  hiB  native  country.  The  horrors  of  cruel  persecutiaa 
having  overspread  the  nation,  he  retired  from  the  storm,  and 
sought  an  asylum  in  New  England,  where,  to  his  great 
comfinrt,  he  arrived  in  the  year  1640.  There  we  find  his* 
name,  as  minister  of  Scituate,  in  the  first  classes  of  those 
who  enlightened  the  dark  regions  of  America  by  their 
ministry. f  He  continued  some  time  in  this  situation;  but 
the  unsettled  condition  of  the  colony,  and  some  unhappy 
contentions  in  the  plantation  where  he  lived,  induced  him 
to  remove  first  to  Boston,  then  to  England,  in  his  advanced 
years.^  On  his  return  from  New  England,  the  ship  was 
overtaken  in  so  violent  a  storm,  that  the  mariners,  who  could 
not  be  brought  to  pray  before,  came  trembling  to  him  like 
dying  men ;  and  they  found  him  upon  the  deck  exulting, 
with  nis  arms  stretched  towards  heaven,  and  crying,  "  O  / 
who  is  now  for  heaven?  who  is  bound  for  heaven?'^ 

After  Mr.  Saxton's  arrival  in  his  native  coimtry,  he  had 
the  offer  of  a  considerable  living  in  Kent,  which  he  declined 
to  accept,  preferring  the  vicarage  of  Leeds  in  his  own 
county,  to  which  he  was  inducted  in  the  month  of  April, 
1646,  and  possessed  till  his  death,  which  happened  Octo- 
ber 1, 1651,  having  survived  his  daughter  Silence,  the  wife  of 
Captaui  Samuel  Pool,  to  whom  she  was  married  in  New 
England ;  but  she  died  at  Leeds,  as  did  also  his  widow  the 
Femruary  following.  He  was  a  venerable,  pious,  and 
burned  divine ;  but  he  used  many  plain  expressions,  which 
ofien  occasioned  smiles,  and  once  downright  laughter  in  a 

^  Thoresby's  Yicaria  Leodiensis,  p.  86. 

f  Mather's  Hiit.  of  New  Bug.  b.  Hi.  p.  3.  t  U>id«  p.  314 


140  LIVE?  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

country  cburcli  urberc  he  was  preaching.  His  text  wai 
Job  XI.  IS.  ^^  For  vain  man  would  be  wi^e,  though  man 
be  born  11  ice  a  wild  ami's  colt.''  He,  observing  the  irreve* 
rence  of  the  {leople,  threatened  to  malie  them  crv  before  he 
]iad  done,  and  was  as  gocxl  as  Ifis  word  when  he  came  to 
the  application.    The  a/^ed  minister,  for  whom  he  then 

tireaclied^tohl  me,  as  our  author  adds,  that  he  m.*ver  sawthe 
ike  in  that  church  before,  almost  the  whole  of  (he  congiie- 
St  ion  being  liathcd  in  tears ;  and  he  further  ohserves,^  that 
r.  Saxton  was  a  very  studious  and  learned  man,  and  a 
great  Hebrean,  and  he  constantly  carried  his  Hebrew  BiUe 
with  him  into  the  pulpit.«  There  gocn  under  his  name  a 
b^>ok,  entitkxl  <^  Christmas  Cheere ;  or,  Profitable  Notes  of 
Two  Hermons  preached  (he  S5fh  of  Deci'mber,  being  com- 
monly (how  riehtly  let  others  judge)  called  Christmas  day, 
and  n[K)n  the*  any  followin/i;,  commonly  called  8t.  8tepben*is 
day,"  1606.  Mr.  Palmer  has,  by  mistake,  classed  cor 
venerable  divine  amon^  (he  worthy  ministers  who  weta 
ejected  after  the  restorution.t 

(/EOROE  Walkbh,  B.  f). — This  learned  divine  was 
Ixini  at  Hawkshead  in  J^ancashire,  in  tlie  year  1381,  and 
iHlucatrd  in  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge.  Being  favoured 
with  reliij^ious  parents,  he  enjoyed  the  lx;neflt  of  their  pious 
inhtructioriH  v^hen  very  young,t  which  ap|xrared  of  signal 
advunt;ige  io  him  in  future  life.  Mavmg  finished  Jii» 
stu(li(*H  at  the  uiiiv<rKify,  he  went  (o  London  ;  and,  in  the 
vear  1614,  became  rector  of  St.  John  the  Kvangeli^t,  in 
Watling-street.S  Here  he  continucfd  a  faithful  andlaborioua 
nn'nihter  nearly  forty  years,  refiihin/i^  all  other  preferments, 
though  fn^iiutritly  offered  him.  He  did  not  preach  to  obtain 
'  pretcnnmf,  but  to  win  souls  to  Christ.  About  the  same 
time  he  Ix^came  chaplain  to  Dr.  Felton,  bishop  of  Kly,  who 
made  choice  of  him  the  very  morning  of  his  consecration. 
He  was  a  bold  opposer  of  popery,  and  he  engaged  several 
times  in  public  dis])utations  against  its  errors  and  super* 

•  7horc%hy\  Viraria  l^o4\en%\%,  p.  87,88. 

+  Psimrr'i  Noncoii.  Mrm.  vol,  I.  p.  377. 

i  The  fonomiuj;  coriou* anrcdute  ii rrlalcd  of  him,  whirk  wr  |;i««  willi- 
eut  comment: — **  Beinf  vi»iir<l  ubrn  a  child  viiih  ihc  small-pox, nnJ  tboM* 
who  «tooH  eipfcting  hit  HiiiMilaiion,  hr  ktarlf>d  up  oii(  of  a  tramr,  nith  fbU 
rjaciilation,  i.ord,  take  me  not  ateny  till  i  have  t/tewed  forth  thy  prithea  f 
whirh,  aflrr  hib  recovery,  induced  bit  parents  to  devote  bim  to  the  oiinii- 
Xty:''-FuUet*B  IVorthirg,  jmrt  ii.  p.  llS. 

S  Nei»coort*«  iCepcn.  £ccl.  vol.  i.  p.  375. 


WALKER.  141 

stitions.  In  the  year  1623  he  had  a  public  dispute  vith  a 
popish  priest  of  the  name  of  Smith,  before  a  yery  large 
assembly ;  and,  by  the  consent  of  botli  parties^tbe  account  of 
it  was  aiterwards  published.  He  had  many  encounters  with 
Fisher,  the  famous  Jesuit,  and  many  others,  who  were 
deemed  the  most  able  disputants  of  the  Romish  persuasion.* 

Mr.  Walker  was  a  divine  of  sterling  piety  and  strict 
Sabbatarian  principles ;  and  he  often  ureed  from  the  pulpit 
the  necessity  of  an  exact  observance  of  the  Lord^s  day.  In 
the  year  1635,  having  openly  avowed  his  sentiments  in  one 
of  his  sermons,  and  recommended  the  holy  observance  of 
the  sabbath,  as  opposed  to  a  book  published  l)y  Bisliop 
White  of  Ely,  and  set  forth  by  public  autliority,  he  wsis 
convened  before  Archbishop  Laud,  wlien  he  received 
canonical  admonition.f  In  the  year  1638  he  was  prosecuted 
and  severely  censured  in  the  star-chamber.  Having 
preached  a  sermon  in  his  own  church,  to  prove  ^^  that  it  is 
a  sin  to  obey  the  greatest  monarch  on  earth,  in  those  things 
which  stand  opp<^ed  to  the  commands  of  God,*'  he  was 
committed  twelve  weeks  to  the  custody  of  a  pursuivant,  to 
whom  he  paid  fees  to  the  amount  of  twenty  pounds.  I'pon 
his  prosecution,  he  was  shut  np  ten  weeks  close  prisoner  in 
the  Gratehouse,  and  at  last  compelled  to  enter  into  a  bond 
of  a  thousand  pounds,  to  confine  himself  pri^on^r  in  his 
brother's  house  at  Cheswick,  when  his  living  was  seques- 
tered. He  continued  a  prisoner  upwards  of  two  years,  but 
was  afterwards  released  by  an  order  of  parliament. 

His  case  was  laid  before  the  house  of  commons  in  1(>4I, 
when  it  was  resolved,  ^^  That  his  commitment  from  the 
councQ-table  for  preaching  a  sermon,  October  14.  ]6.'>i, 
and  his  detainment  twelve  weeks  for  the  same,  is  against 
the  law  and  the  liberty  of  the  subject. 

<<  That  the  prosecution  of  the  said  Walker  in  the  rtar- 
chamber,  for  preaching  the  said  sermon,  a.nd  lifs  clow 
imprisonment  thereupon  for  ten  weeks  in  the  Gat«;hoi]wr, 
and  the  payment  of  twenty  pounds  fees,  is  a^inst  Jiw  and 
the  liberty  of  the  subject 

'*  That  the  five  passages  marked  in  the  sermoa,  by  Mr. 
Attorney  and  Sir  John  Banks,  contain  no  cr.me,  r^cn  dcMTv^ 
any  censure,  nor  be  any  ponbhmmt  for  th^m. 

^  That  the  enforcing  the  said  Walker  to  e&i«y  uOo  tfce 
bond  of  one  thooBand   poaiMb.  ia  asmbmumati  i»  kis 

•  Fyiner*iWonhici,pwtH.pulia. 
'^  Wood's  Atbcaa  Oxoa.  « li.  i.  p.  Mft. 


UB  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

brother's  house  at  Cheswick,  and  his  idiprisoiiineiit  tbeir,  jm 
i^gaiiMst  law. 

<^  That  the  sequestration  of  the  parsonage  of  the  said 
Walker,  by  Sir  John  Lamb,  was- donne  without  any  wana^ 
and  against  the  law  of  the  land. 

^  Ttnit  Walker  ought  to  be  restored  to  his  parsonage, 
and  the  whole  profits  thereof,  from  the  time  m  the  said 
sequestration,  and  to  hare*  reparation  fbr  idl  such  damagei' 
as  he-  hath  sustained  by  these  several  imprisonment^  aitf 
his  casetraBsmitled  to  the  lords."* 

Mnbether  Mr.  Walker  received  any  reparation  for 
damages  we  haye  not  been  able  to  karn;  but  after  his  release' 
from  confinement,  he  returned  to  hisr  benefice  and  ndnisterial 
charge  in  Watiffig^street,  wherehe  continued  the  rest  of  ha 
days- without  further  molestation.  In  the  year  164S  he  vrar 
choeen'one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  whene,  by  his  muni- 
ficeat  and  generous  behaviour,  he  gained  a  (Hstinetddiedi 
reputation.  The  year  following  he  was  appointed' biie  cff 
the  committee  for  the  examination  and  ordinsition  of  public 
preacheiB.  The  same  year  he  was  one  of  the  witnessed 
against  ATcbbishop  Laud  at  his  trial,  when  he  deposed  tfaaf 
the  archbishop  had  endeavoured  to  introduce  arminiaoism 
and  the  popish  superstitions  into  the  church  of  England^f 
Though  Wood  reproaches  him  with  having  preached^ 
against  the  kingt  and  his  party,  he  united  with  ms  breihreiiy 
ine  London  ministers,  in  their  protestaticm  againiSt  the  kingV 
death,  declaring  that  his  majesty  ought  to  have  htatt 
rdea6ed«$  He  was  a  member  of  the  first  provincial 'as- 
sembly in  London,  and  sometimes  chosen  moderator.  Hf 
died  in  the  year  1651,  aged  seventy  years,  and  his  ren|Btiii' 
were  interred  in  his  own  church  in  Watlin^-street.  FolUr* 
says,  '^  he  was  well  skilled  in  the  oriental  languages,  and* 
an  exceHent  logician  and  divine.  He  was  a  man  oi  a^hdhr 
life,  an  humble  spirit,  and  a  liberal  hand,  who  deserved  wdCl' 
of 'Zion  college  library ;  and  who,  by  his  example  and  per- 
suasion, advanced  a  thousand  pounds  for  the  maintebaiace  of 

♦  NJrtsott's  Collections,  ▼ol.  ii.  p.  1^,  251. 

f  Prynna't'Caot.  Doome,  p.  SSO^  SS2. 

{  Dr.  Grey  charges  him  with  the  stune  crime^  for  the  proof  of  wkicli>l«- 
appeals  to  the  following  passage  in  one  of  bis  sermons :  **  After  God  liad 
rrjeeted  Saul  for  bis  ditobedience  from  being  king  oyer  Israel,*' says  Mr. 
Walker,  **  and  baddeclated  bis  parpteelo  hntf<>y  Samael,  ao'evlf  spirit  tff 
fnr^,  jealousy,  and  tyranny,  came  upon  him."  The  reader  wiU  jadge  wlnit 
degree  of  proof  it  affords.— Grey's  Ejpmmin^  TOl.^i.  p.aS9; 

S  GaJamy*s  Contin.  ¥ol.  ii.  p.  7iS* 


VICARS.  143 

meBfildne  ministen  in  his  natiye  county/'    Wood  calls 
um  ^<  a  kamed  man,  but  a  serere  puritan."* 

ffis  WoK|C8^ — 1.  The  Sum  of  a  DispnlAUon  between  Mt.  Walker^ 
Mor  of  8t^  Jolm  the  Eviui.,  and  a  Popigh  Priort,  caUing  himself  Md 
flnrnt^bpitMlcea  Norns,  192^.-2.  Fisher's FoUy  Unfolded;  ojT,  the 
Ti||ntbiftJ#siijgs  Challenge  Ajpsweredy.l^ai. — 3.  Socinianism  in  the 
FaMmsntal'  Ppi^  of  Justification  Discovered  and  Confoted,  1641. 
-^  The  dochrine'of  the  Holy  Weekly  Sabbath,  1641.-~6.  Qod  made 
^WHe  ifr  aU  Us  Woriu,  1641^--^.  Sermons  preached  befeve  tkm 
IMittMiil^lM4»&c. 

fpwi  TfCAiis Ufas.  borOf  in  the  city  of  London,  in  tho 
90ir.  i^*f8^  d«8Qende4  A;9m  the  YicaiB  in  Curnberland,  and 
edli^MM  wt^liO'  ChrM-cIiurch  hospil^  London^  then  in 
^toiyittCQii^ge^  0:v^fQrd.,  Having,  finished  his  aci^leBiical 
sMMI9.be  tebiiod  to  London,  and  hecame  udier  at  Christ's* 
lifivndl)  .which  he  kept  till:  towards  the  close^of  life.  Wood 
UriJs  Jiinfcf^  H  ppriUnical  ppet,  and  a  zealous  brother  in  the 
<MP9;*^'aQd  aays,.  that,  ''  upon  the  conunencement  of  the 
inril  W9iB>  be  diewed  his  great  forwardness  for  presbjrte-; 
nnisniy^hated.aU  people  that  loved  obedience,  and  affrighted 
Wmy  of: the  weaker  sort,,  and  others,  from  haying  any 
^poeement.  with  the  king's  party,  by  continually  inculcating 
tiBto.thdr  heads  strange  stpries  of  God's  wrath  against  the 
ttWiUcnu,  Afterwards,  when  the  independents  became 
piedominant,  he  manifested  great  enmity  against  them, 
especially  after  the  king's  death."f  He  is  said  to  haye 
^  hated  all  people  who  loved  obedience,  as  the  devil  doth 

ghfhr- water;  and  he  could  out-scold  the  boldest  face  in 
BpUngsgate,  especially  if  kings,  bishops,  or^ns,  or  may- 
9B,  .were  to  be  the  objects  of  their  zealous  indignation.''^ 
js  warmly  censured  for  calling  the  ceremonies  of  tlie 
clmirishf  <  a  stinking  heap  of  atheistical  and  Roman  rubbish ;" 
9nd.  for  saying,  ^'  Throw  away  the  rubbish  with  the  Lord's 
caMmies..  Vex  the  Midiauites,  abolish  the  Amalekites:  let 
pcmety  find  no  favour."^ 

Mr.  Vicars  was  a  most  furious  adversary  to  the  indepen'* 
dents.  The  title  of  one  of  his  pieces  written  against  tneni^ 
vtllafford  a  curious  specimen  of  the  length  to  which  the 
diffieient  parties  at  that  time  carried  their  animosity.      It  is 


«  Faller's  Worthies,  part  ii.  p.  118.— Wood's  Atheoe  Ozoo.  vol.  i. 
p.  840. 
+  Wood's  AtheDae,  vol.  ii.  p.  86,  8S. 
FoQlis^s  Hist,  of  Plots,  p.  179. 
Walker's  Attempt^  part  i.  p.  17, 18. 


! 


144  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

as  follows !  ^<  Coleman-street  Conclave  visited ;  and  tliat 
gitiad  Impostor,  the  Schismatics  Cheater  in  Chief,  (who  hath 
long  sRly  lurked  therein,)  truly  and  duly  discovered ;  con- 
taining a  mpst  palpable  and  plain  Display  of  Mr;  John 
Goodwin's  self-conviction,  (under  his  own  hand  writing,) 
and  of  the  notorious  Heresies,  Errors,  Malice,  Pride,  and 
Hypocrisy  of  this  most  hugeGaragantua  in  falsely  pretended 
Piety,  to  the  lamentable  misleamng  of  his  too  credulous 
soul-murdered  Proselytes  of  Coleman-street,  and  elsewhere: 
Cpllected  principally  out  of   his  own  big-bra^gadochio 
wave-like  swelling  and  swaggering  Writings,  full  fraught 
with  six-footed  Terms,  and  Aeshlie  rhetorical  Phrases,  &r 
more  than  solid  and  sacred  Truths,  and  may  fitly  serve,  (if  it 
be  the  Lord's  will,)  like  Belshazzar's  Hand-writing  on  the 
Wall  of  his  Conscience,  to  strike  Terror  and  Shame  into  bis 
own  Soul  and  shameless  Face,  and  to  imdeceive  bis  moflt 
miserably  cheated,  and  inchanted  or  bewitched  FollowMS,"- 
1648.    Facing  the  title  is  John  Gfoodwin's  picture,  witti  a' 
wind-mill  oyer  his  head,  and  a  weather-cock  upon  it:  Uie 
devil  is  represented  blowing  the  sails ;  and  there  are  other 
hierofflyphics  or  emblems  about  him,  "  designed,'*  says* 
Wood,  "  to  shew'the  instability  of  the  man."*    The  mie 
.  Mr.  Toplady,  in  the  fervour  of  his  zeal  against  arminianism, 
seems  highly  delighted  with  what  he  calls  ^^  this  facetious* 
title. "+     To  us,  however,  it  afibrds  a  lamentable  proof  of 
the  degradation  to  which  even  good  men  sometimes  subject 
themselves,  when  they  siifier  their  passions  to  get  the  bdter 
of  their  reason.     Such  language,  in  the  present  day,  would 
in  justice  be  treated  with  silent  contempt. 

Though  it  does  not  appear  at  what  place  Mr.  Yicatu 
laboured  ia  the  ministry,  one  of  his  name  was  beneficed  at 
Stamford  in  Lincolnshire,  and  prosecuted  for  nonconformity,: 
He  was  apprehended  by  a  pursuivant  and  cast  into  pris^Mi^ 
upon  the  bare  accusation  of  a  drunken,  popish  innkeeper^ 
where  he  continued  many  weeks  before  any  articles  were 
exhibited  against  him.  He  was  afterwards  bailed,  but 
forced  to  enter  into  bonds  not  to  so  ten  miles  from  London. 
And  when  he  was  carried  before  his  spiritual  judges,  he  was 
again  cast  into  prison,  sentenced  to  pay  a  great  fine,  and 
deprived  of  his  living,  upon  the  most  frivolous  charges^ 
which  were  disprov^   by  many  respectable  witnesses.^; 


*  Athens  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  85. 

f  Toplady*8  Historic  Proof^  vol.  i.  p.  41. 

X  Huntley's  Frelates'  Usurpations,  p.  16^. 


p.  TOUNG.  Mft 

This,  in  all  probability,  was  the  sune  pmon**  Mr.  TicMi 
died  Augnsit  IS,  1652,  aged  aeYcnly-two  ytaiM.  Hia  ie» 
mains  were  intenred  in  the  chorch  of  Christ-chnich  htripil^ 
and  over  his  grave  was  a  la^  monomental  inacripCies^ 
which,  with  the  church,  was  dotioyed  by  the  coollamtios 
in  1666. 

His  W0BK8. — 1.  A  PhMpective  Glan  to  look  into  Heaven ;  or^ 
the  Celestul  Canaan  Described,  1618.— 2.  The  Soule's  Sacred  Solilo- 
qnie,  1618.-^  England's  HalMi^ ;  or.  Great  Britain's  gratefta 
Jletribation  for  God's  gracious  Benediction  in  oar  many  and  laaMMs 
DeliYerances,  1631.-^  Qointessence  of  Cruelty;  or,  the  P^ftih 
Powder-plot  related,   16... — 6.  England's  ReaieaibriiDcer ;  or.  a 
thankful  Acknowledgement  of  Pariiamentarie  Merries  to  the  Fagliih 
l^atTon,  1641.-6^  The  Sinfulness  and  Unlawfuhiess  of  BMkiag  the 
Picture  of  Chrisfs  Humanity,  1641.— 7.  God  in  the  Mount;  or,  JSng- 
laod's  Remembrancer,  being  a  Panegerick*PfFamides  erected  to  lie 
Honour  of  England's  God,  1642^—8.  A  Looking  Ghus  for  Mattg- 
nants ;  or,  God's  Hand  against  God-haters,  1643.-1^.  God  in  the 
Mount;  or  England's  Remembrancer,  being  the  Pint  and  HttimJ 
Part  of  a  Parliamentary  Chronicle,  1644. — 10.  God's  Arkeorertoppiiy 
the  World's  Waves;  or,  a  Third  Part  of  ParlianeBtary  Chromrie. 
1646. — 11.  The  Burning-bush  not  consumed;  or,  the  Foartfa  aad 
Last  Part  of  a  Parliamentary  Chronicle,  1646.— The  three  last  artMes 
were  collected  and  published  together,  entitled,  **  MagnaUn  Dtk 
Angiicaua;  or,  England's  Parliameutarv  Chronicle,  1646. — 13.  Cole* 
man-street  Conclave  Visited,  as  noticed  above,  I64S.^>I3.  Ilie  Scbi»' 
matTck  Sifted,  16 . . .— 14L  Soul-saving  Knowledge,  lu*.,  16 . . .— lA.  The 
Picture  of  a  Puritan,  16. . . — 16.  Dagon  DeuMlisfaed ;  or,  Twenty  admir- 
able Examples  of  God's  severe  Justice  and  Dispteasnrr  against  the 
Subsi^ribers  of  the  late  En^psgement  against  the  King  and  the  whole 
House  of  Peers,  166D.— He  also  published  several  Traaslatioos  of 
the  Works  of  learned  Men,  among  which  was  "Mischief's  Mysterie; 
or.  Treason's  Master-piece,  the  Powder-plot,  invented  by  Hellish 
Malice,  prevented  by  Heavenly  Means,"  1617.    This  was  ttceascd; 
and  a  new  edition  aftenwards  being  wanted,  he  waited  upon  Dr. 
Baker,  chaplain  to  Archbishop  Land,  requesting  to  have  the  license 
renewed,  when  the  doctor  refased,  saving,  "  We  are  not  so  aagry 
with  the  papists  now  as  we  were  twenty  }ears  ago."! 

Patrick  Young,  A.  M.— This  celebrated  scholar  was 
born  at  Seaton  in  Scotland,  August  29,  1584,  and  educated 
in  the  university  of  St.  Andrews,  where  he  took  his  degrees 
in  arts,  and  was  afterwards  incorporated  at  Oxfortl.  He 
was  the  son  of  Sir  Peter  Young,  joint  tutor  with  Buchanan 
lo  Jaines  I.,  and  afterwards  employed  by  the  king  in  various 
ncgociations,  and  rewarded  with  a  pension.    Upon  tha 

•  Haatley^  Prriatei'  Umrpatioa^  p.  ISS.  / 

f  Pryone^s  Cast.  Dooae,  p.  1S4. 

TOL.  III.  L 


146  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Accession  of  James  to  the  crown  of  England,  bis  father 
accompanied  him  to  this  country,  and  placed  Patrick  in  the 
fymily  of  Dr.  Lloyd,  bishop  of  Chester,  from  whom  he 
derived  great  assistance  in  his  literary  pursuits.  In  the  year 
1605  he  went  to  Oxford,  entered  into  deacon's  orders,  aad 
was  elected  chaplain  of  New  College.  He  employed  him- 
self in  this  seat  of  the  muses  in  the  assiduous  study  of 
ecclesiastical  history  and  antiquities,  and  of  the  Greek 
language,  in  which  he  acquired  an  extraordinary  knowledge. 
On  his  removal  from  the  university  he  went  to  London, 
with  the  intention  of  obtaining  preferment  at  court,  to  which 
be  had  easy  access  by  means  of  his  father.  One  of  his 
principal  patrons  was  Dr.  James  Montague,  bishop  of  Bath 
and  Wells,  through  whose  interest  he  obtained  a  pension 
from  the  kins  of  nfty  pounds  a  year ;  and  as  he  was  master 
of  an  d^antXatin  ^yle^  his  pen  was  occasionally  employed 
by  his  majesty,  and  by  some  other  persons  in  power,  in 
writing  letters ;  and  he  was  also  engaged  in  examining  the 
trchiv^  of  the  kingdom.* 

It  was  one  of  the  first  objects  of  his  ambition  to  obtain  the 
post  of  keeper  of  Prince  Henry's  library  aiid  museum,  in 
the  palace  of  St.  James's,  which  was  his  residence.  In  this 
be  fiuled;  but  he  was  afterwards,  through  the  influence  of 
his  patron.  Bishop  Montague,  elected  librarian  to  the  king. 
To  the  royal  library  Mr.  Young  was  a  most  assiduous 
visitor,  spending  the  greatest  part  of  his  time  in  it,  and,  at 
the  king^s  command,  classing  its  contents  in  catalogues.  Hn 
had  fir^uent  literary  conversations  with  his  majesty,  who 
placed  nim  in  this  situation,  for  which  he  was  so  wcQ 
qualified.  By  his  persuasion,  on  the  death  of  the  very 
learned  Isaac  Casaubon,  in  1614,  with  whom  he  was 
familiarly  acquainted,  the  king  purchased  most  of  his  books 
and  manuscripts  for  the  library.  Also,  for  the  purpose  of 
augmenting  tne  stores  committed  to  his  care,  he  was  venr 
desirous  of  visiting  the  continent,  but  was  unable  to  put  his 
c^ign  in  execution  till  1617,  when  he  went  to  Paris,  t9king 
with  him  recommendatory  letters  from  the  learned  Caindefli 
to  some  of  his  literary  acquaintance  in  that  metropolis.  Bj 
their  means  he  was  introduced  to  various  other  emineni 
men,  with  whom,  by  the  sweetness  of  his  disposition,  anjd 
the  candour  and  urbanity  of  his  manners,  he  ingn^ti^^d 
liimseli^  and  also  rendered  himself  peculiarly,  dear  to  ^f^ 
with  whom  he  was  Connected.     After  his  return,  he  assistea 

•  Bios.  Britaa.  vol.  viii.  p.  438a--Aikiii's  Life  of  Seldeo  asS  UsKer. 

p.ser.  ^  .  .    . 


R  YOUNG.  147 

Mr.  Thomas  Rhead  in  making  a  Latin  Teman  of  tbe 
works  of  King  James,  a  task  undoubtedly  oonsideied  at 
highly  important  by  the  royal  author.  This  translaliooi 
^^  which/'  says  Dr.  Smith,  ^<  will  extend  to  all  eiemiitf  the 
fame  of  this  most  learned  king,"  appeared  in  1619;  and 
Mr.  Young  was  deputed  to  csary  the  present  cc^y  from  his 
majesty  to  the  university  of  Cambridge,  which  was  received 
Yfith  ail  due  respect  in  solemn  convocation. 

Mi.  Young,  in  the  year  16S0,  entered  into  tlie  married 
atate ;  and,  about  the  same  time,  though  oiil^  in  deaooa*i 
orders,  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Havs  m  Middlesex, 
and  the  rectory  of  Llanindimel  in  Denbighshire,*  and  was 
aoon  after  collated  to  a  prebend  of  St.  Paul's,  London,  and 
chosen  to  the  oflSce  of  treasurer  of  that  church*  In  1684, 
on  the  deatti  of  Mr.  Khead,  he  was  reconmiended  by  Bishop 
Williams,  then  keeper  of  the  great  seal,  to  the  Duke  of 
Buckingham,  as  the  fittest  person  in  the  kingdom  to  succeed 
him  in  the  o&ce  of  Latin  secretary.  Although  be  had 
hitherto  published  nothing  in  his  own  name,  be  appears 
to  have  acquired  a  high  character  among  tlie  leamea,  both 
at  home  and  abroad,  many  of  the  latter  of  whom  corres- 
ponded  with  him  upon  literary  topics,  and  received  from 
faim  many  signal  advantages.  When  the  cckbrated  John 
Selden  undertook  to  examine  the  Arundelian  Marbles,  he 
chose  Mr.  Young  for  one  of  his  companions;  and  he 
derived  so  much  assistance  from  him  in  drawing  up  the 
account  of  these  valuable  remains  tliat,  rasing  bv  all 
patrons  of  higher  rank,  he  inscribed  his  '<  Marmon  Arun- 
deleana"  to  Mr.  Youog,  in  an  afTectionate  and  gnlefal 
dedication,  which  confers  honour  on  both  the  frieo&f 

The  femous  Alexandrian  manuscript  of  the  Old  and 
New  Testament  being  added  to  the  treasurrs  of  the  royal 
library,  Mr.  Young  employed  himself  assiduously  in  ool- 
lating  it  with  other  manuscripts  and  printed  books,  and 
(x>nmiunicatcd  many  various  readings  to  Grolin%  Usher, 
and  other  learned  men.     It  was  his  intention  to  print  the 
whole  in  typ:^s  similar  to  the  letters  of  the  original,  and  he 
published  a  specimen  of  his  design ;  but  some  circiunstances 
occurred  to  prevent  it  from  being  accomplished.)  The  cause 
of  its  failure  Bishop  Kennet  ascribes  to  the  puritans;  and 
says,  ^^  that  religion  and  learning  were  so  little  countenanced 
by  the  parliament  and  assembly  of  divines,  that  they  nevtr 


•  Walkci*!  Attemm,  part  il.  p.  SO. 

•f-  Aikio*t  Lives  of  Seldea  aod  Uihcr,  p.  S6S— 971. 

t  Ibid.  p.  S7«. 


14d  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

called  for  the  work,  and  so  it  was  left  unfinished."*  What 
degree  of  credit  is  due  fo  this  statement,  every  reader  who 
is  at  all  conversant  with  the  history  of  this  period  wiH 
easily  judge.  Wood  observes,  "  that  the  laborious  task 
was  undertaken  by  the  request  of  the  assembly  of  divinci,*' 
and,  towards  the  close  of  the  year  1645,  an  ordinance  was 
read  for  printing  and  publishing  it.  He  had  for  his  assistants 
the  learned  Selden  and  Whitlocke ;  but  why  it  was  never 
C(»npleted  he  could  never  leam.f  Another  writer  affirms, 
that  the  premature  death  of  Mr.  Young  prevented  the 
accmnplishment  of  the  design ;  after  which  it  was  takoi  up 
l)y  Dr.  Grabe.t 

Mr.  Young,  however,  in  the  year  1633,  edited,  frcmi  the 
same  manuscript,  the  ^'  Epistles  of  Clemens  Romanus;" 
and,  in  the  year  1637,  he  published,  with  a  Latin  version, 
<^  Catena  Graecorum  Patrum  Jobum,  coUectore  Niceta 
Heradeae  Metropolita."  In  1638,  he  published  '^  £rpo8ito 
in  Canticum  Canticorum  Folioti  Episcopi  Londineniris,  una 
cum  Alcuini  in  idem  Canticum  Compendio."  This  work 
was  written  by  Gilb.  Foliot,  bishop  oi  London,  in  the  reign 
of  Henry  II.  He  greatly  contributed  to  the  publication  of 
Walton's  Polyglot  Bible,  particularly  by  his  annotations  in 
vol.  vi.  of  that  learned  producticm.  He  continued  in  the 
office  of  librarian  till  the  king's  death ;  and  had  mad^pre- 
parations  for  editing  various  other  manuscripts  from  the 
royal  library,  besides  those  mentioned  above,  but  the  con- 
fusions of  the  times  prevented  their  publication.  After  his 
death,  most  of  his  Greek  and  Latin  manuscripts,  collected 
and  written  with  his  own  hand,  came  to  the  possesion  of 
the  celebrated  Dr.  John  Owen.§ 

FrcMn  the  concurrent  testimony  of  Anthony  Wood  and 
Dr.  Walker,  it  is  certain  that  Mr.  Young  espoused  the 
sentiments  and  cause  of  the  presbyterians,  aiid  we  have  no 
evidence  that  he  ever  declined  from  them  afterwanfs; 
therefore,  be  is  with  justice  classed  among  the  puritan 

•  Keiiiiet*8  Hist,  of  Eog.  vol.  iii.  p.  148. 

f  Wood's  Albena  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  794. 

%  Aikin^  Lives  of  Selden  and  Usher,  p.  145.— This  fiunous  maiHMcript 
is  now  deposited  in  the  British  Museum  $  but  Dr.  Grabe  never  accompilished 
kis  desifo.  However,  in  the  year  1786,  Dr.  Woide,  by  anezampled 
laboar  and  care,  published  a  most  perfect  fac-simile  of  the  If  em  TVstoMsefff, 

Eriated  in  types  resemblinf  the  characters  of  IIm  original.    Tbe  Rev.  Mr. 
^ber,  one  of  the  librarians  of  the  British  Museum,  has  lately  published  a 
fac-simile  of  the  Paahns,  and  has  also  this  year,  1813,  announced  hii 
intention  of  pnblisbiog  the  Ptntattuch  in  a  flimilar  ttjrle. 
S  Wood's  AthensB,  vol.  i.  p.  794. 


D.  R06BM.  149 

wortUes.*  UpoD  his  lemoval  from  tbe  oSceof  libmiaiiy 
be  retired  to  the  liouae  bf  Us  aon-in-law,  at  Bromfield'  u 
Essex,  where  he  was  taken  off  by  an  acute  disease,  Seplen- 
ber  7, 1652,  aged  sixty-eiriit  years.  His  corpse  was  iiitened 
in  the  chancel  of  Braaifidd  church,  and  over  his  grave  was 
laid  a  stone  of  black  marble,  with  the  following  monumental 
inscription  :f 

Here  onder 

lieth  the  body  of  Patrick  Young,  eiq. 

Son  of  Sir  Peter  Young,  knt 

who  left  two  daughters 

N   and  coheh'estei. 

Elizabeth  married  to  John  Attwood,  eiq. 

and  Sarah  married  Sir  Samuel  Bose,  knt 

He  died  September  7, 1662. 

Mr.  Young  was  a  penon  most  celebrated  both  for  pietj 
and  erudition,  and  one  of  the  most  distinguished  Grecians 
of  the  age.  Bishop  Montague  used  to  style  him,  ^<  the 
patriarch  of  the  Greeks. "t  Of  his  character,  both  as  a 
scholar  and  a  man,  abundant  eulogies,  from  persons  of 
literary  distinction,  are  annexed  to  Dr.  Smithy's  biographical 
memoir  of  him.  He  was  consulted  by  most  of  the  great 
ftcliola^  in  Europe :  as,  Fronto-Ducaeus,  Sirmondus,  reta- 
vius,  Grotiiis,  Yalesius,  Salmasius,  Vossius,  Casaubon, 
Usher,  Selden,  and  many  others. 


Daniel  Rogers,  B.  D. — This  excellent  divine  was  bom 
in  the  year  1573,  and  educated  in  Christ's  college,  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  was  chosen  fellow.  He  was  son  to  Mr. 
Richard  Rogers,  of  Wethersfield  in  Essex,  and  brother  to 
Mr.  Ezekiel  Rogers,  both  eminent  puritan  divines.  Upon 
his  removal  from  the  university,  he  was  some  time  mimster 
at  Haversham  in  Buckinghamshire;  afterwards  at  Wetlien- 
jGeld,  the  place  of  his  birth,  though  not  the  immediate  suc- 
cessor of  his  fatlier.  In  the  latter  situation,  however,  he  met 
with  some  trouble  under  the  persecution  of  Bishop  Laud. 
This  unmerciful  prelate  was  no  sooner  advanced  to  the  see 
of  London,  than  he  proceeded  with  the  utmost  severity, 
against  the  nonconformists  in  his  diocese ;  and,  in  the  year 
1689,  great  numbers,  for  preaching  against  arminianism  and 

•  Wood's  Athene,  vol.  i.  p.  7M.— Walker*!  Attempt,  part  ii.  p^  SO. 
f  Biog.  BriiM.  yol.  vii.  p.  4819.       {  Walker's  Attempt,  part  il.  p.  M. 


150  LIVES  or  THS  PUIIITANS. 

the  popish  ceranonies^  were  suspended  and  brought  into 
other  troubles.  Amonff  the  numerous  suflerers' from  this 
intolerant  prelate  was  Mr.  Rogers.*  It  does  not  appear 
how  long  he  ccmtinued  under  the  ecclesiastical  oppression^ 
or  whether  he  ever  obtained  his  lordship's  favour.     In  the 

J  ear  1643,  one  of  his  name,  a  godly  and  orthodox  divine, 
ecame  rector  of  Green's  Norton  in  Northamptonshire,  the 
living  b^ing  sequestered  from  the  Bishop  of  Oxford  for  his 
malignancy  against  the  parliament.  This  was  most  pro- 
bably the  same  person,  but  he  did  not  enjoy  the  benefice 
any  long  time,  resigning  it  into  the  hands  of  those  from 
whom  he. received  the  presentation.+  But  whether  this  was, 
indeed,  the  same  person,  or  another  of  his  name,  it  is 
certain  Mr.  Rogers  spent  his  last  years  among  his  beloved 
people  at  Wethersfield. 

He  was  a  man  of  great  parts,  great  grace,  and  great 
infirmities.  He  bad  a  natural  temper  so  remarkablv  i>ad, 
tarnishing  the  lustre  of  his  eminent  graces,  that  the  mmous 
Mr.  John  Ward  used  to  say,  "  My  brotber  Rogers  bath 

5 race  enough  for  tzsH>  men ;  but  not  enough  for  himself.** 
'hough  he  was  a  man  of  most  distinguished  talents,  and 
received  the  high  applause  of  all  who  knew  him,  yet  he 
enjoyed  so  lar^e  a  portion  of  the  grace  of  God,  that  he 
was  never  lifted  up  in  his  own  eyes,  but  always  discovered 
a  very  low  opinion  of  himself.  During  the  last  year  of  his 
life,  says  our  author,  he  exclaimed,  in  ray  presence,  *'  O 
cousin !  I  would  exchange  circumstances  with  the  meanest 
christian  in  Wethersfield,  who  bath  only  the  soundness  of 
grace  in  him."j:  Afterwards,  he  was  seized  with  a  quartan 
ague,  which  greatly  affected  his  head;  and  though  he 
recovered,  he  continued  to  be  exercised  with  painful  appre* 
hensions  about  the  safety  of  his  own  state.  He  often  said, 
"  To  die  is  work  by  itself."  But  as  the  hour  of  his  dq)ar« 
ture  approached,  the  frame  of  his  mind  b^ame  more  serene 
and  happy ;  and,  upon  a  review  of  the  work  of  Christ,  be 
oft^n  exclaimed,  "  O  glorious  redemption."  He  died  in 
the  month  of  September,  1652,  about  eighty  years  of  afe.^ 
Crosby  intimates  that  Mr.  Rogers  was  inclined  to  the  pecanar 
sentunents  of  the  baptists ;  and  that  he  candidly  declared 
that  he  was  not  convinced,  by  any  part  of  scripture^  in 
fiivbur  of  infant  baptism.)) 

•  Prynne*s  Cant.  Doom^,  p.  373.  f  Keonet*!  Chronicle,  p.  809. 

t  Finnin*8  Real  Christian,  Pref. 

S  MS.  Chronolo|ry,  toI.  ii.  p.  485.  (19  |  4.) 

I  Craibj't  Hbf .  of  BapCiits,  irol.  I.  p.  107. 


COTTON.,  151 

Titis,  howeyer,  is  a  very  paitial  and  inconect  statanenty 
IS  will  appear  from  Mr.  Hogers's  own  words.  Speaking  of 
tte  improper  use  made  of  ms  words  by  a  Gertain  writer,  iA 
ftfoor  of  the  peculiar  sentiments  of  the  baptists,  he  says, 
^If  I  were  to  answer  that  anabaptist,  I  should  answer  mm 
i&Mcni  el  cantemptUj  by  silence  and  contempt.  For  why 
ihoakl  I  not  ?  since  in  that  very  place  of  my  ^'  Sacraments,'' 
part  L  p.  78,  79,  where  I  confute  those  schismatics,  he 
mtches  my  words  trom  their  own  defence.  My  words 
aie,  <  I  confess  myself  unconvinced  by  any  demonstration  of 
fcriptare  for  psBdobaptism;'  meaning  by  any  posUrve  text. 
What  is  that  to  help  him,  except  I  thought  diere  were  no 
other  arguments  to  evince  it  ?  JVow,  what  I  think  of  that 
mj  next  words  shew.  I  need  not  transcribe  them.  In  a 
word,  this  I  say,  though  I  know  none,  yet  that  is  no  argo* 
ment  fox  the  non-baptizing  of  infants;  since  so. many 
scciptiires  are  sufficiently  convinciog  for  it.  Therefore,  this 
mnt  €f  ^positive  text  must  no  more  exclude  infants,  than  the 
like  reason  should  disannul  the  christian  sabbath,  or  women 
fipm  partaking  of  the  Lord's  supper."*  Mr.  Rogers  was  a 
divine  of  great  fame  and  usefulness  in  his  day.  He  is 
dassed  among  the  learned  writers  and  fellows  of  Christ's 
college,  Cambridge,  and  styled  a  divine  of  vast  parts.f 


Works. — 1.  David's  Cost,  wherein  every  one  who  is  desirous 
to  serve  God  aright  may  see  what  it  must  Cost  him,  1619. — %  A 
Practical  Catechism,  1633. — 3.  Naaman  the  Syrian,  his  Disease  and 
Care,  1642. — 4.  Matrimonial  Honour,  1642.-- 5.  A  Treatise  on  ths 
Sacraments. 


John  Cotton,  B.  D. — This  celebrated  person  was  bom 
«t  Derby,  December  4,  1585,  and  educated  first  in  Trinitv, 
then  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge,  in  the  latter  of  which  be 
was  chosen  fellow.  He  received  some  convictions  of  sia 
under  the  awakening  sermons  of  the  famous  Mr.  Perkins ; 
hat  his  prejudice  and  enmity  against  true  holiness,  and 
against  this  holy  man's  preaching,  were  so  great,  that  when 
he  heard  the  bell  toll  for  Mr.  Perkins's  funeral,  he  greatly 
igoiced  that  he  was  then  delivered  from  his  heart-searching 
niinistry.  The  remembrance  of  this,  when  afterwards  he 
became  acquainted  with  the  gospel,  almost  broke  his  heart. 
The  ministry  of  the  excellent  Dr.  Sibbs  proved  the  meant 

*  Marshairs  Defence  of  Infant  Baptiim,  p.  ft,  6.    Edit.  1646. 
>  FoUer'ft  Hist,  of  Cam.  p.  92. 


I5t  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

of  Us  awakeniDg,  and  of  leadiiiff  him  to  the  knowledge  of 
Jesus  Christ ;  yei  he  laboured  tbiee  years  under  the  most 
disoQusolate  and  painful  apprehensions,  before  he  expe* 
rienced  jey  and  peace  in  believing.  After  this  im- 
portant change,  Mr.  Cotton  had  to  preach  at  St.  Manr's 
church,  when  the  wits  of  the  various  colleges  expected  a 
sermon  flourishing  with  all  the  learning  of  the  university: ; 
but,  to  their  great  disappointment  and  mortification,  he 
preached  a  judicious  and  impressive  discourse  on  repent-* 
auce,  shooting  the  arrows  of  conviction  to  their  consciences. 
And  though  most  of  the  coU^iuns  manift^sted  their  disap- 
probation, this  sermon  was  instruipental,  under  Grod,  in  the 
conversion  of  the  celebrated  Dr.  Preston,  then  fellow  of 
Queen's  college.  From  this  time,  the  greatest  intimacy  and 
affection  subsisted  betwixt  these  two  learned  divines. 

Mr.  Cotton,  upon  his  leaving  the  university,  was  chosen 
minister  of  Boi^n  in  Lincolnshire;  but  Bishop  Barlow, 
suspecting  him  to  be  infected  with  puritanlsm,  used  Jus 
utmost  endeavours  to  prevent  his  settlement.  The  learned 
prelate  could  openly  object  nothing,  only  "  that  Mr.  Cotton 
was  young,  and,  on  this  account,  not  suitable  to  be  fixed 
among  so  numerous  and  factious  a  people."  Indeed,  Mr. 
Cotton  had  so  much  modesty,  and  so  low  an  opinion  of 
himself,  that  he  at  first  agreed  with  his  lordship,  and 
intended  to  have  returned  to  Cambridge ;  but  his  numerous 
friends,  anxious  to  have  him  settled  among  them,  persuaded 
t|ie  bishop  of  his  great  learning  and  worth,  who  at  length 
granted  his  institution.* 

Mr.  Cotton  met  with  a  more  favourable  reception  than 
could  have  been  expected.  From  the  convictions  and 
distress  under. which  he  laboured,  ail  the  people  clearly  saw. 
Chat,  instead  of  serving  any  particular  party,  his  great 
Ccmcem  for  some  time  was  about  his  own  salvation.  J^t, 
afterwards,  the  troubles  in  the  town,  occasioned  by « the 
wrminian  controversy,  became  so  great,  that  he  was  obliged 
to  use  his  utmost  endeavours  to  allay  them.  .And  h^  is  said 
to  have  so  defended  the  scripture  doctrines  of  election,  par* 
ticulfir  redemption,  effectual  calluig,  and  the  final  per^e- 
Terance  of  the  saints,  that,  by  the  blessing  of  Grod  up<Hi 
Us  efforts,  the  foundations  of  arminianism  were  destroyed, 
those  disputes  ceased,  and  the  arminian  tenets  were  heard  of 
no  more.t 

Mr.JCotton  married  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Horrocks,  sister  to 

•  Mather's  Hist,  of  New  Eugland,  b.  iii.  p.  14—16. 

f  Ibid.  p.  17. ^Clark's  LiTes  aoocKed  to  tis  Marty rologio,  p.  8|0k 


COTTON;  I5S 

Mr.  James  Horrocks,  an  excdlent  minister  in  LancasUie. 
On  the  very  day  of  his  marriage,  it  is  observed,  he  inl 
obtained  that  assurance  of  his  inlerrat  in  the  favour  of  God, 
"which  he  never  lost  to  the  day  of  his  death.  He  therefbie 
u^ed  to  say,  ^<  The  Lord  made  that  day  a  day  of  dombk 
marriage." 

This  worthy  servant  of  Christ  having  been  about  three 
years  at  Boston,  began  to  examine  the  corruptions  in  the 
church,  and  to  scruple  conformity  to  its  supenlitious  cere* 
monies.  He  did  not  keep  his  sentiments  to  himself.  What* 
ever  appeared  to  him  to  be  tnUh^  he  freely  and  fully  made 
known  to  others.  Such,  indeed,  was  the  influence  of  kit 
opinions,  that  nearly  all  the  inhabitants  of  tlie  town,  it  k 
said,  espoused  his  sentiments,  and  became  decided  noncon* 
formists.  But  complaints  were  presently  brought  a^inst 
him  to  the  bishop,  and  he  was  suspended  from  his  ministry. 
During  his  suniension,  his  liberty  was  attend  to  him,  with 
very  great  preferment,  if  he  would  have  conformed  to  the 
ecclesiastical  ceremonies,  though  it  were  only  in  one  act 
JBut  he  refused  to  pollute  his  conscience  by  the  observance 
of  such  base,  worldly  allurements.  He  did  not,  however^ 
continue  long  under  the  ecclesiastical  censure,  but  was  sooa 
restored  to  his  beloved  work  of  preaching.* 

The  storm  haying  blown  over,  he  enjoyed  rest  for  many 
years ;  and,  during  the  calm,  iVas  always  abounding  in  the 
work  of  the  Lord.    In  addition  to  his  constant  preachings 
and  visiting  his  people  trom  house  to  house,  he  took  many 
young  men  under  his  tuition,  from  Camtnridb^,  Holkn^ 
and  Germany.  Dr.  Preston  usually  recommenued  his  pupib 
to  finish  their  studies  under  Mr.  Cotton.    His  indefatigable 
labours,  both  as  pastor  and  tutor,  proved  a  blessing  to 
many.    There  was  so  pleasing  a  reformation  among  the 
people  of  Boston,  that  superstition  and  profaneness  weie 
nearly  extinguished,  and  practical  religion  abounded  in 
eyety  corner  of  the  town.    The  mayor  and  moat  of  the 
magistrates  were  styled  puritans,  and  the  ungodly  paitj 
became  insignificant. 

Mr.  Cotton,  after  a  close  and  unbiassed  examination  of  ' 
the  controversy  about  ecclesiastical  discipline,  was   de-    - 
cidedly  of  opinion,  that  it  was  unhiwful  for  any  church  to 
enjoin  rites  and  ceremonies  not  enjoined  by  Jesus  Christ  ^ 
or  his  apostles ;  that  a  bishop,  according  to  the  New  Terfa. 
meat,  was  appomted  to  rule  no  larger  a  diocese  than  ooe 

«  Matktr't  HiH.  k  Ui.  p.  IT. 


154  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

congregation ;  and  that  the  kejrs  of  govemment  were  ^ivei 
to  every  ccMigr^ational  church.  The  public  "worship  of 
Grod  at  Boston  was,  therefore,  conducted  without  the  fetter* 
and  formality  of  a  liturgy,  pr  those  vestments  and  cere** 
monies  which  were  imposed  by  the  commandments  oi  men. 
Many  of  his  people  united  together  as  a  christian  church, 
and  enjoyed  the  fellowship  of  the  gospel,  upon  congre- 
gational principles,  ^'  entering  into  a  covenant  with  God 
and  one  another,  to  follow  the  Lord  Jesus  in  all  the  purify 
of  gospel  worship.  "♦ 

Mr.  Cotton  was  a  celebrated  divine,  apd  obtained  a  most 
distinguished  reputation.  The  best  of  men  greatly  heed 
him,  and  the  worst  greatly  feared  him.  For  his  gpreat 
learning,  piety,  and  usefulness,  he  was  highly  esteemed  by 
Bishop  Williams,  who,  when  he  was  keeper  of  the  great 
seal,  recommended!  him  to  the  king,  and  his  majesty  allowed 
him,  notwithstanding  his  nonconformity,  to  continue  in  t&e 
exercise*  of  his  ministry. +  The  celebrated  Archbishop 
Usher  had  the  highest  opinion  of  him,  and  maintained  a 
friendly  correspondence  with  him.  One  of  his  letters, 
written  by  the  learned  prelate's  request,  dated  May  Slj 
1636,  is  upon  the  subject  of  predestination.}    He  was  also 

freatiy  admired  and  esteemed  by  the  Earl  of  Dorset,  who 
indly  promised  him,  that,  if  he  should  ever  want  a  friend 
at  court,  he  would  use  all  his  interest  in  his  favour.^  But, 
in  the  midst  of  all  this  honour  and  applause,  his  meekqess 
and  humility  remained  untarnished. 

Mr,  -Cotton,  having  preached  at  Bost(Hi  nearly  iweAtj 
years,  found  it  impossible  to  continue  any  longer.  Hfe 
beheld  the  storm  of  persecntion  Ikst  approaching,  and 
wisely  withdrew  from  it,  A  debauched  fellow  of  Boston, 
to  be  revenged  upon  the  magistrates,  for  punishing  him 
according  to  bis  deserts,  brought  complaints  against  them^ 
together  with  Mr.  Cotton,  in  the  high  commission  court ; 
and  sworcjll  "  That  neither  the  minister  nor  tl^e  magbtrntei 
of  the  town  kneeled  at  the  sacrament,  nor  observed  certain 

•  Mather's  History,  b.  iii.  p.  18. 

+  FuHer's  Church  Hirtory,  b.  \x.  p.  2«S. 

i  Parr's  lilfe  of  Usher,  p.  3S8.  ' 

S  Clark's  Lives,  p.  280,  22\.  \ 

I  When  this  vile  infonner  first  appeared  before  the  cpminitsioD,  he  eon- 
plained  only  of  the  magistrates ;  and  when  the  spiritual  rulers  said  hh 
must  include  Mr.  Cotton,  he  leplied,  ^*  Nay,  the  iniui«t«r;}4  an  lioaest  auw, 
and  never  did  me  any  \vrong."  But  when  they  signified  that  all  his  com- 
plaints would  be  to  no  purpose,  unless  he  included  th«  miniiteri  he  twort 
•gainst  them  all.--4fa/Acr*«  Hist.  b.  iii.  p,  19. 


COTTON.  155 

9 

(Bcdenastidal  ceremonies."    Bishop  Land  having  got  the 
leuM  of  goyernment  into  his  own  hand,  by  his  arbitrarj 
influence,   lett^^rs  missive  were  sent  down  to  apprehend 
Ifr.CSoCton  and  bring  him  before  the  commission ;  blithe 
viwiy  concealed  himself.   Great  intercessions  were  made  fiir 
Itim  by  the  £ari  of  Dorset  and  others,  but  all  to  no  purposa 
This  worthy  earl  sent  him  word,  ''  That  if  he  had  been 
^  goilty  of  drunkenness  or  uncleaoness,  or  any  such  lesser 
^  crime,  be  could  have  obtained  his  pardon :  but  as  he  was 
^'gailty  of  nonconformifv  and  purltanism,  the  crime  was 
^  Qnpairdonible.    Therefore,"  said  he,  '^  vou  must  fly  for 
"your  safi»ty."*     So  it  was  undoubtedly  from  painful 
experioice,  that  Mr.  Cotton  afterwards  made  the  following 
complaint:  ^^  The  ecclesiastical  courts,"  said  he,  ^' are  lik^ 
tiie  courts  of  the  high-priests  and  pharisees,  which  Solomon, 
by  a  spirit  of  prophesy,  styleth,  dens  of  lions^  and  mountamt 
of  leopards.    Those  who  have  had  to  do  with  them  have 
Ifonod  thcfm  to  be  markets  of  the  sins  of  the  people,  the 
cages  of  uncleanness,  the  forgers  of  extortion,  the  taber- 
nacles of  bribery,  and  contrary  to  the  end  of  civil  govern- 
ment; which  is  the  punishment  of  evil-doers,  and  the 
praise  of  them  that  do  well." 

Am  this  holy  and  excellent  divine  had  no  prospect  of  ever 
enjoying  his  liberty  in  his  native  country,  he  resolved  to 
transpoit  himself  to  New  England.  Upon  his  departure 
from  Boston,  he  wrote  a  very  modest  and  pious  letter  to  the 
Bishop  of  Lincoln,  dated  May  7,  1633,  signifying  bis 
resignation  of  the  living.t  Dr.  Anthony  Tuckney,  after- 
waras  silenced  in  1692,^  who  had  for  some  time  been  his 
assistant,  became  his  successor  in  the  pastoral  office.  Mr. 
Cotton's  resolution  to  remove  into  a  foreign  land  was  not 
hasty  and  without  consideration  :  the  undertaking  was  the 
lesalt  of  mature  examination,  and  founded  upon  most  sub* 
stantial  reasons.  He  observed,  that  the  door  of  public 
Qsefulness  was  shut  against  him  in  his  own  country ;  that 
oar  Lord  commands  his  disciples,  when  they  are  persecuted 

•  Mather's  Hist.  b.  iii.  p.  19.— While  this  pious,  learned  and  aseful 
dWioe  was  treated  with  great  severity,  persons  guilty  of  drunkenness 
aad  other  fool  crimes,  very  common  among  the  clergy  of  those  times,  were 
very  seldom  noticed.  One  instance,  however,  it  may  be  proper  here  to 
■MBtion*  The  mayor  of  Arundel,  in  the  year  1634,  imprisoned  a  clergy- 
maa  for  notorious  drunkenness  and  misbehaviour,  though  he  continued  oniyx 
oae  oiffat  aoder  confinement.  But,  surprising  as  it  may  appear,  the 
mayor,  for  this  act  of  justice,  was  fined  and  censured  by  the  hifh  com« 
Bisiion  at  Lambeth. — Huntley's  Prelate*'  Usurpations,  p.  164* 

f  Massachasets'  Papers,  249—251. 

X  Palmer*!  Noaaon.  Mem.  vol.  i.  p.  264. 


158  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

■ymxl ;  «Iiir.b  wa«  donft  arcoidinglr.  Till  this  platfom 
«M  ndfiitttfl,  tin:  ch'irrhn  f>t'  N'ew  Enfrlaivl  made  freqaent 
mK  of  Mr.  iUiWm\  l>ook,  entitled,  '^  Tfie  Keys  of  the  King- 

t'b'tH  rrhhn.tril  dij'iae,  ftfter  his  removal  to  New  England, 
hiiUl  n  frir^mlly  <»fTopo.idettce  willi  muiy  persons  of  dis- 
lirif^ion  in  liiii  iiatire  coiihtr/,  among  whom  was  the  Pio- 
Irctin  (iTfmtWKil,  One  of  the  prolrctor'n  It-tters,  written  with 
hin  own  liantt,  dat^d  fictober  2,  1653,  is  here  insrrted 
w^rlMUirn,  for  the  iviti<ifaclinn  nf  every  inquisitire  reader. 
TlifiaddremJii,  «  To  my  estcnned  frit-nd,  Mr.  Cotton,  pastor 
Uf  the  f;hiirrh  at  Boston  m  New  EnglaJid;"  and  the  letter 
ilnelCit 'U)  follown: 

"  Worthy  Nir,  nml  my  christian  friend, 

**  I  rccrjml  yours  a  few  daycs  since.  It  was  welcome 
*'  to  ine  IfccaiiM;  iii;r|iitl  by  you,  whome  I  love  and  honour 
•'  in  IIh!  Iioni :  liiit  more  to  six  some  of  the  same  groands  of 
"  our  ttrtiiifff'M  iitirrin^<t  in  you,  that  Jiave  in  us  to  quiet  ui 
**  to  our  workc,  and  iiiip]iort  u.i  therein,  which  hath  had 
"  i!:miU:ht  ililtinillye  in  our  engagement  in  Scotland,  by 
«  reiipion  wfi;  have  hnd  to  ilo  with  some  whoc  were  (1 
"  verily  Ihinkc,)  i^imII v ;  l)ut,  through  weakncsse  and  the 
*'  Niilitillyi!  of  .Hutan,  invo1v<xl  in  inlcTests  ugainst  the  Lord 
**Hmi  liJN  jicople.  With  what  tciidernuhsc  wee  have  pn>- 
"  cw-ilcd  with  Hiir-ii,  mid  that  in  synccritye,  our  papers 
"  (whirh  I  NiipjiONi-  you  hitve  scMMi)  will  in  part  manifest, 
"  mill  I  fr'ivn  yoM  wmie  comfortable  uttsurnnce  off.  The 
•'  liord  hiith  marvel hniNly  n|>]M:iintl  even  agaimt  them ;  and 
"  now  iifTiiiiie,  when  all  the  power  wns  devolved  into  the 
•'  HcoltiNli  kinge  and  ninlignant  partye,  they  invadinge 
*■  ('jiglaiitl,  fh<^  Ijortl  rnyiuHr upon  Ihcm  such  snares  aa  the 
"  InrltMol  will  shew,  imfy  the  narrative  is  short  in  this,  that 
"  itl'tbi'tr  whole  nrmio,  when  the  narrative  was  framed,  not 
*^  llvitui' their  whuh)  annieretiirnrtl.  Surely,  sir,  the  Lord 
"  la  yrMtly  to  bit  fi-nred  ns  to  be  pntiset].  Wee  uL-ed  yoor 
"  '-—  '-J  fhif  ug,  tniich  ns  ever;  how  shall  we  beliave 
■  luoh  niercycs'f  Whiil  is  ihe  Lord  a 
lesle*  are  now  l'iilfillii»ge  ?  Who 
I  kuow  his  will,  (o  <io€:  his  will, 

thus  in  a 
Tfst  of  our 
poocwe&ke 


POTTON.  IS 

^'  crealuTe,  aad  not  worthye  of  the  name  of  a  wonne;  yet 
^^  accepted  to  serve  the  Lovd  and  his  people.  Indeed,  aqr 
^^  dear  friend,  between  you  and  me,  you  knowe  not  mc;  my 
'<  weaknesses,  my  inordinate  panions,  my  unskilifullneme, 
<^  and  every  way  unfitnesse  to  my  worke ;  yctt  the  Loid, 
^'  who  will  have  mercjre  on  wboroe  he  will,  does  as  yim 
^^  see.  Pmj  for  me.  Salute  all  christian  friendes,  though 
^<  unknown. 

<^  I  rest  your  aflSsctiooate  friend  to  serve  vou, 

"  O.  Cromwell.*'* 
Mr.  Cotton  was  a  divine  indefatigably  laborious  all  hi<i 
days.  He  lived  under  a  conviction  of  that  sacred  precept, 
^^  Be  not  slothful  in  business,  but  fervent  in  spirit,  servini; 
the  Lord."  He  rose  eariy,  and  commonly  studied  twelve 
hours  a  day,  accounting  that  a  schoiars  dau.  He  was  rr- 
tcdved  to  wear  out,  rather  than  rust  out.  tte  was  a  man  of 
ffreat  literary  acquirements,  and  so  well  acquainted  with  the 
Hebrew,  that  he  could  convene  in  it  with  great  ease.  He 
was  a  most  celebrated  preacher,  delivering  tlie  great  truths 
of  the  gospel  with  so  much  gravity  and  judgment,  that  his 
hearers  were  struck  with  admiration  and  revf*rence ;  and 
with  so  much  plainness,  that  persons  of  the  weakest  capacity 
might  understand  him.  He  was  remarkable  for  practical 
religion  and  christian  benevolence,  and  his  whole  life  was 
filled  with  acts  of  piety  and  charity.  He  was  a  pt^rson  of 
great  modesty,  humility,  and  good-nature :  and  though  hr 
was  often  insulted  by  angry  men,  he  never  expressed  the 
least  resentment.  A  conceited  ignorant  man  once  followed 
him  home  ailcr  sermon,  and  with  frowns  told  him  his 
preaching  was  become  dark  or  flat.  To  whom  he  meekly 
replied,  "  Both,  brother;  it  may  be  both  :  let  me  have  your 
prayers  that  it  may  be  otherwise."  At  another  time,  Mr. 
Cotton  being  kisulteil  by  an  impudent  fellow  in  the  street, 
who  called  him  an  old  fool,  replied,  "  I  confess  I  am  so. 
The  Lord  make  thee  and  me  wiser  than  we  are,  even  wise 
imto  salvation."  We  give  one  instance  more.  Mr.  Cotton 
having,  by  the  desire  of  a  friend,  given  his  thoughts  upon 
the  doctrine  of  reprobation,  against  the  exceptions  of  the 
anninians,  the  manuscript  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  cele- 
brated Dr.  Twisse,  who  published  a  refutation  of  it ;  upon 
Vdlich  Mr.  Cotton  thus  modestly  observed,  "  I  hope  God 
will  give  me  an  opportunity  to  consider  the  doclor^s  labour 
aC  Jov^    I  bless  the  Lord,  who  has  made  uic  willing  to  bt 

*i  1188.  No.  4i5S. 


•156  JAVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

in  one  place  to  flee  unto  another;  and  that  he  wished  to 
enjoy  all  the  ordinances  of  God  in  their  scriptural 
purity-*  > 

Taking  leave  of  his  numerous  friends  at  Boston^  he 
tmvelled  to  London  in  disguise.  Upon  his  arrival  in  the 
nietropolii^,  several  eminent  ministers  proposed  to  have  a 
conference,  with  a  view  to  persuade  him  to  conform,  to 
which  he  readily  consented.  At  this  conference,  all  their 
arguments  in  favour  of  conformity  were  first  produced ;  aH 
of  which  Mr.  Cotton  is  said  to  have  answered  to  their 
satisfection.  He  then  gave  them  his  arguments  for  noncon- 
formity, with  his  reasons  for  resolving  to  leave  the  country, 
rather  than  conform  to  the  ecclesiastical  impositicms.  Ir 
the  conclusion,  instead  of  bringing  Mr.  Cotton  to  embrace 
their  sentiments  and  conform,  they  all  espoused  his  opinions ; 
and  from  that  time  Mr.  (afterwards  Dr.)  Thomas  Groodwin, 
Mr.  Philip  Nye,  Mr.  John  Davenport,  Mr.  Henry  Whit- 
field, and  some  others,  became  avowed  nonconformists,  for 
which  they  were  all  afterwards  driven  3nto  a  foreign  land.t 
Mr.  Davenport,  one  of  the  opponents,  giving  his  opinion  of 
this  conference,  thus  observes:  "  Mr.  Cotton,"  says  he^ 
''  answered  all  our  arguments  with  great  evidence  of  scrip- 
ture,' composedness  of  mind,  mildness  of  spirit,  constant 
adherence  to  his  principles ;  keeping  them  unshaken,  and 
himsdf  from  varying  from  them,  by  any  thing  that  was 
spoken.  The  reason  o£  our  desiring  to  confer  with  him, 
rather  than  any  other,  upon  these  weighty  points,  was,  our 
former  knowledge  of  his  approved  godliness,  excellent 
learning,  sound  judgment,  eminent  gravity,  and  sweet 
temper,  whereby  he  could  quietly  bear  with  those  who 
differed  from  him."{ 

Mr.  Cotton  having  fully  resolved  upon  crossing    the 
Atlantic,  John  Winthrop,  esq.  governor  of  the  hew  planta- 
tion, procured  letters  of  recommendation  from  the  churck 
at  Boston  to  their  brethren  in  New  England.     He  took 
shipping  4;he  beginning  of  July,   1633,  and  arrived  at 
Boston  in  New  England  the  beginning  of  September  fol- 
lowing.    He  had  for  his  companions  in  the  voyage^  il^ 
e]|;celknt  Mr.  Hooker  and  Mr.  Stone,  both  driven  from  their 
native  country  by  the  intolerant  proceedings  of  the  bishopfii** 
After   being  about  a   month   at   sea,   Mrs.   Cotton.  wa9 
•delivered  of  a  son ;  who,  from  th^  place  of  his  birth,  wail 

*  Massachasetf*  Papers,  p.  55— 6T. 
t  Mather*s  Hist.  b.  iii.  p.  SO— 218. 
t  Norton*!  Life  of  Mr.  Cottoli,  p.  32,  33.    Bdit.  1618. 


COTTON.  137 

ealled  Seaborn.    Upon  their  arriyal  at  Boston,  the  town, 
.which  had  been  hitherto  called  Trimountain,  on  account 
of  its  three  hills,  was,  out  of  respect  to  Mr.  Cotton,  who 
went  from  Boston  in  Lincolnshire,  now  called  Boston.* 

This  learned  divine,  presently  after  his  arrival,  was  chosen 
colleague  to  Mr.  John  Wilson,  in  the  church  at  Bostoo, 
which  soon  proved  an  unspeakable  blessing  to  the  town.  II 
was  in  part  owing  to  his  wudom  and  influence,  that  in  a  few 
years  it  became  the  cwital  dfthe  whole  province.  Pkevioua 
to  Mr.  Cotton's  arrival,  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  constitu- 
tions were  both  in  a  veir  shattered  state ;  but,  by  his  vigoious 
and  judicious  efforts,  the  utmost  order  and  agreement  weie 
promoted;  and,  it  is  said,  he  was  more  useful  than  any 
other  person  in  the  settlement  of  the  civil  as  well  as  the 
ecu^Iesiastical  polity  of  New  England. f  About  the  year 
1642,  when  the  episcopal  power  began  to  decline  in  Bog* 
land,  several  of  the  leading  members  in  both  houses  of  par* 
liament  wrote  to  him,  warmly  pressing  him  to  return  to  his 
native  country;  lyt  he,  enjoying  the  blessings  of  peace 
and  safety,  was  unwilling  to  venture  out  in  the  midst  of  the 
•ftorm.t  He  therefore  continued  at  Boston  to  the  day  of 
his  death. 

About  this  time,  numerous  antinomian  and  fiimilistic 
errors  b^an  to  be  propagated  in  various  parts  of  New 
England,  particularly  at  Boston.  This  raised  a  dreadful 
tempest  among  the  people.  Mrs.  Hutchinson,  and  Mr. 
Wheelwright,  h&c  brother,  were  at  the  head,  and  Mr.  Cotton 
was  deeply  involved  in  the  unhappy  affair.  Indeed,  some 
of  our  historians  do  not  hesitate  to  affirm,  that  he  imbibed 
s(Hne  <^  their  wild  opinions ;  but,  upon  farther  examination) 
he  saw  his  error,  and  renounced  them.$  Others  deny  the 
whole  charge,  and  endeavour  to  prove  it  altogether  a  slander 
intended  to  injure  his  reputation.!  All,  however,  agree, 
that  at  the  synod  of  Cambridge,  in  1646,  he  openly 
declared  his  utter  dislike  of  all  those  opinions,  as  being 
some  of  them  heretical,  some  blasphemous,  some  erroneous, 
and  all  incontrruous.  At  the  above  synod,  Mr.  Cotton, 
Mr.  Richard  Mather,  and  Mr.  Ralph  Iwtridge,  were  each 
appointed  to  draw  up  a  platform  of  church  government, 
with  a  view  to  collect  one  out  of  them  all  at  the  next 


«  Morse  and  Parish's  Hist,  of  Kew  Emm.  p.  40.  t  Ibid.  p.  54. 

t  Mather*i  Hisf .  b.  iii.  90-^StS. 

^  Bailie*s  Dissuaiiife,  p,  57— 59.— Morse  and  P^bh*i  Hist.  p.  142. 
I  Matber^s  Hist.  b.  iii.  p.  SI.— Mrce'i  YiadkirtioD,  part  i.  p.  907. 


15S  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

•jnod ;  vrhich  was  done  accordingly.  Till  this  platform 
ivas  adoutcd,  tiie  churches  of  New  Lnfflaud  made  freqaeiit 
use  of  Mr.  Cotton's  book,  entitled,  ^^  Tite  Keys  of  the  King- 
dom  oi  Meaven."* 

This  celebrated  dirine,  after  his  removal  to  Now  Ungland, 
held  a  friendly  r4)rreK|)0iidetice  with  many  persons  of  dis- 
tinction in  liis  native  country,  among  whom  was  the  Pro- 
tector Cromwell.  One*  of  the  proti*ctor*h  letters,  written  with 
bis  own  hand,  dated  October  Hj,  1659,  is  here  inserted 
verbatim,  for  the  satisfaction  of  every  inquisitive  reader. 
The  address  is,  ^^  To  my  esteemed  friend,  Mr.  Cotton,  pastor 
io  the  church  at  Boston  in  New  England ;"  and  the  letter 
itself  is  m  follows : 

"  Worthy  sir,  and  my  christian  friend, 

^^  I  received  yours  a  few  dayos  since.  It  was  welcome 
^  to  me  b(*cause  signed  by  you,  whome  I  love  and  honour 
<^  in  the  Lord  :  but  more  to  see  some  of  the  same  groondaof 
*<  our  actingrs  stirringe  in  you,  that  have  in  us  io  quiet'iM 
^<  to  our  worke,  and  support  us  therein,  which  hath  hid 
<<  greatest  diflicultye  in  our  engagement  in  Hcotland,  br 
^  reascm  wee  have  lind  to  do  with  some  whoe  were  (I 
<^  verily  tliinke,)  g(xll^ ;  but,  through  weaknesse  and  the 
^<  subtiltye  of  8aian,  mvolved  in  interests  against  the  Lord 
<<  and  his  people.  With  what  fenderncihsc  wee  have  pro- 
<<  ceeded  with  such,  and  that  in  synccritye,  our  papers 
<^  (which  I  suppose  you  have  s<*en)  will  in  part  manifest, 
<^  ami  I  give  you  mmc  comfortable  ahsurance  off.  The 
^<  Ijord  hath  marvellously  api^eared  even  against  them ;  ami 
^  liow  ngaine,  when  all  the  power  was  devolved  into  the 
<<  Scottish  kinge  and  malignant  partye,  they  invadinM 
^  England,  the  Ijord  ravnetl  upon  therm  such  snares  as  toe 
<<  incfosed  will  shew,  cmly  the  narrative  is  sh(»rt  in  this,  that 
^<  of  their  whole  nrmie,  when  the  narrative  wfis  framed,  m>t 
<^  five  of  th(4r  whole  armie  returned.  Surely,  sir,  the  Loid 
"  is  greatly  to  be  feared  as  to  be  pmis(Ml.  W<*e  need  your 
'*  prayers  in  this  as  much  as  ever ;  how  shall  we  Ijehaye 
^  ourselves  after  such  niercves  ?  What  is  the  Lord  a 
^  doeinge  ?  What  prophesies  are  now  fulfillinge  ?  Who 
<<  is  a  God  like  ours  ?  To  know  his  will,  to  doe  liis  will^ 
*<  are  both  of  him. 

^<  I  tooke  this  lilx^rtye  from  businesse  to  salute  tlius  in  a 
*^  word  :  truly  I  am  ready  to  serve  you,  and  the  n*st  of  our 
<^  brethren,  and  the  churches  with  you.    I  am  a  poor  wealiia 

•  Mom  sad  ParUh'i  IlUt.  p.  14A,  146. 


POTTON.      .  IS 

^'  ciealaref  and  ikH  werthye  of  the  name  of  a  woime;  yet 
^^  accepted  to  serve  the  Lotd  and  hb  people.  Indeed,  my 
^^  dear  friend,  between  you  and  me,  you  knowe  not  me;  my 
'<  weaknesses,  my  inordinate  passions,  my  unskillfuUnesse^ 
<^  and  every  way  unfitnesse  to  my  worke ;  yett  the  Loid, 
^^  who.  will  have  mercye  on  whome  he  will,  does  as  you 
^^  see.  Fray  for  me.  Salute  all  christian  friendes,  though 
^^  unknown. 

<^  I  rest  your  affsctiooate  friend  to  serve  you, 

"  O.  Cromwell."* 
Mn  Cotton  was  a  divine  indefatigably  laborious  all  his 
days. .  He  lived  under  a  conviction  of  that  sacred  precept, 
^^  Be  not  slothful  in  business,  but  fervent  in  spirit,  serving 
the  Lord."  He  rose  early,  and  commonly  studied  twelve 
hours  a  day,  accounting  that  a  scholars  dau.  He  was  re- 
served to  wear  out,  rather  than  rust  out.  £le  was  a  man  of 
Seat  literary  acquirements,  and  so  well  acquainted  with  the 
iebrew,  that  he  could  converse  in  it  with  great  ease.  He 
was  a  most  celebrated  preacher,  delivering  tlie  great  truths 
of  the  gospel  with  sarouch  gravity  and  judgment,  that  his 
hearers  were  struck  with  admiration  and  reverence;  and 
.with  io  much  plainness,  that  persons  of  the  weakest  capacity 
might  understand  him.  He  was  remarkable  for  practical 
religion  and  christian  benevolence,  and  his  whole  life  was 
filled  with  acts  of  piety  and  charity.  He  was  a  person  of 
great  modesty^  humility,  and  good<nature ;  and  though  he 
was  often  insulted  by  angry  men,  he  never  expressed  the 
least  resentment.  A  conceited  ignorant  man  once  followed 
him  home  after  sermon,  and  with  frowns  told  him  his 
preaching  was  become  dark  or  flat.  To  whom  he  meekly 
replied,  "  Both,  brother;  it  may  be  both :  let  me  have  your 
prayers  that  it  may  be  otherwise."  At  another  time,  Mr. 
Cotton  being  kisulted  by  an  impudent  fellow  in  the  street, 
who  called  him  an  old  fool,  replied,  ^^  I  confess  I  am  so. 
The  Lord  make  thee  and  me  wiser  than  we  are,  even  wise 
unto  salvation."  We  give  one  instance  more.  Mr.  Cotton 
hfiving,  by  the  desire  of  a  friend,  given  his  thoughts  upon 
the  doctrine  of  reprobation,  against  the  exceptions  of  the 
arminians,  the  manuscript  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  cele- 
brated Dr.  Twisse,  who  published  a  refutation  of  it;*  np<ni 
Vhich  Mr.  Cotton  thus  modestly  observed,  ^^  I  hope  God 
will  give  me  an  opportunity  to  consider  the  doctor's  labour 
•f  love.    X  bless  the  Lord,  whp  has  made  me  willing  to  bt 

■ 

•  Slo«M*i  1188.  No.  4156. 


MO  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

tenght  by  a  meaner  dkciple  than  such  a  doctor;  iriioit 
acholastical  acuteness,  pregnancy  of  ivit,  solidity  of  judg- 
ment, and  dexterity  of  argument,  all  orthodox  dtrinei  so 
lii^hly  honour;  and  before  ^hom  all  arminians  and  jesuils 
fi£  ^wn  in  silence.  Grod  forbid  that  I  should  shut  my 
eyes  against  any  light  brought  to  me  by  him.  Only  I  desiie 
not  to  be  condemned  as  a  mlagian  or  arminian  benHre  I  am 
heard."* 

Mr.  Cotton  often  wished  not  to  outlive  his  work.  Herein 
his  desire  was  granted;  for  his  last  illness  was  yery  shoit 
Haying  taken  feaye  of  his  beloyed  study,  he  said  to  Mn. 
Cotton,  ^'I  shall  go  into  that  room  no  moreJ*^  He  wit 
desirous  to  depart,  that  he  might  enjoy  Ghrist  and  the 
company  of  glorified  saints,  particularly  his  old  inendiy 
Preston,  Ames,  Hildersham,  Dod,  and  others,  who  had  bem 
peculiarly  dear  to  him  while  he  liyed.  Haying  set  Ms 
house  in  order,  and  taken  a  sdemn  leaye  of  the  magiattatpi 
and  ministers  of  the  colony,  who  came  to  see  him-  ia  his 
sickness,  he  sweetly  slept  in  Jesus,  December  83,  16fil^ 
aged  sixty«seyen  years.  His  remains  were  interred  with 
great  lamentation  and  funeral  solemnity.  He  is  denomi- 
nated ^^  an  uniyersal  scholar,  ^a  liying  system  of  the  lifaenl 
arts,  and  a  walking  library.  He  was  deeply  skilled  in 
Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew,  and  an  extraoidinary  thcMik^ 
gian."i  Fuller  has  honoured  him  with  a  place  amonir  the 
learned  writers  and  fellows  cMf  £manuel  college,  Cam* 
bridge,  t  Dr.  Cottcm  Mather,  the  pious  historian,  was  his 
grandson. 

His  Works.— -1.  The  Way  of  Ufe,  1641.--2.  Doubts  of  Pradssli: 
nation,  1646. — 3.  Exposition  upon  Ecclesiastes  and  Cwilicleay  164& 
—A,  The  Way  of  the  CoDg^g^tional  Cbarches  Cleared,  10i8.T- 
5.  Commentary  on  the  First  Epistle  of  John,  1656.-~6.  BCflk  fer 
Babes. — 7.  A  Treatise  on  thet  New  Covenant. — 8.  Yarioas  Seimd— ■ 
~9.  Answer  to  Mr.  BaU  about  Forms  of  Prayer. — la  The  Grooadt 
and  Ends  of  Infant  Baptism. — 1 1.  A  Discourse  upon  Singiqg  PnliM. 
— i2.  An  Abstract  of  the  Laws  in  Christ's  Kingdom,  for  Civil 
Government — la  A  Treatise  on  the  Holiness  of  Church  Members. 
— 14.  A  Discourse  on  Things  Indifferent— 15.  The  Ke5fs  of  Hm 
Kingdom  of  HeaTen.— 16.  Answer  to  Mr.  Cawdry.— 17.  Tbe  BloodT 
Tenet  Washed  and  made  White  in  the  Blood  of  the  LaiQli.— 19.-A 
Copy  of  a  Letter  of  Mr.  Cotton's  of  Boston  in  New  Englandi  sent  in 
Answer  of  certain  Objections  made  agaiivt  their  DisoipliijH»  and 
Orders  there,  directed  to  a  Friend. 

«  Mather's  Hist.  b.  fii.  p.  86—29.  f  Ibli.  p^  flfk  * 

J  FuUer'i  Hist,  of  Cam.  p.  147. 


tYFORD.  161 

William  Ltpord,  B.  D. — This  worthy  dirine  was 
bom  at  Pi^smore,  near  Newbury,  in  Berlcshire,  ab'^ut  the 
year  1598,  ami  educated  in  Magdalen  college,  Oxrord, 
where  he  was  chosen  fellow.  While  at  <he  university,  he 
entered  upon  the  ministerial  function,  and  in  the  year  1631 
was  admitted  to  the  reading  of  tlie  sentenccK  in  the  college. 
Afterwards,  by  fivour  o-  the  Karl  of  Bristol,  he  became 
minister  of  Sherborn  in  Dorsetshire,  where  he  coniiuued  the 
rest  of^is  days.  Upon  the  commencement  of  the  civil  wmts 
he  espoused  the  cause  of  the  parliament ;  and  in  l64S.was 
nominated  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines ;  but  choosing 
lather  to  continue  in  his  stated  ministerial  exercises,  he  did 
not  sit  among  them.  He  was  zealous  and  laborious  in  the 
work  of  the  Lord,  taking  unspeakable  pleasure  in  every 
duty  of  the  pastoral  othce.  He  fed  the  lambs  in  Christ  8 
'flock,  and  possessed  an  excellent  talent  for  catechizing 
youth,  wherein  he  was  eminently  useful. 

Mr.  Lyford  was  a  divine  of  an  excellent  spirit,  and  an 
avowed  advocate  of  peace  and  moderation.  He  took  no 
active  part  in  the  public  broils  of  the  nation ;  but  drew  up 
his  thoughts  in  writing,  in  a  work  entitled,  ^^  (?asf*8  of 
Conscience  propounded  in  the  Time  of  Rebellion.''  This 
work,  according  to  Bishop  Kennet,  was  written  with  plain- 
ncss,  modesty,  and  impartiality,  in  discussion  of  the  three 
following  questions : — "  1.  Whether  it  be  lawful  to  keep 
days  of  public  rejoicing  and  tlianksrrivinff  for  victories  in  a 
civil  war  ?*-^2.  Whether  it  be  lawful  tor  the  civil  magistrate 
to  impa<ie  an  act  of  worship  in  itself  unlawful,  or  estt^emcd 
to  be  so,  on  men  of  a  different  judgment,  especially  on  a 
minister,  who  must  needs  be  not  only  a  passive  hearer,  but 
an  actor  in  the  business,  under  temporal  pains  of  seques- 
tration, impri^nment,  deprivation,  &c.  ? — 3.  Whether  a 
minister  performing  such  an  act  of  worship,  upon  such  a 
force  or  fear,  or  for  temporal  ends,  does  perform  an  accept- 
able service  unto  God?"*  He  answered  each  of  these 
.questions  in  the  negative^  in  which  he  discovered  his  senti- 
ments relative  to  the  controversies  of  the  day. 
,  Mr.  Lyford,  during  his  last  sickness,  ^^  looked  for  the 
appearance  of  the  great  God  and  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ.'* 
This  supported  and  comforted  his  mind  under  a  long  and 
painful  illness.  During  the  whole  of  it,  his  confidence  was 
fixed  on  Jesus  Christ,  the  rock  of  ages.  In  his  letters 
written  at  this  period,  he  thus  expressed  himself:  <^  However 

«  Kennel'^  Chrooicle,  p.  S49. 
▼OL,  III.  H 


.     16f  LIVES  OF  THE  jPUftlTANS* 

it  may  please  God  to  dispose  of  my  h^th,  I  rest  cooofoitribly 
assured  of  his  everlasting  love  |o  me  in  his  Son  Jesus  Christ ; 
who  loved  me  and  gave  liimself  for  me.  In  the  ,\ise  of  th^ 
means,  I  wait  to  see  what  the  Lord  will  do  with  me.  I  know 
it^wUl  be  well  with  me  at  last,  having  so  many  pledges  of  his 
everlastinjg^  love  to  support  me.  Mv  pasting  coa^Qme9»  Apd 
my  appetite  faileth ;  but  my  God  faileUi  not.  In  lqp,4Mid  in 
contemplation  of  the  great  things  he  hath  done  for  pnei  wd 
the  far  greater  things  he  will  yet  do,  I  find  refred^injent*" 
A  few  dnys  previous  to  his  dissojujtipny  his  friepd^  dewiffif 
liim  to  give  tpem  son^e  account  of  hi^  hopes  and  comforts,  be 
cheerfully  replied^  "  I  will  let  yov  know  ho\v  it  is  with  m^, 
and  on  what  ground  I  stand.  Here  is  the  ^ye,  tfaje  wnA  oif 
God  and  devouring  flames,  the  gr^at  pumsbment  of  siji,  on 
the  one  hand ;  and  here  am  J,  a  poor  sinjUi  creature,  on  th^ 
other:  but  this  is  my  comfort,  the  covenant  pf  ^pracp,  es- 
tablished upon  so  many  sure  promises,  hath  satuf^  .jaH. 
>The  act  of  oblivion  passed  in  heaven  is,  /  will  forgive  their 
,  iniquities,  and  their  sins  mil  J  remember  no  more^  sakh  th 
Lord.  This  is  the  blessed  privilege  of  all  within  the  covfr> 
nant,  of  whom  I  am  one.  For  1  find  the  spirit  which  is 
promised  bestowed  upon  me,  in  the  blessed  effects  of  it 
upon  my  soul,  as  the  pledge  of  God's  eternal  love.  By  this 
I  know  my  interest  in  Christ,  who  is  the  foundation  of  tha 
covenant;  and  therefore,  my  sins  being  laid  on  him,  shall 
never  be  charged  on  me.''  .  As  the  earthly  house  of  his  taber^ 
nacle  was  dissolving,  with  great  difiiculty,  he  said,  ^  My  dia* 
solution  is  more  comfortable  to  me  than  my  marriage-day. 
Thanks  be  to  God,  which  giveth  us  the  victory  through  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ."  And  when  the  trying  moment  arrived, 
he  cheerfully  surrendered  his  soul  into  the  hands  of  his  dear 
Redeemer,  October  S,  1653,  aged  fifty-five  years,  when  his 
remains  were  interred  in  tlie  chancel  of  Sherboum  church.* 
Fuller  observes,  that  Mr.  Lyford  was  **  a  man  of  a  pleasant 
countenance,  a  courteous  carriage,  a  meek  spirit,  great  mo- 
desty, and  that  his  memory  is  still  preserved  in  his  learned 
works.^t  Wood  says,  "  he  joined  the  presbyterians,  was 
much  followed  for  his  edifying  and  practical  preaching,  and 

.  that  his  works  savour  much  of  piety;  zeal,  and  sincerity,  but 
shew  him  to  have  been  a  zealous  Calvinist}'t    Pr.  Walker 

'  i^rms^  *^  that  he  suffered  much  from  the  faction,  both  in  hif 

«  Memorials  of  Mr.  Lyford,  preSzed  to  his  *<  Plain  lIaB*i  aesiea  fizea- 
ciscd.**   Edit.  1655. 

f  Fuller's  Worthies  part  i.  p.  96. 
%  Wood:s  Athene  Oacoti.  vol.  II.  p'.  OS. 


/ 


LATHORP.  UiS 

*  ... 

name  and  mimstij;  and  they  wondered/'  says  be,  ^diat  do 
hohf  a  insm  as  he  was,  should  doat  so  mndi  on  kings,  biriiopa, 
die  Coimmon  Prayer,  and  ceremonies."*  He  bequeadied,  ht 
his  last  will  and  testament,  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  twenty 
pounds  to  Magdalen  coUege,  Oxford,  ^*  in  ^titude  for  the 
advantages  whith  he  had  diere  enjoyed ;  and  m  restrtution  for 
a  stim  of  money,  which,  accordi^  to  the  corrupt  custom  of 
those  itimes,  Ve  bild  f  e^ceived  for  the  ^sienation  of  his  fellow- 
ship."! Mr.  tVinds  B^iifield,  srff^rwwds  ejected  m  1662, 
Mrab  his  ^cce^sor  at  ^erborti4 

His  Works. — 1.  PrjncTples  of  Faith  and  a  Good  Coascienoc, 
1642.— 2.  An  ApcAogie  fbV  ika  t^iblic  Ministrie  and  In&at-fiaplStB, 
16&3,— a  The  PiRin  Mlua's  Senses  £xerdsed  Id  discera  both  Gooil 
and  £nl;  or,  a  Discovery  of  the  Errors,  Hereries,  and  ftlamhrmifli 
of  these  Times,  1656.-^  A  Legacy;  or,  an  Help  to  Yoaqg  P^opl^ 
to  prepare  them  for  ttie  Sacrament,  165^ — 6.  Cases  of  ^-ooscience, 
tof^poandcd  in  the  time  of  ttebeHion,  Resolved,  1061. — 6.  ConscieDCv 
Infontoed,  toachin;  onr  late  Thank^girings,  1661.-7.  SerMM  on 
▼atiMA  OecaiioiM. 


,    John  Lathorp. — ^This  excellent  person  M-as  minister  of 
Egerton  in  Kent;  but,  renouncing  his  episcopal  ^^dillatiol^ 
was  chosen  pastor  of  the  independent  church,  under  the  cm 
c»f  Mr.  Henry  Jacob,  London,  upon  Mr.  Jacob's  retifing  to 
America.   This  little  society,  which  had  hitfaerlD  assembled 
in  private^  moying  from  place  to  place,  began  about  this 
time  to  assume  courage,  and  ventured  to  shew  itself  in  public. 
It  was  not  long,  however,  before  the  congregation  ^-as  di^ 
covered  by  Tomlinson,  the  bishop's  pursuivant,  at  the  house 
6f  Mr.  Humphrey  Bamet,  a  brewer's  clerk,  in  Blackfnars  ^ 
when,  April  9Qy  l)i|d2,  forty-two  of  them  were  apprehended, 
and  only  eighteen  escaped.    Of  those  who  were  taken,  some 
were  cbnfined  in  the  Clink,  some  in  New  Prison,  and  others 
in  the  Gatehouse,  where  they  continued  about  two  years. 
They  were  then  released  upon  bail,  except  Mr.  Lathorp, 
for  whom   no   favour  could  for  some  time  be  obtained. 
He,  at  length,  petitioned  the  king,  and  his  numerous  family  of 
chfldren  laid  their  lamentable  case  at  the  feet  of  Arclibinbop 
Laud,  reqjuesting  that  he  might  go  into  banishment  in  a  f/yrrin 
land;  which  being  granted,  he  went  to  New  England,  m  tfcs 
year  1634,  when  he  was  accompanied  by  about  thirty  f^  km 


•  Walker^i  Attenpt,  part  ii.  p.  419.  f  lf^ak/»f  iai  ^  MU  f,i,fif 

t  Wood's  AUieac,  vol.  it  p.  571.— Palmer'i  JlMt«s,  Him',  ZT^ 
fm  aiv. 


16ft  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

congregation.  It  is  observed,  that,  during  his  imprisonment^ 
bis  wife  fell  sick  and  died ;  but  that  he  obtaineid  so  much 
favour  as  to  visit  her,  and  pray  with  her,  before  she  breathed 
her  last ;  and  then  returned  to  prison.* 

Mr.  Lathorp  was  a  man  of  learning,  and  of  a  meek  and 
quiet  spirit ;  but  met  with  some  uneasmess  from  his  people 
on  the  following  occasion.  It  appears  that  some  of  his  con- 
gregation entertained  doubts  of  the  validity  of  baptism,  as 
administered  by  their  own  pastor;  and  one  person^  who 
indulged  these  scruples,  carried  his  child  to  be  re-baptized  at 
the  parish  church.  This  giving  offence  to  some  persons,  the 
subject  was  discussed  at  a  general  meeting  of  the  society ;  and 
when  the  question  was  put  it  was  carried  in  the  negative:  at 
the  same  time  it  was  resolved,  by  a  majority,  not  to  make  any 
declaration  at  present,  whether  or  no  parish  churches  were 
true  churches^  This  decision  proving  unacceptable  to  the 
most  rigid  among  them,  they  desired  their  dismission;  anSl, 
miiting  with  some  others  who  were  dissatisfied  about  the 
lawfulness  of  infant  baptism,  formed  themselves  into  a  new 
society,  which  is  thought  to  have  been  the  first  baptist  con- 
gregation in  England.  This  separation  took  place  in  ^e 
year  1633,  and  the  new  society  chose  Mr.  John  Spilsbuiy 
for  its  pastor.t  But  the  remainder  of  Mr.  Lathorp's  church 
renewed  their  covenant,  to  walk  together  in  the  ways  of  God^ 
so  far  as  he  had  made  them  known,  or  should  make  them  known 
to  them,  and  forsake  all  false  ways:  and  so  steady  were  they 
to  their  vows,  that  diere  was  scarcely  an  instance  of  any  one 
departing  from  the  church,  even  under  the  severest  persecu- 
tions.t 

Mr.  Lathorp,  being  driven  from  his  native  country,  tod  re- 
tiring to  New  England,  was  chosen  first  pastor  of  the  church 
at  Scituate,  where  he  continued  for  some  time,  distribatti^ 
the  bread  of  life.  Part  of  the  church  afterwards  removing  to 
Barnstaple,  he  removed  with  them,  where  he  continued  pastor 
of  the  church  to  the  day  of  his  deaths  He  died  November  8, 
1653.  He  was  a  man  of  a  happy  and  pious  spirit,  studious 
of  peace^  a  lively  preacher,  and  willing  to  spend  and  be  spent 
for  the  glory  of  Christ  and  the  salvation  of  souls.$ 

Mr.  Prince,  in  compiling  his  "  Chronological  Histoir  of 
New  England/'  made  use  of  "  An  original  Register,^'  is 
manuscript,  by  Mr.  Lathorp,  giving  an  account  of  Scituate 

•  MoftoD*t  Memorial,  p.  141.— NeaFs  Puritans,  toI.  ii.  p.  273. 
f  Neal's  Puritans,  vol.  ii.   p.  373,  374.— Crosby's   Baptists,  toK  i. 
p.  148,  149. 

t  Neal's  Puritans,  ▼ol.  ii.  p.  374.  S  Morton's  Memorial,  p.  141. 


GOUGE.  1(15 

and  Barnstaple,  vihexe  he  had  been  luccessively  the  fint 
minister.* 


William  Gouge,  D.D. — ^This  very  learned  and  cele^ 
brated  divine  was  bom  at  Bow,  near  Stratford,  Middlesex, 
November  1,  157^,  and  educated  first  at  Eton  school,  then 
in  King's  college,  Cambridge.  He  was  endowed  with  great 
powers  of  mind,  was  a  great  lover  of  learning,  and  perhaps 
exceeded  by  none  in  close  application  to  study.  His  progress 
in  the  various  departments  of  useful  literature  corresponded 
with  his  application.  During  his  first  tliree  years  at  tne  um- 
yersity,  he  was  so  assiduous  m  his  academical  pursuits,  that 
he  slept  only  one  night  out  of  the  college.  Here  he  spent 
nine  years,  and  during  the  whole  of  that  period  he  was  never 
absent  from  the  college  prayers  at  half  past  five  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  unless  he  was  from  home.  He  usually  rose  so  long 
before  the  hour  of  prayer,  as  to  have  time  for  private  devotion 
and  reading  his  usual  portion  of  scripture.  He  invariably 
xesA fifteen  chapters  in  the  Bible  every  day;  five  in  the 
morning,  before  he  entered  upon  his  regular  studies,  five 
after  dinner,  and  five  at  night  before  he  went  to  rest.  When  he 
was  chosen  reader  of  logic  and  philosophy  in  the  college,  he 
was  so  remarkably  exact  in  those  exercises,  and  performed 
them  with  such  admirable  propriety,  that,  while  he  gained 
the  high  applause  of  his  auditors,  he  incurred  the  hatred  of 
those  who  were  less  attentive  to  their  duty.  Indeed,  he  was 
so  exact  and  conscientious  in  all  his  ways,  that  he  was 
reproachfully  denominated  an  arch-puritan. 

In  the  year  1608,  he  was  unanimously  chosen  minister  of 
Blackfriars,  London ;  where  he  appears  to  have  been  assist- 
ant to  the  excellent  Mr.  Stephen  Egerton,  and,  at  his  death, 
succeeded  him  in  the  pastoral  office.     His  labours  were 
peculiarly  acceptable  to  die  people ;  the congr^tiongreatly 
increased;  and  the  church  was  greatly  enlaimd.     Inougn 
considerable  preferments  were  frequently  o&red  him,  he 
refrised  them  all.    His  only  object  was  to  be  useful  to  souls. 
He  used  to  say,  **  It  is  my  highest  ambition  to  go  fit)m 
Blackfriars  to  heaven."    He  viras  highly  esteemed  by  the 
people  of  his  charge,  and  by  all  who  knew  his  wordi.     Mul- 
titudes statedly  resorted  to  his  ministry,  and  many  strangen 
attended  his  Wednesday  momii^  lecture.    This  lecture  he 

«  Prince's  Cbroa,  Hiit  vol.  i.  Pktf.  p.  1. 


]|SS,  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

• 

kept  up  about  thirtif'^ive  years.  Indeed^  so  great  \nm 
&me,  mat  wfien  religious  persons  from  distant  parts  of  die 
country  went  to  London,  they  did  not  think  their  business 
finished^  unless  they  had  attended  Blackfriars  lecture.  '^1  he 
success  of  his  ministry  was  also  ver^  great.  It  is  said^  Ukat 
tibousands  were  converted  and  bjiilt  up  under  his.  ministry.* 
He  was  long  employed  in  the  work,  and  eminently  faithful 
and  laborious  as  long  as  he  could  get  into  tlie  pulpit.     His 

f)reaching  w^s  always,  distinct,  his   method  easy,   and  his 
ai^uage  adapted  to  persons  of  the  meanest  capacities. 
jBr.  Gouge,  while  he  preached  the  gospel  to  others^  en- 
joyed its  consolations  in  his  own  mind.     He  found  so  much . 
true  comfort  in  his  work,  as,  he  believed,  could  not  be  found- 
in  any  other  employment.     He  often  professed,  that  his 
Seatest  pleasure  u\  this  world  was  in  preacliing  the  gO^pjel. 
is  heart  and  his  h^opiness  we^e  so  much  in  his  work,  ^uat. 
he  often  said  to  Lord  (!^oventry,  then  keeper  of  the  great  sc^^ 
that  he  enyiea  not  his  situation.     His  whple  life  was  p^-p . 
ticularly  exemplary.    The  doctrine  which  he  delivered  to 
others  had  its   proper  infli^ence  aiid  effect  upon  himself* 
^though  his  conduct  was  unblamable  and  irreprova^le  .ia    , 
the  sight  of  all  men,  he  was  not  without  his  enemies.     B^e. 
was  as  excellent  and  peaceable  a  subject  as  any  in  tlie . 
nation ;  yet,  throush  the  instigation  of  Bishop  Neile,  he.was , 
cast  into  prison  only  for  republishing  Finch's  book  on  "  T|ie 
Calling  of  the  Jews.''     Having  rem^iined  in  prison  nine    . 
weeks,  he  was  released.     In  the  year  1626,  he  was  chosen 
one  of  the  feoffees  for  purchasing  impropriations ;  for  which 
he  was  ordered  to  be  prosecuted  in  the  star-chamber:  but 
die  prosecution  being  so  manifestly  invidious,  was|  afterwards 
dropped .t     During  the  intolerance  of  Bishop  Laud,  he  was 
prosecuted  in  the  mgh.  commission,, for  opposing  anninifuusm 
and  the  new.ceremonies.t 

Tliis    celebrated   divine  was   deeply  concerned  for  the. 
Redeemer's  cause  ii^  foreign  countries,  as  well  as  at  home, 
Hi^  exercised  particula|^ compassion  toward&the  foreign. pro:> 
testants,  und^  alL  iheTr  afflictions  and.  persecutions..    Hfe 
rejoiced  in  their  prosperity,  but  was  afflicted  in  their  adversitj4 
Iperefore,  wh^n  public  collections  for  the  poor  and  distressed ; 
ministers  of  the  Palatinate  utterly  failed,  he  united  with. his  ^ 
brethren  in  promoting  a  private  contributipn  for  their  relief^ 

•  Clark's  LiTes  aonezed  to  bit  Martyrologie,  p.  234— SS9. 

+  Ibid.  p.  dS»->24l.  }  PrvBDc/g  Cant.  Doome.  p.  302. 


GOUCE.  IS7 

bat,  marvellous  as  it  may  appear/  fot  this  singular  act  of 
|;enerosity  and  homamty^  he  was  convened  before  die  high 
commission  as  a  notorious  delinquent* 

In  the  year  1643,  Dr.  Gouge  was  nominated  one  of  the 
assembly  of  divines.    He  assiduously  attended  during  the 
whole  session ;  and  was  held  id  so  high  reputation,  tliat  he 
often'  filled  the  moderator's  chair  in  his  absence.     September 
I25th,  in  the  same  year,  when  the  house  of  commons,  the 
Scots  commissioners,  and  the  assembly  of  divines  met  in 
St.  Margaret's  church,  Westminster^  to  subscribe  the  cove- 
nant. Dr.  Gouge  concluded  the  solemnity  with  prayer.     He 
was  one  of  the  select  committee  for  the  examination  of  minis- 
ters who' petitioned  for 'sequestered  livings.    In  1644,  he  was 
rn  the  committee  appomted  for  the  examination  and  or- 
ition  of  mimsters.    Ih  1647,  at  the  first  session  of  die 
provincial  assembly,  be  was  chosen  prolocutor,  and  opened 
th)e  session  with  a  senrt'<6n  at  Blackfiiars.     In  die  same  ytwt  . 
he  was  upon  the  committee  appointed  to  draw  up  the  con-  * 
fessiontof  fiiidi'.    And  in  the  year  1648,  he  was  on  the  com- 
mittee appointed  to  draw  up  die   assembly's  annotaUoos. 
His  poition  was  from  the  first  book  of  Kinss  to  the  book  of 
Esther,  inclusive.!    In  the  same  year  he  umted  with  his  bre- 
thi^n,  in  London  and. its  vicinity,  in  declaring  against  the 
kii^s  death.t 

Dr.  Goi^e'  was  a  ^  strict  observer  of  the  sabbath ;  and 
when  the  Book  of  Sports  came  out,  he  absolutely  refused  to 
read  it.  He  was  determined  to  suffer,  radier  than  sin  by 
encouraging  profane  sports  on  the  Lord's  day.  He  was 
exact  in  observing  the  public  exercises  of  the  house  of  God, 
in  promoting  religion  in  his  faniily,  and  iii  the  devotions  of 
the  closet ;  and,  tO  the  great  honour  of  his  character,  he 
would  never  allow  his  servant  to  be  absent  from  public 
worship' on  die  Lord's  day  to  cook  provision,  whatever  com- 
pany he  expected,  tie  possessed  an  excellent  talent  for 
solving  cases  of  conscience ;  and  so  great  was  the  blessitig  of 
God  upoii  his  judicious  counsels,  that  multitudes  were  re- 
stored to  joy  and  peace  in  believing.  Ministers,  in  difficult 
ctoes,  often  consulted  him ;  on  which  account,  he  was  deno- 
minated Ae father  of  the  London  divines,  and  the  very  oracle 
of  his  tiitie.  He  was  Said  to  b*  the  very  picture  of  Moaes  for 
a  meek  and  quiet  spirit.  As  he  was  not  easily  provoked,  so  / 
he'  was  never  inclined  to  provoke  others.    When  he  received 

*  ^mitlcy'i  Pidatiy*  Urarpatioai,  p.  1M. 

t  Nenl's  Hut.  of  Puitaos,  vol.  i^.  p.  SS,  70,  14K^  350,  SM,  4M; 

t  Calamjr^i  Contiinuitidi,  vol.  ii.  p.  743. 


168  LIVES  OF  THEf  PURITANS. 

any  injury,  he  always  prayed  for  his  enemies,  and  said, '.'  that 
revilers  and  evil  doers  always  hurt  themselves  most."  He  was 
remarkably  kmd  to  persons  in  disiiess,  especially  the  poor  of 
Christ's  dock.  According  to  the  abdity  which  Go^  gave 
him,  he  employed  his  substance  to  useful  purposes.  He 
afforded  much  support  to  tlie  poor  scholars  at  the  university* 
It  was  his  very  meat  and  drink  to  do  his  heavenly  Father's 
will.  His  humility,  indeed,  outshone  all  his  other  amiable 
endowments.  He  was  never  lifted  up  by  multitudes  flocking 
to  hear  him,  nor  by  the  applause  he  received  from  them ;  but 
used  to  say,  ''  I  know  more  to  abase  me,  than  others  do  to 
exalt  me." 

He  was,  throi^h  the  whole  of  his  life,  remarkably  exact  and 
conscientious  in  the  improvement  of  his  time.  He  .rose  early, 
both  winter  and  summer.  If  at  any  time  he  heard  other 
persons  at  their  work  before  he  was  in  his  study,  he  would 
complain,  saying,  ^^  I  am  much  troubled  that  any  persons 
should  be  at  their  calling  before  I  am  at  mine."  He  was  an 
excellent  scholar,  being  familiarly  conversant  with  the  original 
languages,  and  every  department  of  useful  literature.  When 
the  persecuting  prelates  would  allow  of  no  other  fisists  be* 
sides  those  appointed  by  authority,  Dr.  Gouge  and  his  pioua 
friends  kept  their  private  fasts  regularly  every  month.  On 
these  occasions  he  greatly  excelled.  He  was  remarkably, 
concerned  for  the  welfare  of  the  foreign  protestaut  churches. 
Hearing  that  it  was  well  with  them,  he  rejoiced  and  praWed  * 
God :  but  when  he  received  evil  tidings,  '^  he  sat  down  and 
wept,  and  mourned,  and  fasted,  and  prayed  unto  the  God  of 
heaven." 

In  tfab  decline  of  life,  he  was  much  afflicted  with  an  asthma 
and  the  stone.  Under  these  painful  maladies  he  often 
groaned^  but  never  murmured.  Labouring  under  these  afflic- 
tions, he  frequently  said,  ^'  Soul,  be  silent ;  soul,  be  jpatient. 
It  is  thy  God  and  Father  who  thus  ordereth  thy  estate:  thou 
art  his  clay ;  he  may  tread  and  trample  on  thee  as  he  pleasetht 
thou  hast  deserved  much  more.  It  is  enough  that  thou  art 
keipt  out  of  hell.  Though  thy  pain  be  grievous,  it  is  toler- 
able. Thy  God  affords  some  intermissions.  He  will  turn  it 
to  thy  good,  and  then  put  an  end  to  all.  None  of  these, 
things  can  be  expected  hereafter."  Under  his  greatest  pains 
he  used  the  woixls  of  Job:  ^' Shall  we  receive  good  9t  die 
lumds  of  God,  and  shall  we  not  receive  evil?  At  such 
times,  he  committed  his  soul  to  Christ,  saying,  '*  I  am  per- 
suaded that  he  is  able  to  keep  that  which  I  have  committed 
unto  him  against  that  day."    When  his  friends  endeavourecl 


GOUGE.  169 

to  comfort  him,  by  remmding  him  of  his  gifts  and  usefulness, 
he  repliedy  **  I  dare  not  think  of  any  such  thing  for  comfort. 
Jesus  Christ,  and  what  he  hath  done  and  suffered,  is  the 
only  ground  of  comfort.  I,  being  a  great  sinner,  comfort' 
nqiieu  in  a  great  Saviour.  When  I  look  upon  myself,  I  see 
oodui^  but  weakness  and  emptiness;  but  when  I  look  upon 
Ohtist,  I  see  nothing  but  sufficiency  and  fulness." 

A  few  days  before  he  died,  having  continued  for  three  days 
io  a  state  of  drowsiness,  he  inquired  what  day  it  was,  and 
eidaimed,  **  Alas,  I  have  lost  three  days!"  Afterwards, 
reviving  a  little,  he  said,  "  Now  I  have  not  long  to  live.  The 
time  of  my  departure  is  at  hand.  I  am  going  to  my  desired 
liaven.  I  am  most  willing  to  die.  I  have,  blessed  be  God, 
Qodung  else  to  do  but  to  die.  Death  is  my  best  friend,  next 
to  Jesus  Christ.  I  am  sure  I  shall  be  with  Christ  when 
I  die.*'*  As  the  hour  of  his  departure  approached,  he  spoke 
much  in  admiration  of  the  rich  grace  and  mercy  of  God  in 
Christ  Jesus;  and  died  full  of  unspeakable  comfort.  Decern^ 
ber  12,  1653,  in  the  seventy-ninth  year  of  his  age,  having 
been  numster  of  Blackfriars  nearly  forty-six  years.f  Dr* 
Cakmy  observes,  **  that  he  was  a  person  of  as  eminent  a 
reputation  for  ministerial  abilities,  strict  piety,  and  indeia- 
t^ble  labours  for  the  good  of  souls,  as  most  ministers  that 
IBFcr  were  in  the  city.j  Granger  says,  "  he  was  offered  the 
provostship  of  King's  college,  Cambridge,  but  declined  to 
accept  it ;  and  that  he  was  laborious,  exemplary,  and  so  much 
beloved  that  none  ever  thought  or  spoke  ill  of  him,  excepting 
those  who  were  inclined  to  think  or  speak  ill  of  religion 
itsdf."^  He  is  classed  among  the  learned  writers  and  distin- 
giushed  worthies  of  this  college.||  Wood  styles  him  *^  a  pious 
and  learned  divine,"  and  says,  ^'  he  is  often  honourably  men- 
tioned by  Vcetius,  Streso,  and  other  learned  and  foreign 
divines."f  Mr.  William  Jenkin  was  assistant  to  Dr.  Gouge 
about  twelve  years,  preached  his  funeral  sermon,  and  suc- 
ceeded him  in  the  pastoral  office.  Mr.  Thomas  Gouge,  on 
whose  death  Dr.  Watts  wrote  an  excellent  elegiac  poem,  was 
the  doctor's  son,  and  Mr.  Richard  Roberts  married  his 
eldest  daughter.  These  three  excellent  divines  were  ejected 
by  Ae  Act  of  Uniformity,  in  1662.** 

Hk  Works.— 1.  Eight  Treatises  on  Domestic  Duties.— 2.  The 
Whole  Armour  of  God. — 3.  A  Treatise  on  the  Siu  against  the  Rolf 

*  Jenkin's  Funeral  Sermon  for  Dr.  Gouge. 

f  Gark's  Lives,  p.  242—246.         |  Calamy's  Continuation,  vol.  i.  p.  18. 

S  Graij^r's  Biog.  Hist.  vol.  ii.  p.  179.       i)  Fnller'ti  Hist,  of  Cam.  p.  75. 

1  Wood's  Athens  Ozon.  vol.  i.  p.  807. 

**  Falmer's  ^ioncoo.  Mem.  voU  i.  p.  109,  184.  iii.  p.  SOI. 


Kv 

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stations,  I.'   - 
good  sht  |.i,. 
appruaclii  ti. 
clioseii  )>:iNt.i. 
flhire;  wIuti- 
preacher  ul;*.. 
the  Earl  (if  \\ 
witli  Mrs.  \\; 
lie  aflcnvunl^  : 

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Mas  appoiuti-' 
tioiis  ill  re!i^> 
leamtjd  diviii(.;<, 
to  prepare  inui 
choson  Olio  of 
tended ;  nvA,  by  . 
ticidarly  ti^cfid  in :. 
he  was  clit>:>cu  cue 


t    kingdom  B  MB.  Collcv. 


rf.  HILL.  ITt 


ordiimtioii  of  pubUc;  preachers;,  and  in  l645»  when 
committee  of  accommodation  was  revived  by  order  of  pariia^ 
ibent,  he  was  appointed  one  of  its  learned  members,*-    Htt: 
preached  frequently  before  the  house  of  parliament,  and  vnm 
chosen  momii^  lecturer  at  the  Abbey  church,  Westminster. 
He  preached  every  Lord's  day  at  St.  Martin's  in  the  Fields^. 
**  where/^  it  is  observed,  **  his  labours  were  made  a  Uessing: 
to  many  thausands/^f    He  was  a  divine  universally  celebratedi 
for  learning  and  ability ;  and  therefore  was  appointed  master- 
of  Emanud  college,  Cambridge,  and  afterwards  of  Trinity 
college,  in  the  same  university.     Here  he  employed  all  hia- 
talents  and  zeal  in  the  advancement  of  sound  learning  and 
genuine  piety,  and  in  the  observance  of  college  exercises. 
Mr.  Henry  Oatland,  afterwards  one  of  the  ejected  ministers, 
who  was  one  of  his  pupils,  observes,  **  that  he  derived  un- 
speakable advantage  from  Dr.  Hill's  plain  but  excellent: 
method  of  preaching  Cfarist-^t     He  was  twice  chosen  vice- 
chancellor,  and  was  particularly  concerned  to  preserve  the- 
hpnour  and  privileges  of  the  university. 

Dr.  Hill  was  a  divine  sound  in  the  ^th,  and  firmly  attached 
to  the  doctrinal  articles  of  the  church  of  England.    He  con-'" 
sidered  unccmditional  election,  salvation  by  grace,  justifica- 
tion by  the  imputed  righteousness  of  Chiist,  and  the  final- 
perseverance  of  believers,  not  as  points  of  dry  speculation  or 
vain  curiosity,  but  as  prominent  doctrines  of  scripture,  and 
the  very  life  of  true  christian  fiuth.     What  he  beUeved  he 
constantly  practised  through  life,  and  found  its  uuspeakaU*  i 
comforts  in  truth.     During  his  last  sickness,  being  exceed-'^'" 
ingly  afBicted  with  a  quartan^  ague,  he  found  much  joy  and  - 

Saace  in  believing.     Ipe  distinguishing  love  of  God  in:  Christ 
esus  was  the  foundation  of  his  confidence  and  happ'mesa. 
Being  asked,  just  before  his  departure,  whedier  he  enjoyed : 
peace  with  ,God,  he  cheerfully  replied,  '^  Through  the  mercy  * 
of  God  in  Christ  my  peace  is  made,  and  I  quietly  r^  in  it.'* 
He  died  much  lamented,  December  18kJ653.    He  was  a 
divine  eminent  for  humility  and  holiness,  an  excellent  and' 
useful  preacher,  and  of  great  learning  and  .moderation;  but' 
no  friend  to  arminianism.$ .  He  used  to  lay  his  hand  upon 
hi?  br^uit,  and  say,  ''  Every  true  christian  hath  some^ii^', 
her^,  that  will  frame  an  argument  agunst  arminianism."|| 

T^s  leurped  and  pious  divine  has  not  escaped  the  reproack*' 

» 

«  Papers  of  AocOHBiodatioB,  pv  14« 

f  Clatk*8  LWet  annexed  to  Martjrolof^e,  p.  8S0,  SSI. 

t  CaXumy's  Cootin.  vol.  ii.  p.  885.  V  Clarkli  Utcs,  p.  SSS. 

I  Finnin'i  Real  CMitilui,  p.  86.    SdKLl6T0« 


I7f  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

fol  insinuations  of  Dr.  Grey.  Mr.  Neal  having  specified  hi»' 
preferments^  the  doctor  adds,  "  but  how  deserving  this  gentle* 
man  was  of  these  preferments,  his  works  sufficiently  testify:' 
and  then,  to  prove  what  he  insinuates,  he  cites  Dr.  Hill'a 
words,  deUvered  on  public  occasions,  as  follows : — "  That  wo 
may  have  an  incorrupt  religion,  without  sinful,  without  guile- 
ful mixtures ;  not  a  linsey-woolsey  religion :  all  new-born 
babes  will  desire  word-milk,  sermon-miik,  without  guile, 
without  adulterating  sophistication  of  it. — What  pity  it  is 
that  cathedral  societies,  which  might  have  been  colleges  of 
learned  presbyters  for  feeding  and  riding  of  city  churches, 
and  petty  academies  to  prepare  pastors  for  neighbouring 
places,  should  be  often  sanctuaries  for  nonresidents,  and  be ' 
made  nurseries  to  many  such  drones,  who  can  neither  preach, 
nor  pray,  otherwise  than  ready  say,  or  sing  their  prayers^  and  in 
the-  mean  time,  truth  must  be  observed  in  a  non-edifying 
pomp  of  ceremonious  ser\^ices. — Behold,  with  weeping  eyes, 
the  many  hundred  congregations  in  the  kingdom,  where  noul- 
lions  of  souls  are  like  to  perish  for  want  of  vision.  Truth  if 
'  sold  from  among  them,  either  by  soul-betraying  nonresidents, 
soul-poisoning  innovators,  or  soul-pining  dry  nursies.  Iti  many 
places  the  veiy  image  of  jealousy,  the  idol  of  the  mass,  is  set  up; 
yea,  the  comedy  of  the  mass  is  acted,  because  she  wanteth  the 
light  of  truth  to  discover  the  wickedness  and  folly  of  it.  In 
many  miles,  not  a  minister  that  can  preach  and  live  sermons.  I 
vrish  every  parliament-man  had  a  map  of  the  soul-misery  of  the 
most  of  the  ten  thousand  churches  and  chapels  in  Ei^land. 

"  In  the  stead  of  the  high  commission,"  says  he,  "  which  ' 
was  a  soul-scourge  to  many  godly  and  faithful  ministers,  we 
have  an  honourable  committee,  that  turns  the  wheel  upon 
such  as  are  scandalous  and  unworthy.  In  the  room  of  Jero- 
boam's priests,  burning  and  shining  lights  are  multiplied  in 
some  dark  places  of  the  land,  which  were  full  of  the  habita- 
tions of  cruelty.  In  the  place  of  a  long  litui^,  we  are  in 
hopes  of  a  pithy  directory.  Instead  of  prelatical  rails  about 
the  table,  we  have  the  scripture  rails  of  church  discipline  in 
great  forwardness.  Where  popish  altars  and  crucinxes  did 
abound,  we  begin  to  see  more  of  Christ  crucified  in  the  sim- 
plicity and  purity  of  his  ordinances.  Instead  of  the  prelates* 
oath,  to  establish  their  own  exorbitant  power,  with  dppurfe- 
nances>  we  havC'  a  solemn  league  and  covenant  with  6od> 
engaging  us  to  endeavour  reformation,  according  to  his  word  ; 
yea,  and  the  extirpation  of  popery  and  prelacy  itself.*"*    We 

i  ■  ■  1 

m  • 

*  Grey's  ExBM.  of  j!^«al,  TCfl*  ii.  p.  168,  IM^ 


T.  WILSON.  ITS 

make  no  comment  upon  these  expressiom,  but  leave  the 
pious  reader  to  form  his  own  opinion  of  the  ungenerous  in-' 
slnuatiohs  of  the  zealous  churchman.  Dr.  Hill  was  author 
of  a  number  of  pieces^  chiefly  sermons  before  the  parlia- 
ment 

His  Works. — 1.  The  Trade  of  Truth  Advanced,  in  a  Sermon  to 
the  Honourable  House  of  Commons,  at  their  solemn  Fast,  Jnly  27, 
164^---1642.--2.  The  Militant  Church  Triumphant  OTer  the  Dragon 
and  his  Angels,  preached  to  both  Houses  of  Parliament,  July  21, 
1643— 1643.— <).  The  Season  for  England's  Self-Reflection,  and 
Adyancing  Temple-Work,  in  a  Sermon  before  the  Ilon'scs  of  Parli- 
ament, August  13,  1644,  being  an  extraordinary  Day  of  HnmiliatioOy 
1644.---4*  The  Right  Separation  Encouraged,  preached  to  the  House 
of  Lords,  November  27,  1644,  being  the  Day  of  their  monthly  publia 
Fast,  1644. 


Thomas  Wilson,  A.  M. — This  excellent  minister  waa 
bom  at  Catterly  in  Cumberland^  in  the  year  l601,  and  edu- 
cated in  Christ's  college,  Cambridge ;  where  he  was  greatly 
admired  for  hb  indefatigable  industry,  and  great  progress  in 
useful  learning.     Upon  his  leaving  the  university,  he  taught 
Hchool  for  some  time  at  Chartwood  in  Surrey ;  dien  entered 
into  the  ministry  at  Capel,  in  the  same  county.     Here,  by 
his  judicious  preaching  and  holy  example,  he  directed  the 
people  in  the  way  to  eternal  life.     Though  he  received  littl© 
or  nothing  for  his  pains,  he  was  not  the  less  faithfiil  and  labo- 
iious  in  promoting  the  welfare  of  souls.     He  sought  not 
theirs,  but  them,  and  was  greatly  beloved  by  his  people. 
Afterwards,  he  removed  to  Farlington,  near  Portsmouth, 
'^vhere  he  laboured   among  very   ignorant  and  heathenish^ 
people.     He  did  not  continue  long  at  this  place,  but  removed 
to  Teddington,  near  Kingston-upon-Tliames.     In  tliis  situa^ 
tion  he  continued  several  years,  and  was  made  a  blessing  to 
many  souls.     He  next  accepted  a  presentation  to  the  bene- 
fice of  Otham,  near  Maidstone,  in  Kent.     At  this  place  he 
^as  the  means  of  awakening  many  careless  sinners,  and  of 
building  them  up  in  faith  and  holiness.     Multitudes  flocked 
to  hear  him  from  Maidstone  and  its  vicinity ;  and  the  church 
was  soon  found  too  small  to  contain  them.     His  great  popu- 
larity and  usefulness*  presently  awakened  the  envy  of  profane 
sinners,  and  several  neighboiu-ing  ministers ;  but  he  went  on 
undismayed,  the  Lord  blessing  his  labours. 

Notwithstanding  his  labours  and  usefulness,  he  was  aj: 
length  silenced  for  refusing  to  read  the  Book  of  Sports.  In 
the  month  of  April,  1634,  he  was  inliibited  by  Archbishop 


}7t  LIVES  OF  TBE  fUfllTANS. 

Stand's  Mcinr-geiieraly  from  port  '6f 'bis  public  ministerial  exei<- 
•cises.  But,  upon  the  pubuoation  of  the  Book  of  Sports^  hb 
TeAised  to  read  it^  when  die  archbishop  scfntfrn*  him  to  LanK 
•bedi;  andy  April  29,  l6S6,  no  less  ihnn  fourteen  Axrg^ 
were  exhibited  against  him,  to  each  of  which  he  gave  his 
answer^  May  28th  following.  The  substance  of  these  furticles, 
together  widi  Mr.  Wilson's  answers,  was  as  follows : 

1.  That  canonical  obedi^ice  is  due  by  your  oath,  taken  aft 
your  institution. 

Answer.  It  is  true,  as  I  understand  the  oath^  it  is  accord- 
ing to  the  canons  of  the  church  of  England. 

2.  That  a  minister  must  have  a  popular  election,  as  seces- 
•ary  to  hold  his  place. 

Ans.  I  never  held  such  an  opinion,  nor  ever  spok^  it,  pri; 
vately  or  publicly. 

3.  That  there  is  little  comfort  for  a  minister  instituted  and 
inducted,  without  the  approbation  of  die  people. 

Ans.    I  know  and  believe  the  contrary. 

4.  You  have  held  conventicles  in  your  house,  and  in  other 
liouses  in  the  town  of  Otham,  within  this  two  years,  and  used 
exercises  of  religion  by  law  prohibited. 

Ans.  I  deny  that  I  have  holden  conventicles,  and  usedh 
exercises  of  religion  by  law  prohibited.  ^ 

5.  Within  this  four  years  you  have  collected  in  private 
houses,  or  caused  to  be  collected,  forty  or  fifty  persons,  and 
to  them  repeated  sermons,  expounded  scripture,  made  tediou^ 
extemporary  prayers,  full  of  tautologies,  and  delivered  dan- 
gat)us  doctrine,  to  the  perverting  and  corrupting  of  hif 
majesty's  subjects. 

Ans.  I  protest  against  such  doctrine^  and  any  such  effect. 
I  also  deny  that  I  collected,  or  caused  to  be  collected^  any 
tuch  persons. 

6.  You  refused  to  read  die  King^s  Declaration  for  Sporti 
On  Sundays,  and  spoke  disdainfully  to  the  apparitor  and 
officer  of  the  court. 

Ans.  I  said  to  the  apparitor,  ^*  Remember  the  sabbath  dajr 
to  keep  it  holy ;"  and  I  said  no  more.  I  refused  to  read  the 
book,  not  out  of  contempt  of  any  authority,  being  coni- 
manded  by  no  law.  The  king's  majesty  doth  not  in  tfao 
book  command  or  appoint  the  minister  to  read  it,  nor  it  to 
Ire  read,  but  published.  And  seeing  there  is  no  penalty 
threatened,  nor  authority  given  fo  any  one  to  question  those 
tvho  refuse  to  read  it,  my  refusal  to  read  it  was  upon  sufficient 
grounds  of  law  and  conscience ;  which,  for  the  satisfaction 
of  diis  high  coort^  and  to  clear  myself  from  contempt,  {  shall 


T.  WjQDrSON.  I7i 

.bviefly  express  "ii^raelf  thus :  His  majesty's  exfNress  pkaewe  k^ 
diat  die.  laws  of  the  realm,  ^nd  Ihe  canons  of  l|^  •church,  be 
observed  in  all  places  of  die  kingdom ;  and  dierefofe  at  Otham 
in  Kent :  font  this  book,  as  I  conceive,  is  contrary  to  botl|^.— - 
It  is  contrary  to  the  slatute  laws.r^It  is  contrary  to  <the  eccle-  / 
siastical  laws. — It  js  c^uydnMry  to  the  scnptm^. — It  is  eoo- 
trary  to  the  ciM^nc^s.^— It  is  c^nlraiy  to  divines,  ancient  «nd 
modem.-— j[t  is  conti'ary  to  reason^*  y 

7.  In  1633,  when  the  commission  was  grafted  for  repair- 
ilig  St.  Paul's,  you  sfoidy  to  build  sumptuous  temples  u  to 
justify  antichrist. 

^3.    I  deny  this  sdtogether. 

8.  In  1634,  you  bade  the  pepple,  in  scorn  and  derision,  to 
lake  heed  of  cUaiing  with  high  priest's  servants. 

Ans.    I  deny  both  the  time  and  the  words. 

9.  At  Boxley,  June  99,  1632,  you  said.  No  man  can  have  a 
broken  heart,  who  hath  two  steeples ;  meaning  two  benefices, 
alleging  Acts  yx.  20. 

Ans.  I  never  spake  such  words.  But  at  the  fimeral  of  « 
puve  and  learned  minister,  I  entreated  the  ministers  present  to 
prepare  to  give  an  account  of  their  lives  and  livings,  shewing 
the  vanily  CMf  those  who  plead  for  pluralities,  saying,  **  That  u 
a  man's  heart^were  broken,  it  would  not  be  with  the  ^^ight 
^  three  churches ; -'  ^d  herein  I  followed  no  new  opinion, 
but  die  general  opinion  of  learned  divines,  both  ancient  and 
modem. 

,  10.  You  have  scandalized  the  governors  and  government 
«f  die  church  of  England,  as  persecutors  of  God's  faithful 
ministers  and  people. 

Ans.  This  is  not  true,  in  the  whole  or  in  any  part. 

11.  In  April,  1633,  you  delivered  a  dangerous  doctrine, 
•ven  that  if  a  subject  suffer  the  penalty  of  die  law  from  the 
civil  magistrate,  he  is  free  from  sin. 

Ans.  I  deny  the  time,  and  words,  and  doctiine.  I  never 
taught,  nor  read,  nor  heard  of  this  doctrine,  till  I  heard  this 
article ;  and  I  abhor  it,  and  disclaim  it  as  dangerous. 

12.  April  22,  1634,  you  lectured  and  expounded,  after 
jahibition  by  the  vicar-general. 

^Ans.  This  is  n(A  true.  I  did  not  preadi,  excepting  on 
Ijord's  days  and  holidays;  neither  did  I  expound.  Yet 
I  had^a  Ucense  to  expound,  and  was  not  ft>rbidden  expound- 
ing.    I  constandy  instruct,  by  question  and  answer,  in  the 

•  Mr.  Wilton  eolar^  apra-eacb  of  these  topia  with  {feat  jmigmettt, 
1i«t  the  whole  It  (00  lon^  fq(  ini^rtioii. 


176  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

cathechism,  such  as  come  to  prayers,  for  which  I' had  my 
institution  and  license,  and  from  which  I  never  received  any 
prohibition ;  nor,  so  far  as  I  understand,  is  it  any  sin  against 
God  or  man. 

13.  Vpu  are  accounted  an  enemy  to  the  church  of  Eng- 
land, and  draw  others  into  schism  after  you; 

Ans.    I  deny  the  whole  of  this,  and  every  part." 

14.  You  are  to  promise^  by  your  word  and  honour^  to 
speak  the  truth. 

Ans.    I  believe  what  I  have  confessed,  and  deny  what 
I  have  denied  in  every  part.* 

From  the  above  articles,  together  with  Mr.  Wilson's 
replies,  it  is  manifest  that  Laud  had  laid  the  snare  to  catch 
him,  chiefly  for  refusing  to  read  the  Book  of  Sports.  In  this 
his  lordship  succeeded  according  to  his  wishes:  for  Mr. 
Wilson's  answers,  in  which  he  declared  his  refusal  to  read  the 
book,  were  no  sooner  given,  than  the  archbishop  replied, 
/  suspend  you  for  ever  from  your  office  and  benejice  till  yikt 
read  it ;  and  he  continued  suspended  for  the  space  of  four. 
years.t  Abou^  the  same  time  he  was  committed  to  Maid^ 
Stone  jail  for  nonconformity,  but  how  long  he  remained  in 
confinement  it  does  not  appear.t  At  the  expiration  of  the 
above  period,  he  was  brought  into  the  high  commission 
court  by  means  of  the  archbishop ;  and,  to  his  great  cost  and 
trouble,  was  again  prosecuted  fo(  die  same  crime.  Indeed/ 
the  archbishop,  in  answer  to  this,  said,  that  Mr.  Wilson  was 
not  censured  for  not  reading  the  book;  but,  accordii^  to 
his  own  confession,  for  dilapidations,  in  not  repairing  hi» 
house .$  With  what  kind  of  evidence  this  is  asserted,  the 
candid  and  intelligent  reader  will  easily  perceive. 

Mr.  Wilson,  remaining  under  suspension,  and  being  dis- 
satisfied with  the  ministry  of  his  successor,  removed  to  Maid^ 
stone,  where  he  gave  private  instructions  among  his  friends. 
His  adversaries,  at  the  same  time,  traduced  his  character,  and 
slandered  him  as  a  favourer  of  schism.  Therefore,  to  wipe  off. 
the  reproach,  he  addressed  a  letter  to  the  parishioners  of 
Otham,  exhorting  them  ^*  to  fear  God  and  honour  the  king, 
and  walk  in  love  one  towards  another."  For  the  information 
and  Satisfaction  of  all,  this  letter  was  read  to  the  public  con- 
gregation on  the  Lord's  day.  The  news  of  this^  however, 
soon  reached  London,  when  Mr.  Wilson  and  Dr.  Tuck,  who 


J 


«  Life  of  Mr.  Wilson,  p.  67—89.     Edit.  1672. 
f  Prynne's  Cant   Doonae,  p.  149  ^ClarlL'i  LiTes,  part  i*  p.  18^-8I« 
*  Nears  Puritans,  vol.  iv.  p.  6S2. 
Whartoo'g  Troubles  of  Laod,  vol.  i.  p.  344. 


T.WILSON.  177 

had  read  the  letter^  were  cited  to  appear  before  the  high  com- 
nussion.  Mr.  Wilson  was  charged  in  the  court  with  havinr 
Bent  a  scandalous  and  offensive  letter  to  Otham,  to  nourish 
schism,  and  to  confirm  the  people  in  the  dislike  of  govern* 
ment;  upon  which  he  acknowledged  his  writing  a  letter,  but 
denied  its  evil  tendency,  saying,  ^*  I  know  that  it  was  to  ex-  ^ 
hort  the  people  to  fear  God  and  the  king,  and  to  meddle  not 
with  those  that  are  given  to  change ;  to  walk  in  foith  and  love, 
and  to  call  upon  God:  but  I  utterly  deny  all  occasion  of  de- 
rogating from  the  church  of  England,  or  confirmation  of  aoj 
in  a  dislike  of  ^e  government,  and  protest  against  all  asper- 
sions and  imputations  of  schism  or  scandal :  neither  did 
I  direct  any  one  to  read  it,  nor  intended  or  desired  it  should 
be  read  in  the  church."*  Notwithstanding  all  they  could 
allege  in  their  own  defence,  they  were  enforced  to  continue 
their  attendance  no  less  than  three  years,  to  their  great  cost 
and  trouble.f 

In  the  year  1639,  the  Scots  having  entered  Ei^land,  and 
a  parliament  being  called.  Laud  took  off  Mr.  Wilson's  sus- 
pension. ,  But  his  troubles  and  sufferings  were  not  ended ; 
for,  September  30,  1640,  he  was  cited  to  appear  before  the 
archbishop's  visitors  at  Feversham,  together  with  other  minis- 
ters in  Kent,  to  answer  for  not  reading  the  prayer  against 
the  Scots.  Upon  their  appearance,  Mr.  Edward  Bright^ 
being  called  first,  was  asked  whether  he  had  read  the  prayer; 
and  when  he  said  he  had  not,  the  archdeacon  instantly  sus- 
pended him  from  ofiice  and  benefice,  without  admonitioo,  or 
even  giving  him  the  least  time  to  consider  of  it  Mr.  Wilson, 
who  witnessed  this  rash  proceeding,  was  next  called.  When 
he  was  asked  whether  he  had  read  the  prayer,  he  answered  in 
the  negative;  '^ because,'*  said  he,  ''in  the  rubrick  of  the 
Common  Prayer,  it  is  enjoined  that  no  prayer  shall  be  pub* 
licly  read  excepting  those  which  are  contained  in  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer,  and  that  prayer  against  the  Scots  is  not.** 
This  unexpected  answer  so  confounded  the  archdeacon  that 
he  did  not  know  what  to  say.  It  cooled  his  fiuy,  and  caused 
him  to  proceed  more  deliberately  with  Mr.  Wilson  than  he 
had  done  with  Mr.  Bright.  He  ^ve  him  fourteen  days  to 
consider  of  it,  and  then  deliver  his  answer  at  Canterbury  '4 
but  whether  he  delivered  any  other  answer,  and  what  afiter- 

♦  LifeofMr.Wilson,  p.  90,91. 

+  Dr.  Tack's  case  was,  indeei,  more  dlstreiiiog  than  Mr.  WilfWTij  for, 
•o  account  of  bodily  infirmities,  lie  was  anable  to  ride,  and  oeceailAlcd  tm 
wutke  all  bis  joarnies  on  fool.<^Z6i4.  p.  13. 

t  Ibid.  p.  14— <16. 

VOL.  III.  ^ 


178  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

wards  followed  relative  to  this  cas^^  we  are  not  able,  for 
want  of  inforpiatioDy  to  relate. 

About  the  same  time  a  warrant  was  issued  from  tfie  lords 
of  the  council,  ^moi^  whom  were  Archbishop  Laud  and  the 
Bishop  of  London,  to  apprehend  Mr.  Wilson.  With  diis  war*- 
rant  a  pursuivant  was  sent  to  bring  him  to  London.  It  does  not . 
appear  for  what  crime  this  prosecution  was  designed ;  yet  no 
doubt  it  was  the  sin  of  nonconformity.  The  pursuivant,  ha^ 
ing  received  his  warrant,  hastened  without  delay  to  Otham ; 
where,  though  he  heard  Mr.  Wilson  preach,  aiid  was  afters- 
wards  in  the  same  room  with  him  in  his  own  house,  he  let 
him  slip  out  of  his  hands.  Mr.  Wilson,  suspecting  turn  as 
soon  as  he  entered  the  room,  retired  and  hid  himself,  and  so 
escaped  the  snare.  The  pursuivant  vras  enraged  at  his  lb8% 
and  said  he  had  been  employed  in  this  service  thirtyiirix 
years,  and  had  never  been  served  so  before.  Mr.  WusoOy 
having  escaped  the  snare,  withdrew  from  the  storm  till  tilt . 
meeting  of  the  long  parUament,  when  he  went  to  London, ' 
and  presented  his  case  and  petition  to  the  house  of  commons; 
The  house  appointed  a  committee  to  take  his  case  into  con*- . 
sideration;  and,  November  30,  1640,  Mr.  Rouse,  who  was 
one  of  this  committee,  reported  to  the  house,  *^  That  Mr.  Wil- 
son had  been  suspended  four  years  from  his  living,  wordi  sixty 
pounds  a  year,  only  for  not  reading  die  Book  of  Recreations 
on  the  Lord's  day;  that  die  archbishop  himself  had  sus- 
pended him;  and  that  for  three  years  he  had  attended' 
upon  the  high  commission."  The  house  therefore  rescdved^ 
*^  That  Mr.  Wilson  had  just  cause  of  complaint ;  and  that 
diere  was  just  cause  for  the  house  to  afford  him  relief.''* 
Upon  the  presentation  of  his  pAition,  Sir  Edward  Deerinff, 
one  of  the  members  for  Kent,  said,  '*  Mr.  Wilson,  your  peti- 
tioner, is  as  orthodox  in  doctrine,  as  laborious  in  preachiiM^, 
and  as  unblemished  in  his  life,  as  any  minister  we  have.  He 
ia  now. separated  from  his  flock,  to  both  their  griefs :  for  it  is 
not  with  him  as  with  many  others,  who  are  glad  to  set  a  pur- 
suivant on  work,  that  they  may  have  an  excuse  to  be  out  of 
the  pulpit;  it  is  his  delight  to  preach."f  Sir  Edward  furdier 
observes  of  Mr.  Wilson,  "  He  is  now  a  sufferer,  as  all  good 
men  are,  ander  the  general  obloquy  of  a  puritan.^  The  poi^ 
snivant  watches  his  door,  and  divides  him  and  his'  cum 
asunder,  to  both  their  griefs.  About  a  week  since,"  he  adds, 
*'  I  went  to  Lambeth,  to  move  that  great  bishop  (too  great ' 
indeed)  to  take  this  danger  from  off  this,  minister,  and  to  recall 

♦  RoshworthN  Collec.  vol.  v.  p.  66.*— Nahon's  Cellec.  vol.  i.  p.  571. 
f  Life  of  Mr.  Wilson,  p.  17— 2«. 


T.  WILSON.  179 

the  pui'suivsmt.    And  I  did  undertake  for  Mr.  Wilson,  that  he 
should  answer  his  aqcusers  in  any  o(  the  king's  courtu  a| 
Westminster.    The  bishop  made  me  answer, '  I  am  sure. that* 
he  will  not  be  ^bsent  from  his  cure  a  twelvemonth  together.'  "^ 

Upon  the  above  resolution  of  the  house^  he  was  released 
from  all  his  troubles,  when  he  returned  to  his  charge  and 
wonted  labours  at  Otham.  In  the  year  l643,  he  was  uomi* 
nated  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines ;  and,  lliough  at  so  great 
a  distance,  he  constantly  attended.  In  the  assembly  he  was 
much  esteemed  for  hb  meek  and  humble  deportment,  anc) 
his  grave  and  judicious  counsels.  Having  continued  soma 
time  9t  Otham,  he  removed  to  Maidstone,  where  he  remaine4 
to  the  day  of  his  death.  Here  his  first  care  was  to  promote  * 
the  reformation  of  the  church,  and  to  administer  the  sacra« 
ments,  according  to  his  views  of  the  word  of  God.  To  this 
end  he  preached  upon  the  necessity  of  observing  scriptural . 
discipline,  and  the  qualifications  necessary  to  church-fellow- 
ship. At  first  he  met  with  considerable  opposition,  but  by 
prudence  and  perseverance  things  were  brought  to  a  favour- 
able  issue. 

Mr.  Wilson  was  indefatigable  in  his  attendance  upon  his 
numerous  duties,  and  usually  observed  the  following  method : 
he  protracted  his  studies  on  Saturdays  nearly  till  midnight^ 
and  rose  by  two  or  three  o^clock  on  a  sabbath  morning,  being 
much  displeased  if  he  was  later.  About  seven  he  came  out 
of  his  study,  and  called  Iiis  family  together,  when  he  read  and 
expounded  a  portion  of  scripture,  requiring  those  present  to 
give  some  account  of  the  exposition ;  then  sung  a  psalm,  and 
concluded  with  prayer.  At  nine  o'clock  he  went  to  church, 
and  entered  upon  public  worship  by  singing,  then  prayed  for 
a  blessing,  and  expounded  out  of  the  Old  Testament  about 
an  hour;  then,  besides  singing  and  prayer,  he  preached  an' 
hour,  and  concluded.  ^rhen,^oing  home,  he  invariably  prayed 
with  his  family  before  dinner.  In  the  afternoon  he.  observed 
the  same  method  as  in  the  morning,  only  his  exposition  was 
upon  some  part  of  the  New  Testament.  The  public  services 
of  the  day  being  ended,  he  called  his  family  together,  when 
many  neighbours  attended ;  then  they  repeated  the  sermons 
and  expositions,  sung  a  psalm,  and  concluded  with  prayer. 
After  this  he  usually  went  to  a  friend's  house  in  the  town, 
where  many  attended,  and  did  the  same.  He  administered 
the  Lord's  supper  regularly  once  a  month,  delivered  weekly 
lectures,  attended  meetings  for  religious  conference,  and  was 

•  Collection  of  Deerins't  Speeches,  p.  9, 10.    £dit.  1649. 


180  LIVEiS  OF  TH£  PURITANS. 

incessant  in  catechizing.  He  did  the  Lord's  work  faithfullvi, 
and  found  his  reward  in  the  labour.  Sonie^  indeed,  thougnt 
he  laboured  too  much,  and  that  he  ought  to  have  spared  him- 
self;  but  he  was  of  a  contrary  opinion,  being  persuaded  that  * 
God  makes  no  difference  betwixt  an  idle  and  an  evil  servant. 
Hence,  when  his  frieud^  attempted  to  dissuade  him  firom'  so. 
intense  an  application,  he  was  ever  deaf  to  their  counsel, 
sayitig,  "  Would  you  have  my  Lord,  when  he  cometh^  to  find 
me  idler 

He  waig  always  exa(^t  in  setting  a  good  example  before  his 
children  and  servants,  knoM'ing  them  to  be  much  influenced 
by  the  deportment  of  superiors.  What  he  preached  to  them 
on  the  sabbath,  he  practised  before  them  all  the  week ;  and 
**  in  all  things  he  she\i'ed  himself  a  pattern  of  good  works.*' 
He  ^as  a  strict  observer  of  the  sabbath,  and  eminently  suc- 
cessful in  promoting  the  same  among  his  people.  This  wa^ 
die  happy  fruit  of  his  labours  at  Maidstone,  as  well  as  at  other 
places.  One  of  the  judges  taking  notice  of  this  at  the 
assize,  publicly  declared,  that,  in  all  his  circuit,  there  was  no 
town  where  the  Lord's  day  M'as  so  strictly  observed.  Mr* 
Wilson  was  of  a  courageous  spirit,  and  feared  no  obstades  hi 
the  path  of  duty.  Ite  feared  God,  and  none  else.  He  knew 
God  would  take  care  of  his  om'u  cause,  whatever  sufferings 
his  servants  might  endure ;  therefore,  when  trials  came  upon 
him,  he  said,  with  Luther,  **  I  had  rather  fall  with  CSuist 
than  reign  with  Caesar."  He  shewed  his  courage  in  reprof- 
ing  sin.  If  men  were  bold  in  sinning,  he  was  bold  in  reprotr- 
ing  them,  even  without  respect  of  persons.  His  sincerity, 
humility,  and  great  piety,  were  manifest  to  all.  The  excellent 
Mr.  William  Tenner,  after  being  in  his  company,  said,  "  I  am 
ashamed  of  myself,  to  see  how  Mr.  Wilson  gallops  towards 
heaven,  and  I  do  but  creep  at  a  snail's  pace."*  Indeedj^his 
treasure  wad  in  heaven,  and  his  heart  was  there  also.  This 
excellent  trait  in  his  character  will  appear  ffoiQ  the  following 
anecdote : — Duritig  the  insurrection  in  1648,  the  soldiers  took 
from  him  a  legacy  of  a  hundred  pounds  left  to  his  daughter, 
though  it  was  afterwards  restored .  But  when  the  money  was 
gone,  being  asked  whether  he  Mas  not  much  troubled,  he 
replied,  "No;  I  was  no  more  troubled  when  I  heard  the- 
money  was  carried  off,  tlian  when  it  was  brought  to  my  house.*'t 

Mr.  Wilson^s  great  piety  was  most  manifest  in  his  affliction 
and  death.  When  the  bridegroom  came,  he  had  .his  lamp 
trimmed,  oil  in  his  vessel,  add  his  light  burning.     He  endured 

•  Ufe  of  Mr.  ITUiod,  p.  S2--49.  t  Ibia.  p.  il. 


T.  WILSON.  181 

his  extreme  pain  with  exemplary  patience :  he  monnied,  but 
never  mmmured.  He  was  willing  to  drink  his  heavenly 
Father's  bitter  cup^  When  lying  upon  his  death4)ed  be 
called  his  family  around  him.  He  desired  his  vnfe  not  to  be 
cast  down^  or  to  sorrow  as  those  who  have  no  hope ;  but  to 
trust  in  the  Lord ;  and  added,  '*  Though  we  must  now  be 
separated  for  a  season,  we  shall  meet  again  to  part  no  more 
for  ever.*'  He  exhorted  his  children  to  fear  die  Lord,  saying, 
*'  Look  you  to  it,  that  you  meet  me  not  in  the  day  of  judg- 
ment in  an  unconverted  state/'  He  praised  God,  and  spoke 
much  of  the  preciousness  of  Christ.  The  prospect  of  his 
approaching  death  afforded  comfort  to  his  soul.  To  a  pious 
lady  of  his  acquaintance,  who  was  leaving  Maidstone,  he 
pleasandy  said,  "  What  will  you  say,  Mrs.  Crisp,  if  I  get  the 
start  of  you,  and  get  to  heaven  before  you  get  to  Dover  ?* 
Another  person  saying,  **  Sir,  I  think  you  are  not  far  from 
your  Father's  house ;"  he  immediately  replied,  "  That  is  good 
,uews  indeed,  and  is  enough  to  make  one  leap  for  joy."  To 
those  who  mourned  over  him,  he  said,  ^'  I  bless  God^  who 
hath  suiOTered  me  to  live  so  long  to  do  him  some  service ;  and 
now  I  have  finished  the  work  appointed  for  me,  that  he  is 
pleased  to  call  me  away  so  soon.  He  fought  the  goodjightf 
he  finished  his  course,  he  kept  the  faith,  and  died  in  peace, 
towards  the  end  of  the  year  1653,  aged  fifty-two  years.  He 
had  a  clear  understanding,  a  quick  invention,  a  sound  judg- 
ment, a  tenacious  memory,  and  was  a  hard  student,  a  good 
scholar,  an  excellent  preacher,  and  clothed  vpith  humility. • 
Mr.  Wilson  was  twice  married,  and  by  his  second  wife  he  had 
eleven  children,  ten  of  whom  were  living  at  his  death.  Mr. 
Thomas  Wilson,  ejected  in  1662,  is  supposed  to  have  been 
his  son.t  When  upon  his  death-bed  he  recommended  Mr. 
John  Crump,  afterwards  ejected  in  1662,  to  be  his  ^uccessor^ 
We  are  informed  that  Mr.  Wilson  was  a  baptist,  and  in  the 
year  1638,  joined  Mr.  John  Spilsbury's  churcbi  London  ;$ 
but  whether  he  continued  to  adhere  to  the  baptists'  senti- 
ments, and  acted  upop  them  to  the  end  of  hi3  days,  we  are 
unable  to  ascertain.  He  was  author  of  a  sermon  preached 
before  the  house  of  commons,  entided,  **  Jerechoe's  Do^in- 
fall,"  1643 1  apd  probably  som§  others. 

•  Ufeof  Mr.  Wilton,  p.  S4,  52—64. 

f  Palaier*s  Noncoo.  Mem.  ¥o).  ii.  p.  132.  t  ^'*^'  P*  ^32, 

S  Cnwby's  Baptisti,  vol.  i,  p.  149.— Neal'g  Pnritam,  toI.  if.  p.  6S2. 
tfSS. 


IBS  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Natijaniel  Warjd,  a.  B. — This  excellent  person  \vas  the 
son  of  Mr.  John  Ward,  and  brother  to  Mr.  Samuel  Ward, 
both  celebrated  puritan  divines ;  was  born  at  Haverhii  ia 
Suffolk,  about  the  year  J  570.  He  received  a  liberal  edu- 
cation, and  viras  intended  tor  the  lav*^;  but  afterwards  trayel- 
ling  into  Prussia  and  Denmark,  where  he  was  honoured  with 
the  intimate  friendship  of  the  celebrated  David  Pareus  6£ 
Heidelberg,  from  whom  he  received  the  most  valuable  in«- 
tftruction,  he  purposed,  upon  his  return  home,  to  enter  upon 
the  Christian  ministry.  He  became  preacher  at  St.  Jaroes\ 
Duke's-place,  London,  in  the  year  1626 ;  and  afterwards 
became  rector  of  Standon  Massey  in  Essex,*  where  he  felt 
t^e  iron  hand  of  Archbishop  Laud.  Previous  to  the  year 
16SS,  he  v^as  often  convened  before  this  intoleraut  prelate 
for  nonconformity ;  and,  after  frequent  attendance,  for  re- 
fusing to  subscribe  according  to  the  canons,  he  was  excom- 
municated and  deprived  of  his  ministry.  The  good  man 
remained  a  long  time  under  the  prelate's  heavy  censure.  +  It 
does  not  indeeid  app^r  that  he  was  ever  released.  For 
having  found  that  his  release  could  not  be  obtained  without 
^he  most  degrading  submission,  contrary  to  the  light  of 
conscience  and  the  testimony  of  scripture,  he  left  his  natiye 
country,  and  in  the  year  1634  retired  to  New  EIngland. 
Upon  his  arrival  he  was  chosen  pastor  of  the  church  at 
Ipswich,  where  he  continued  in  high  reputation,  frequ^it 
labours,  and  great  usefulness,  about  eleven  years.  In  1645 
he  returned  to  England,  and  became  minister  of  Shenfield  in 
Essex.  He  subscribed  the  Essex  testimony  as  minister  of 
this  place,  and  was  sometimes  called  to  preach  before  the 
parliament.  He  greatly  lamented  the  confusions  of  the 
times,  and  discovered  great  loyalty  to  the  king,  and  much 
solicitude  for  his  majesty's  welfare.}:  He  died  at  Shenfield 
in  the  year  1653,  aged  eighty-three  years.§  He  is  classed 
among  the  learned  writers  of  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge,  l 
He  was  a  learned  man,  a  pious  christian,  an  excellent 
preacher,  and  the  author  of  many  articles,  full  of  wit  and 
good  ser^e,  the  titles  of  which  have  riot  reached  us.        ' 


Robert  Abbot,  A.  M. — This  person  received  his  edu- 
cation in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his 

*  Newcourt's  Repert.  Eccl.  vol.  i.  p.  917,  vol.  ii.  p.  545. 
f  Wharton*8  Troubles  of  Land,  vol.  i.  p.  525. 

fGrey*8  Examination,  vol.  i.  p.  401. 
Mather*s  Hist,  of  New  £ng.  b.  iii.  p.  167. 
I  Fnller'ft  Hist,  of  Cam.  p.  147. 


N.  WARD-ABBOT-^SPILSBUttT.  183 

diogneB  in  arts,  and  was  afterwards  incorporated  at  Oxford.' 
Having  finished  his  studies  at  the  university^  he  became 
ficar^  Cranbrook  in  Kent,  and  minister  of  Southwick  in 
Hampshire.  A  minister  of  the  same  name,  and  no  doubt  the 
ame  person,  was  a  great  sufierer  under  the  tyrannical  oppres- 
dtm  of  Bishop  Pierce  of  Bath  and  Wells.  This  learned 
|mfete  compelled  Mr.  Abbot  and  others,  contrary  to  law  and 
jwtioe,  to  raise  sums  of  money  towards  carrying  on  the  war 
igunst  the  Scots.*  In  the  beginning  of  the  year  1643,  ac- 
ewding  to  Dr.  Walker,  he  was  dispossessed  of  his  viparage  by 
wilder  of  the  house  of  commons ;  because  he  had  taken  another 
hying,  which,  from  his  own  confession,  was  inconsistentt 
Whether  this  be  indeed  correct  we  are  imable  to  ascertain ; 
hot  be  this  as  it  may,  it  appears  that,  upon  the  commence- 
ment  of  the  dyil  war,  he  espoused  the  cause  of  the  parlia- 
Bent,  united  himself  to  the  puritans,  and  became  rector  of 
8t.  Austin's  church,  Watling-street,  London,  where  he  con- 
tinued in  peace  and  quietness  all  the  rest  of  his  days.  In 
each  of  these  situations  he  was  happy  among  the  people  of 
his  charge.  They  were  much  attached  to  him;  and  often 
warmly  pressed  him  to  appear  in  print.  He  lived  to  a  good 
old  age,  and  was  living  in  the  y<3ar  1653 ;  but  when  he  died 
tre  have  not  been  able  to  learn. t 

His  Works.— 1.  Be  Tliarikful  London  and  her  Sisters,  1626.— 
%  Four  Sermons,  1639.— 3.  Tryal  of  our  Church-forsakers,  1639. — 
4*.  Milk  for  Babes ;  or,  a  Mother's  Catechism  for  her  Children,  1646. 
—6.  Three  Sermons,  1646.— 6.  A  Christian  Family  Builded  by  God; 
(H*,  Directions  £6r  Governors  of  Families,  1653. 


John  Spilsbury  was  a  minister  of  the  antipacdobaptist 
denomination.  Upon  his  embracing  these  sentiments,  he 
i9  said  to  have  gone  into  Holland  to  be  baptized  by*  Mr. 
John  Smjth;  after  which  he  returned  to  England,  and 
b^n  to  baptize  adults  by  immersion.  Crosby,  however, 
attempts  to  clear  him  of  this,  and  to  prove  that  he  did  not 
go  abroad  for  this  purpose  ;  but  with  what  degree  of  sue* 
cess  we  will  not  undertake  to  determine.^  In  the  year 
163?,  part  of  Mr.  John  l^athorp's  church,  in  London,  hav- 
ing espoused  the  sentiments  of  the  baptists,  desired  to  be 
dismissed  from  the  church,  and  to  be  allowed  to  form  a 
distinct  congregation.      "  The  church,"    it  is  observed, 

*  Impeachment  of  Bishop  Pierce,  p.  8. 
f  Walker*s  Attempt,  part  ii.  p.  183. 
t  Wood's  Athenae  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  800. 
S  Crosby's  Baptists,  vol.  i.  p.  96,  103>  104. 


184  Liyj^  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

<<  having  grown  very  numerous,  and  being  more  than  Ciwld 
In  those  times  of  persecution  conveniently  meet  together, 
and  believing  that  those  persons  acted  from  a  principle  d 
conscience,  and  not  obstinacy,  agreed  to  allow  them  the 
liberty  they  desired."  They  formed  tlicraselves,  therefore, 
into  a  distinct  church,  Se])tember  13,  1633,  and  chose  Mr. 
Spilsbury  to  the  office  of  pastor.  This  church,  which 
settled  in  Wapping,  is  thought  to  have  been  the  first  baptist 
congregation  in  England.*  In  the  year  1638,  Mr.  William 
Kii&i,  Mr.  Thomas  Wilson,  and  other  celebrated  persons, 
became  members  of  this  church,+  and  the  society  appears  to 
have  been  in  a  flourishing  condition. 

In  process  of  time,  however,  some  disputes  arose  among 
(he  members,  on  the  subject  of  mixed  communion.  Those 
who  opposed  it  withdrew,  and  formed  a  separate  society ^under 
the  care  of  Mr.  Kiffin.  This  separation  is  said  to  liave  taken 

Elace  in  I6h3^  soon  after  which  the  present  baptist  meeting* 
ouse  in  Devonshire-square  was  built,  where  Mr«  Kiffin  and 
his  church  assembled  for  public  worship.^  Mr.  Spilsbunr, 
in  1644,  subscribed  the  confession  of  faith  set  forth  in  the 
name  of  the  seven  baptist  congregations  in  London ;  but 
when  he  died  we  have  not  been  able  to  learn.  It  appears 
that  after  the  above  separation  he  went  to  Ireland,  where 
he  was  highly  respected.  Henry  Cromwell,  in  a  letter 
dated  Dublin,  March  8,  1654,  addressed  to  Secretary 
Thurloe,  speaks  in  high  terms  of  him.^  He  was  a  man  of 
an  excellent  spirit  and  great  moderation.||  He  published  a 
piece  entitled,  "  The  peculiar  Interest  of  the  Elect  in  Christ 
and  his  Saving  Grace." 


CuTHBERT  Sydenham,  A.  M. — This  divine  was  horn  at 
Truro  in  Cornwall,  in  the  year  1622,  and  educated  in  St, 
Alban's-hall,  Oxford.  He  continued  at  Oxford  till  after 
the  commencement  of  the  civil  wars,  and  the  place  was 
garrisoned  by  the  royal  forces ;  at  which  time  he  left  the 
.university,  and  espoused  the  cause  of  the  parliament. 
About  the  year  1644,  he  became  lecturer  of  St.  Nicholas 
church,  at  Newcastle-upon-Tyne ;  "  where,"  says  Wood, 
*^  by  his  constant  and  confident  preaching,  he  gained  more 
respect  than  any  venerable  minister  in  "that  or  another 

♦  NeaFs  Puritans,  vol.  ii.  p.  347.— Crosby's  Baptists,  vol.  i.  p,  148, 149. 

+  Crosby *s  Baptists,  vol.  iii.  p.  41,  42. 

t  Wilson's  Hist,  of  DissentUig  Ohorches^  vol.  i.  p.  401. 

^  Thurloe's  Slate  Papers,  vol.  ii.  p.  149. 

I  Bailie's  Aoabaptism,  p.  94, 118. 


SYDENHAM— EEBBRT.  ISS 


coct>oration.'*  This  could  not  indeed  be  his  fimlt.  He  wm 
undoubtedly  most  doBemng  of  it  In  the  yew  1630,  bj 
virtue  of  letters  from  the  coniniission»s  of  parliament,  far 
regulating  the  uniyersitj  of  (hrfbtd,  he  was  cieafied  master 
of  drts.  In  those  lettars  they  gave  him  a  most  exoelknt 
character.  He  was  a  constant  and  zealous  preacher,  and 
a  man  of  great  learning  and  piety,  frequently  exerdstiir  a 
holy  jealousy  over  his  own  heart*  But  retiring  to  LoMoa 
for  the  benefit  of  his  health,  and  to  superintend  the  printing 
of  some  of  his  books,  he  there  died,  about  March  S3,  IGM, 
aged  thirty-two  years. 

His  Works.— 1.  A  Christian,  Sober,  and  Plaip  ExeieitatioB  of  te 
two  grand  practical  Controversies  of  these  Tioies,  Infant  llapfhi 
aiid  Singing  of  Psalms,  1653. — 2.  llie  great  Mjsterie  of  Godlineii, 
opened  in  several  Sermons,  1654. — 3.  Hypocrisie  Discovered  in  its 
Nature  and  Workings,  being  the  Sum  of  Seven  Senaons,  16M.^ 
4.  The  False  Brother;  or,  the  Mapp  of  Scotland,  drawn  by  an  Eogiih 
Pencil. — 5.  Anatomy  of  Joh.  Lilbonrn's  Spirit  and  Pamphlets;  or, 
a  Vindication  of  the  Two  Honourable  Patriots,  Oliver  Cromwell, 
Lord  Governor  of  Ireland,  and  Sir  Arth.  Hasehigg,  Knight  and 
Baronet ;  wherein  the  said  Lilbonm  is  demonstratively  proved  to  ba 
a  common  Lyer,  and  unworthy  of  civil  Converse. 


William  Erbert,  A.  B. — This  perscm  was  bom  at 
Roath-Dagfield  in  Glamorganshire,  in  the  year  1604,  and 
educated  in  Brazen-nose  college,  Oxford.  Having  finished 
his  studies  at  the  nniyersity,  he  entered  into  the  ministerial 
office,  retired  into  Wales,  and  became  yicar  of  St.  Mary's 
in  Cardifi.  Wood  says  that  he  was  always  schismaticallj 
inclined,  that  he  preached  in  conyenticles,  and  that,  fctf 
refusing  to  read  the  king's  declaration  for  sports  on  the 
Lord's  day,  he  was  brought  several  times  into  the  high 
commission  court  at  Lambeth,  where  he  sufiered  for  his 
obstinacy .f  The  Bishop  of  Landaff,  visiting  his  diocese  in 
the  year  1634,  pronounced  Mr.  £rbery  ^  schismatical  and 
dangerous  preacher ;  and,  for  disobeying  his  majesty's  in* 
stnictions,  he  gave  him  judicial  admonition,  and  threatened 
tb  proceed  further  against  him  if  he  did  not  submit.  Re- 
fusing to  debase  himself  by  submission,  contrary  to  truth 
and  his  own  conscience,  the  bishop,  the  year  following,  pre- 
ferred articles  against  him  in  the  high  commission  court, 
threatening  to  punish  him  according  to  his  deserts.  In 
1636  his  lordship  complained  of  the  slow  prosecution  against 

«  Wood's  AthenaB.OzoB.  vol.  ii.  p.  100,  101. 
-f  ibid.  p.  lOS. 


Ig6  XlVfS  or  THE  PURITANS. 

kitii,  and -observes^  that  <<  this  madeliini  persist  in  fits  hf* 
ways,  and  his  foUo'virers  judge  him  faultless."  Thou^  the 
prosecution  was  slow,  it  was  sure.  It  was  committed  into 
the  hands  of  proper  persons,  and  success  was  certain* 
Therefore,  in  the  year  1638,  Mr.  Erbery  was  forced  to 
lerign  his  vicarage,  and  be  left' the  diocese  in  peace.* 

Being  thus  deprived  of  his  living,  and  dnven  from  hit 
flock,  he  most  probably  went  from  place  to  place  through 
the  countiT,  and  preached  as  he  coidd  obtain  an  opport»* 
Bity,  as  did  his  brethren,  Messrs.  Wroth,  Cradock,  and 
Powell.    In  the  year  1640,  says  Wood,  he  shewed  hinMelf 
openly,  preached  against  the  bishops  and  ceremonies,  and 
made  early  motions  towards  independency. f  Mr.  Edwards, 
with  his  usual  scurrility,  gives  the  following  account  of 
him :  '^  In  the  beginning  of  the  parliament,  he  was  an  inde- 
pendent, but  by  degrees  is  fallen  to  many  gross  erron, 
holding  universal  red(*mption,  &c.  and  is  now  a  seeker,  and 
I  know  not  what.     This  man  was  a  chaplain  in  the  Eaxl  ct 
Essex's  army  a  great  while,  and  there  did  broach  many 
antinomian  doctrines,    and   other  dangerous  errors:    but 
having  left  the  army  a  good  while  since,  he  was  about . 
London,  and  did  vent  his  opinions  here.     About  last  spring 
he  betook  himself  to  the  Isle  of  Ely  for  his  ordinary  resi- 
dence, from  whence  he  takes  his  progress  into  one  county 
or  another  in  private  Rouses,  venting  his  opinions  amongst 
well-affected  people,  under  the  habit  of  holiness.    In  Jiuy 
last  he  was  at  Bury,  where  he  exercised  in  private,  some' 
forty  persons   being  present,    and  declared  himself  fiOr 
general  redemption;  that  no  man  was  punished  for  Adam's 
sin;  that  Christ  died  for  all;  and  that  the  guilt  of  Adun's 
sin  shouM  be  imputed  to  no  man.    He  said  also,  that  within 
a  while  God  would  raise  up  apostolical  men,  who  should  be 
extraordinary  to  preach  the  gospel ;  and  after  that  shall  b»^ 
the  fall  of  Rome.     He  spake  against  gathering  churches, 
the  anfibaptists'    re-baptizing,  and   said    men    ought   to 
wait  for  the  coming  of  the  Spirit,  as  the  apostles  did. 
^  Look,  as  in  the  wilderness  they  had  honey  and  manna, 
but  not  circumcision  and  the  passover  till  they  cariie  into 
Canaan;  so  now  we  may  have  many  sweet  things,  con- 
ference and  prayer,  but  not  a  ministry  and  sacraments. 
And  then,  after  the  tall  of  Rome,  there  shall  be  new  heavens 
and  anew  earth:  there  «hall  be  new  Jerusalem;  and  then 
•hall  the  church  b^  one,  one  street  in  that  city,andnom(»e.' 

•  WKaf  ton's  Troobles  of  Land,  vol.  i.  p.  536-^565. 
f  Atbeoe  Oxoo.  fol.  ii.  p.  103.  ^ 


ERBERY.  Ig7 

Not  kmg  aficT  he  went  to  Northampioo,  where  in  a  private 
meeting  the  main  Bcope  of  his  exercise  was,  to  speak  againal 
the  certainty  and  sufficiency  of  the  scriptures,  allying  that 
there  \^as  no  certainty  to  build  upon  them,  because  there 
were  so  many  several  copies.'  He  was  also  at  OiuKHe* 
Newport  Pagnel,  and  appointed  shortly  to  return  again  to 
JB«{ry.'^*  The  readier  wUl  judge  for  himself*  how  rar  thia 
account,  from  the  unworthy  pen  of  Mr.  Edwards,  i^  deserv- 
ing of  credit. 

Afler  the  surrender  of  Oxford  in  1646,  Mr.  Erbery,  still 
a  chaplain  in  the  parliament's  army,  was  sent  thither; 
where,  says  Wood,  "  he  kept  his  conventicles  in  a  house 
opposite  to  Mertou  college  church,  cmd  used  all  the  meant 
in  his  power  in  opposing  the  doctrine  of  the  presbyterian 
ministers,  who  were  sent  by  the  parliament  to  preach  the 
scholars  into  obedience.''^  He  was  certainly  held  in  high 
favour  and  esteem  among  the  soldiers,  but  is  said  to  have 
envied  the  reputation  of  the  presbytcrians.  While  he  was 
at  Oxford  he  opposed  them  in  several  public  disputations. 
At  one  time  the  subject  of  debate  was,  ''  Whether  the 
ministry  of  the  church  ought  to  be  entrusted  to  a  select 
number  of  persons  ?"'  In  the  conclusion,  Mr.  Erbery  and 
his  party  are  said  to  have  put  the  presbyterian  disputants 
under  the  same  difficulty  as  our  Lord  did  the  unbelieving 
Jews,  by  his  question  about  John's  baptism.  For,  demand- 
ing of  themj  "  whence  they  had  their  orders,"  they  durst 
not  say,  ^<  from  the  bishops,"  whom  both  sides  confessed  to 
be  antichristian ;  nor  could  they  deny  it,  as  they  had  all 
been  episcopally  ordained ;  so  the  shout  went  in  favour  of 
Erbery's  party,  and  the  meeting  was  dissolved,  to  the  great 
disturbance  of  the  presbyterian  disputants.  Afterwards  Mn 
Erbery  had  a  disputation  with  Mr.  Chcynel,  one  of  the 
presbyterian  ministers.  The  debate  was  conducted  in  St 
Mary's  church,  when,  it  is  said,  he  maintained,  among 
other  things,  ^^  That  the  saints  shall  have  the  same  worship, 
honour,  throne,  and  glory,  as  Christ  now  hath ;  and  shall 
be  endowed  with  a  greater  power  of  working  miracles  than 
Christ  had  when  he  was  on  earth."  The  contest,  which 
lasted  about  four  hours,  was  not  carried  without  tumult; 
and  in  the  conclusion,  each  party  retired  claiming  the 
▼ictory.t  The  account  of  this  dfisputc  was  afterwards 
puldiahed  by  the  adverse  party,  eQtitled,  <^  A  Relation  of  a 

*  Gangraena,  part  i.  p.  109,  110.     Second  edit. 

-f  Athense  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  104. 

%  WallLer*!  Attenpt,  part  i.  p.  185, 19S. 


188  ,     LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Disputation  in  St.  Mary's  church  in  Oxon,  between  Mn 
Cheynel  and  Mr.  Erbery,"  1()46.  A  particular  detail  of 
o^her  disputes  which  he  had  with  the  Visitors  was  also  pub- 
lished by  his  opponents,  entitled,  "  An  Account  ^iven  to  the 
Parliament  by  the  Ministers  sent  by  them  to  Oxford,"  1647. 
In  this  piece  they  give  a  circumstantial  account  of  their 
disputations  with  Mr.  Erbery,  but  not  sufficiently  interestine 
to  deserve  the  reader's  particular  attention.  Mr.  Erbery  had 
a  public  dispute  with  one  Mr.  Nichols,  of  which  he  gave  a 
particular  account  in  a  piece  entitled,  ''  A  Dispute  at 
Cowbridge,  (Glamorganshire,)  with  Mr.  Henry  Nichols^ 
Pastor  of  an  Independent  Church,  and  Parson  of  a  Parish- 
Church."*  But  this  is  not  more  interesting  than  the 
former. 

Upon  Mr.  Erhery's  departure  from  Oxford,  says  Wood, 
"  be  went  to  London,  where  he  vented  his  blasphemies  in 
several  places  against  the  glorious  divinity  ana  blood  of 
Jesus  Christ,  especially  in  his  conventicle  at  Christ-church 
wiihin  Newgate,  where  those  of  his  opinion  met  once  H 
week.  He  was  at  length  brought  before  the  committee  of 
plundered  ministers  at  Westminster;  when,  to  the  admiration 
,  of  those  who  had  heard  his  blasphemies,  he  began  to  make 
a  solemn  profession  of  his  faith  in  orthodox  language :  but 
the  chairman  took  him  up,  and  commanded  him  silence^ 
saying,  *  We  know  your  tricks  well  enough.'  To  say  the 
truth,"'  adds  our  author,  ''  he  had  language  at  command, 
and  could  dissemble  for  matter  of  profit,  or  to  avoid  danjger ; 
and  it  was  well,  known  he  was  a  mere  canter."  Tbif 
account,  from  the  bigotted  historian,  is  extremely  partial 
and  incorrect,  as  appears  from  a  particular  narrative  pub- 
lished by  Mr.  Erbery  himself,  in  which  he  denies  manv  of 
the  charges  alleged  against  him,  and  acquits  himseli  of 
others.  The  piece  is  entitled,  "  The  Honest  Heritique;  or. 
Orthodox  Blasphemer,  accused  of  Heresie  and  Blaspheniie, 
but  cleared  of  both  by  the  judgment  of  God,  and  of  good 
Men,  at  a  Committee  for  Plundered  Ministers  of  the  I^rlia* 
ment,  March  9th,  1652 :  With  a  double  Answer  to  Articles 
charged  against  him ;  whereupon  he  was  freed  irom  his 
Prison,  and  liberty  granted  by  the  Lord  to  preach 
again."+. 

«  October  12,  1653,  Mr.  Erbery  and  Mr.  John  Webster 
endeavoured,"  says  Wood,  ,"  to  knock  down  learning  and 
the  ministry  together,  in  a  disputation  they  had  with  two 

♦  ^Ijery 'I  Testimony,  p.  852.  f  IWd.^  p.  3101 


fiABERY.  189 

ministers  in  a  cburch  in  Lombard-street.  JETrbery  then 
declai:ed,  that  the  wisest  ministers  and  purest  churches  were 
at  thdt  time  befooled^  confounded,  and  defiled  by  learning. 
He  said,  also,  that  the  ministers  were  monsters,  beasts,  asses^ 
grcejdy  dogs,  and  false  prophets ;  that  they  are  the  bca$t 
with  seven  beads  and  ten  horns ;  that  Babylon  is  the  church 
in  her  ministers;  and  that  the  great  Whore  is  the  church 
in  her  worship.  So  that  with  him,"  he  adds,  ^^  there  was  an 
end  of  ministers,  and  .churches,  and  ordinances  toffetben 
While  these  things  were  babbled  to  and  fro,  the  miutituda 
bdjDg  of  various  opinions,  began  to  mutter,  and  many  to 
cry  put,  and  immediately  there  was  a  tumult,  wherein  the 
women  bor^  away  the  bell,  but  some  of  them  lost  their 
kerchiefs.  And  the  dispute  was  so  hot,  that  there  waf 
more  dimger  of  pulling  down  the  church  than  the 
ministry."* 

It  is  observed  of  Mr.  Erbery ,  by  one  who  appears  to  have 
been  well  acqi^ainted  with  him,  that  the  four  principal 
things  upon  which  he  chiefly  dwelt  in  his  ministry,  were 
the  following :  ^<  That  there  was  a  measure  of  a  pure  appear- 
ance  of  spirit  and  truth  in  the  days  of  the  apostles. — That 
abput  the  latter  end  of  their  days,  or  soon  after,  the  spirit  of 
the  Loi]d  withdrew  itself,  and  men  substituted  an  external 
and  carnal  worship  in  its  stead. — That  tliis  apostacy  was 
not  yet  removed  from  the  generality  of  professing  christiansy 
notwithstanding  their  pretence  of  ddiverance;  but  that 
they  still  lay  under  it,  and  were  likely  so  to  do  for  some 
time. — That  when  the  appointed  season  came,  the  apostacy 
should  be  removed,  and  the  new  Jerusalem  come  down  from 
(rod,  of  which  some  glimpse  might  now  appear  in  particular 
saints ;  yet  the  full  view  and  accomplishment  thereof  seemed 
to  be  at  some  distance."^ 

Mr.  Baxter  denominates  him  "  one  of  the  chief  of  the 
anabaptists,"  and  Mr.  Neal  calls  him  ''  a  turbulent  anti- 
nomian  ;"t  whereas  he  was  neither  the  one  nor  the  other. 
Primitive  baptism,  he  thought,  consisted  in  going  into  the 
water  ankk-deep^  and  not  in  a  total  immersion;  but  judged 
that  none  have  now  any  right  to  administer  that  ordinance 
without  a  fresh  commission  from  heaven.  In  his  views  of 
the  trinity  he  was  of  the  Sabellion  cast ;  and  it  appears^ 
from  the  general  strain  of  his  writings,  that  he  drunk  very 
deep  in  the  spirit  of  mysticism.    He  was  an  admirer  of  the 


♦  Athea«  Oxw,  vol.  ii.  p.  104.  f  Erbcry'a  Testimony,  Prcf. 

t  Keal*!  P«rit«Biy  toI.  iii,  p.  S97. 


190  LIVES  OP  THE  PURITANS. 

Quakers,  with  wTiom  his  wife  united,*  and  from  whom  he 
expected  great  things,  but  did  not  unite  with  them.  He 
liad  formmy  laboured  under  k  sore  affliction,  which  had 
deeply  affected  his  head ;  previous  to  which  he  was  a  man 
^  good  parts  and  an  excellent  scholar,  zealous  and  suc- 
^  eessAil  in  his  ministry,  and  particularly  grave  and  religious 
ni  his  life.t  Mr.  Christopher  Love  thus  observes :  '^  As  for 
Mr.  Erbery,  though  he  is  fallen  into  dangerous  opinions ; 
yet,  he  being  my  spiritual  father,  I  do  naturally  care  for 
Aim ;  ^d  my  heaVt  cleaves  more  to  him  than  to  any  man^in 
the  world.  I  speak  to  the  praise  of  God,  he  was  the  instru- 
ment of  my  conversion  nearly  twenty  years  ago,  and  the 
means  of  my  educ^ition  at  the  university ;  for  which  kind* 
Bess,  the  half  of  what  I  have  in  the  world  I  could  readily 
part  with  for  his  relief.  It  is  true,  about  eight  or  nine  years 
since,  he  was  plundered  in  Wales,  and  came  to  see  me  at 
Windsor  castle ;  but  a  son  could  not  make  m^re  of  a  father 
Ihan  I  did  of  him,  according  to  my  ability.  When  I  had 
not  twelve  pounds  in  the  world,  I  let  him  have  six  of  it ;  and 
I  procured  him  to  be  chaplain  to  Major  Skippon's  regiment, 
where  he  had  eight  shillings  per  day.'^t  He  is  characteriased 
by  those  of  his  own  persuasion,  as  a  holy  and  harmless 
person,  for  which  the  world  hated  him.$  I(e  died  in  the 
month  of  April,  1654,  aged  fifty  years. 

His  Wo^KS. — 1.  The  great  Mysterie  of  Godliness  :>  Jesos  Christ 
our  Lord  God  and  Man,  and  Man  with  God,  one  in  Jesus  Christ  ou^ 
liord,  1640. — ^2.  Ministers  for  Tylbes,  proving  they  are  no  Ministers 
of  the  Gospc!,  1653. — 3.  Sermons  on  several  Occasions,  one  of  which 
is  entitled,  "  The  Lord  of  Hosts,"  1653.— 4.  An  Olive  Leaf:  or, 
•ome  peaceable  Considerations  to  the  Christian  Meeting  at  Cbrisfi 
Church  in  London,  1654. — ^.  The  Reign  of  Christ,  and  the-  Saints 
with  him  on  Earth  a  I'housand  Years,  one  Day,  and  the  Day  at 
hand,  1654. — 6.  The  Testimony  of  William  Erbery,  left  upon  Record 
lor  the  Saints  of  succeeding  Ages,  1658. — ^This  contains  several  of  the- 
.foregoing  pieces.  #  ' 


Jeremiah  Whitaker,  A.M. — This  excellent  person 
was  bom  at  Wakefield  in  Yorkshire,  in  the  year  1599,  and 
educated  in  Sidney  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  was  hcJd 
in  high  estimation.  He  was  religiously  thoughtful  from  a 
child ;  and  when  a  boy  at  school  he  us^  to  travel,  in  com- 
pany with  others^  eight  or  ten  miles  to  hear  the  gospd,  and 
unite  with  them  in  prayer  and  other  religious  exercises. 

♦  Biog.  Britan.  vol.  ?.  p.  3199.     Edit.  1747. 

t  MS.  AccoQot.  t  LoTe'ff  YlndicatioB,  p.  3$.    fidit.  1651. 

S  Wood's  Atben«  Oxon.  voj.  it.  p.  104. 


/^ 


J.  WHITAKER;  191 

He  often  said,  in  the  days  of  his  youth,  ^^  I  had  much 
rather  be  a  minister  of  the  gospel  than  an  emperor." 
While  at  the  university,  be  made  considerable  progress  in 
the  various  branches  of  useful  literature ;  .and,  upon  his 
removal,  he  settled  at  Oakham  in  Rutlandshire,  where,  for 
some  time,  he  taught  school.  Here  he  became  intimate 
with  Mr.  William  Peachy,  an  eminent  scholar  and  preacher, 
ifhose  daughter  he  afterwards  married.  Having  been  at 
Oakham  about  four  years,  he  accepted  the  pastoral  charge 
at  Stretton  in  the  same  county.  He  naturally  cared  for  the 
fionls  of  the  people,  and  the  preaching  of  the  gospel  was 
his  beloved  work.  His  heart  was  so  deeply  engaged  in 
the  work,  that,  having  received  an  invitation  to  become 
master  of  a  college,  he  returned  this  reply  :  "  My  heart," 
said  he,  '^  doth  more  desire  to  be  a  constant  preaqher  than 
to  be  master  of  any  college  in  the  world." 

Upon  the  publication  of  the  Book  of  Sports,  this  amiable 
divine,  with  multitudes  of  his  brethren,  was  exposed  to  the 
persecution  of  the  ruling  prelates.  Though,  for  refusing  to 
read  it,  he  was  involved  in  some  difficulties,  he  happily- 
escaped  the  malicious  threaten  ings  of  his  enemies.  B<nng 
Afterwards  required  to  afford  pecimiary  assistance  for  the 
purpose  of  carrying  on  the  war  against  the  Scots,  he  refused, 
and  openly  told  the  Jjishop,  or  his  chancellor,  that  he  could 
not  do  it  with  a  good  conscience;  for  which,  if  one  of  his 
friends  had  not  paid  the  money,  he  would  have  suiicred 
suspension  and  deprivation.*  . 

Mr.  Whitaker,  liaving  preached  at  Stretton  thirteen  years, 
^as  chosen,  in  the  year  1643,  one  of  the  assembly  of 
divines.  This  called  him  up  to  Loudon,  wiien  he  accepted 
an  invitation  to  the  pastoral  office  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen, 
Bermondsey,  in  Southwark;  and  he  became  one  of  the 
morning  lecturers  at  the  Abbey  church,  Westminster.  In 
1647  he  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  first  provincial 
assembly  holden  in  London,  and  was  once  chosen  to  tlie 
office  of  moderator.  During  the  same  year,  by  an  order 
from  the  house  of  lords,  he  was  appointed,  with  Dr.  Thomas 
Goodwin,  to  have  the  oversight  and  examination  of  the 
papers  to  be  printed  for  the  assembly  of  divines.t     The 

{^ear  following  he  was  in  danger  of  being  deprived  of  his 
ccture  at  Westminster  for  refusing  the  engagemqnt;  but, 

*  Clark's  Lives  annexed  to  his  Martyrologie,  p.  S61)  265, 
f  Dis8eotin|;  Brethren's  Propositions. 


192 


LIVES  OF  T|IE  PURITANS. 


on  account  of  his  universal  esteem  and  great  moderation, 
he  continued  unmolested.* 

This  worthy  divine,  during  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  was 
afflicted  with  most  racking  pains,  but  was  of  a  most  humble^ 
meek,  and  quiet  spirit.  Under  these  tormenting  agonies,  he 
never  murmured,  but,  in  the  exercise  of  faith  and  patience, 
was  entirely  resigned  to  the  will  of  God.  He  manifested  so 
excellent  a  spirit  through  the  whole  of  his  long  and  painful 
affliction,  that  many  persons  were  of  opinion  that  Grod 
designed  him  for  a  pattern  of  patience  to  posterity.  When 
his  triends  asked  him  how  he  did,  he  usually  replied,  ^'  The 
bush  is  always  burning,  but  not  consumed.  And  thou^ 
my  pains  be  -above  the  strength  of  nature^  they  are  nol 
above  the  supports  of  grace.^*  About  two  months  before 
his  death,  his  pains  became  more  extreme  than  ever,  wheii 
he  cried  thus  unto  the  Lord  :  "  O  thou  Father  of  mercie^ 
pity  me.  Do  not  contend  for  ever.  Consider  niy  fram^ 
that  I  am  but  dust.  My  God,  who  hast  made  heaven  and 
earth,  help  me.  Oh !  give  me  patience,  and  inflict  what 
thou  wilt.  If  my  patience  was  more,  my  pain  would  be 
less.  Dear  Saviour,  why  dost  thou  cover  thyself  with  a 
thick  cloud  ?  Blessed  is  the  man  that  endureth  temptation. 
Consider,  Lord,  that  I  am  thy  servant.  Lord,  drop  some 
sweet  comfort  into  these  bitter  waters.  O  that  the  blood  rf 
sprinkling  may  allay  my  pains !  I  am  in  a  fiery  fmrnace. 
Lord,  be  with  me,  and  bring  me  out  refined  from  sin.  Whcai 
I  have  sailed  through  the  ocean  of  these  pains,  and  look 
back,  I  see  they  are  all  needful.  I  fly  unto  thee,  O  God ! 
Hide  me  under  the  shadow  of  thy  wings,  till  the  terrible 
storm  be  overpast.  O,  my  God !  break  open  the  prison 
door,  and  set  my  poor  captive  soul  at  liberty.  But  enaUe' 
me  willingly  to  wait  thy  time.  No  man  ever  more  desired 
life  than  I  desire  death.  When  will  that  day  arrive  that  I 
shall  neither  sin  nor  sorrow  any  more?  When  shall  this 
earthly  tabernacle  be  dissolved,  that  I  may  be  clothed  upon 
with  that  house  which  is  from  heaven  ?  Blessed  are  the  dead 
which  die  in  the  Lord ;  for  they  rest  from  their  labours.**    ■ 

Through  the  whole  of  his  affliction  heexercised  an  unshaken 
confidence  in  God,  and  enjoyed  an  uninterruped  assurance 
of  his  favour.     He  called  him  nw  Father  and  mi/  God^  and . 
said,  "  Consider,  and  save  me,  for  I  am  thine.    How  long, 


*  aark'fi  Li?C9,  p.  266. 


J.  WHITAKER.  193 

W  long,  shall  I  not  be  remembered  ?  Yes,  I  am  remem<* 
beted :  blessed  be  thy  name.  This  is  a  fierv  chariot,  but 
il  will  carry  me  to  heaven.  Blessed  be  (jod,  who  has 
Utbeito  supported  me;  who  has  delivered  me,  and  will 
deliver'  me.'  As  the  agonizing  fits  of  pain  were  coming 
Qpoo  him,  he  usually  said,  ^'  Now,  in  the  strength  of  the 
I^rd  God,  I  will  undergo  these  pains.  Oh !  my  God,  put 
tuidemeath  thine  everlasting  arms,  and  strengthen  me." 
Nutwithstanding  all  his  pains  and  roarings,  he  often  told  liis 
fiiends,  that  he  would  not,  for  a  thousand  worlds,  exchange 
itates  with  any  man  on  earth  whom  he  looked  upon  as  living 
in  a  slate  of  sin.  The  grand  adversary  of  souls  could 
lever  f hake  his  confideiu:e.  He  often  said,  <<  Through 
ntercy,  I  have  not  one  repining  thought  against  God."  As 
be  Mi  the  fits  coming  on,  he  requested  his  friends  to  with- 
draw, that  they  mii^ht  not  b(*  grieved  by  hearing  his  groan* 
iii£8 ;  and  he  blessed  God  they  were  not  obliged  to  hear  his 
doleful  lamentations.  As  the  period  of  his  dissolution 
approached,  his  agonizing  fits  became  more  frequent  and 
more  painful ;  but  the  Lord  was,  at  length,  pleased  to  deliver 
him  out  of  them  all.  He  died  June  1,  1654,  aged  fifty-five 
years,  and  his  mortal  remains  were  interred  in  Bermondsey 
church,  when  vast  numbers  of  people  honoured  his  funeral 
by  th«  ir  attendance.*  H  is  funeral  sermon  was  preached  by 
nr.  Simeon  Ashe,  and  afkrwards  published,  entitled, 
"  Liviiig  Loves  betwixt  Christ  and  Dying  Christians.  A 
Sermon  preached  at  M.  Magdalene,  Bermondsey  in  South- 
wark,  near  London,  June  (i,  1654,  at  the  Funerall  of  the 
faithful  Servant  of  Christ,  Mr.  Jeremiah  Whitaker,  Minister 
of  the  Gospel,  with  a  Narrative  of  his  exemplary  Life  and 
Death,"  1634. 

After  Mr.  Whitaker's  death,  his  body  was  opened  in  the 
presence  of  several  physicians;  when  they  found  both  his 
kidnies  full  of  ulcers,  and  one  of  them  swelled  to  an 
enormous  size,  and  filled  with  purulent  matter.  In  the  neck 
of  his  bladder,  they  found  a  stone  about  an  inch  and 
balf  long,  and  an  inch  broad,  weighing  abont  two  ounces, 
which  is  supposed  to  have  occasioned  his  racking  pains.f 
"He  was  a  constant  and  an  excellent  preacher,  an 
universal  scholar,  an  eminent  theologian,  an  able  disputant, 
>Uid  much  given  to  acts*  of  charity  and  liberality ."t  Mr. 
Leigh  says,  ^^  he  was  a  pious  and  learned  divine,  mighty  io 

•  CUrk'f  Livef,  p.  267—272. 

+  Ibid.  p.  273.— Ashe'B  Fun.  Sf  r.  for  Mr.  Whitaker. 

t  Ckirk'n  Uvet,  p.  266. 

VOL.  III.  O 


19*  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

ihe  scriptures,  laborious  in  his  ministerial  fundioii/feeBliMll 
for  God^s  glory,  and  of  a  humble,  melting  spiri^  and  k 
wonderful  instance  of  patience  during  the  whole  of  hik 
heavy  afflicticm/'*  Fuller  includes  him  among  the  \ektn0i 
writers  of  Sidney  college,  Cambridce.f  We  have  not  been 
able  to  collect  any  long  list  of  his  writings;  only  he 
published  certiin  sermons  preached  before  the  parliamrat, 
and  probably  some  others.  Mr.  William  Whitaker,  qected 
in  1662,  was  bis  son  4 

Mr.  Whitaker,  during  his  heavy  affliction,  wtote  a  l^iei 
to  the  Protector  Cromwell,  the  sight  of  which  will  b6 
highly  gratifying  to  every  inquisitive  reader.  It  is  tran- 
scribed from  the  original  in  Mr.  Whitaker^s  own  hand,  and 
though  there  be  no  date,  it  was  evidently  written  in  the  yeaf 
1651.  It  is  addressed  <<  To  his  Highness  the  Ldrd  Pro* 
tector,"  of  which  the  following  is  a  copy  :^ 

<<  May  it  please  your  highness  to  pardon  this  boldness  in 
presenting  this  book,  composed  by  some  godly  men,  to 
appease  the  heat  of  the  present  controversies,  wherein  is 
proved — ^  That  the  office  of  the  ministry  is  not  the  intru- 
sion of  men,  but  the  institution  of  Jesus  Christ. — ^Thatthe 
necessity  of  this  office  is  perpetual. — That  the  ministry  inwk 
60  preserved  under  antichrist,  that  it  is  not  antichtistian*-— 
That  this  office  is  peculiar  to  sonie,  and  not  commdn  to  Idl.-^ 
And  that  they  who  assume  this  office  must  be  called  lawfdlf 
at  present,  and  also  hereafter.^  Ordination,  in  geiielal  ig 
necessary,  and  how  that  is  to  be  observed  is  justifiable. 
.  ^^  I  cannot  come  to  tender  it,  being  confined  to  my  chaiii* 
ber  under  extreme  tormenting  pains  of  the  stdne,  whiich 
forceth  me  to  cry  and  sorrow  night  and  day.  But  blessed  for 
ever  be  the  Lord,  wlio  hath  begotten  us  to  a  lively  hobe  and 
joy  by  Jesos  Christ;  that  the  thoughts  of  eternity  do 
sweeten  the  bitter  things  of  time :  that,  when  we  are  we&ry 
of  the  thines  of  this  life,  we  may  greatly  rejoice  in  hope  cf 
a  better,  in  this  dying  condition,  give  me  leave  to  tender 
many  thanks  to  your  highness  for  taking  away  the  engage- 
ment, wherebv  you  have  greatly  refreshed  the  conscfences 
of  many.  The  good  Lord  recompense  this  great  act  of 
mercy,  and  enlarge  your  heart  to  prevent  the  like  sham  in. 
future,  at  which  the  worst  of  men  frown,  and  the  best  <^ 
men  mourn.  And  the  same  God  who  hath  raised  you  above 
other  men,  still  raise  you  to  be  higher  than  yourself^  fif 

*  Leigh*8  Re1i|[:ion  and  Learning,  p.  364. 
i  History  of  Cambridge,  p.  154. 
1  Palmer*8  Noocon.  Mem.  vol.  i.  p.  157. 
t  Sloane's  MSS.  Ko.  4159. 


J.  WHITAKER.  195 

Aoffe  an  these  dominions,  and  tbrones,  and  poivers ;  that 
jroQ  may  account  all  these  things  low  and  little,  dr^  and 
dost,  dung  and  dross,  in  comparison  of  things  etemaL 
Ako^  what  poor  things  are  Pompej,  Caesar,  Nimrod^  and 
Nebachadiiezzar,  to  the  Abels,  whose  thoughts  are  fixed 
Ml  things  everlasting ! 

^  May  it  please  your  highness  to  consider  seriously,  how 
idlgioo  is  not  only  weakened  by  divisions,  but  almost 
waited  by  the  daily  growing  of  alterations.     The  reins  of 

Evcrnment  a  long  time  have  been  let  loose,  and  are  now 
it  in  the  church  totally :  in  families  extremely  so,  that 
masters  know  not  how  to  order  their  servants,  nor  par^its 
flidr  childien.  All  grow  willing  to  command,  but  unwilling 
to  be  commaDded :  sabbaths  are  generally  profaned,  ordi- 
IMooet  detpiied,  the  youth  playing  whilst  the  minister  is 
Meaching,  the  consciences  of  many  growing  wanton,  abus* 
uuf  liberty  to  all  licentiousness.  And  .there  are  none  left  in 
pSoes  to  put  offenders  to  shame  for  any  of  these  abomina- 
tiooBm  The  good  Lord  persuade  your  heart  to  appoint  such 
jaiticeB  whose  principles  and  practice  lead  them  to  restrain 
▼ice;  who  do  account  the  sabbath  their  delight,  that  the 
inferior  officers  may  be  by  them  encouraged. 

^^  I  beseech  you  also,  in  the  bowels  of  Jesus  Christ,  to 
remember  the  many  poor  prisoners  in  the  land,  who  in 
uprightness  of  their  heart  lent  the  greatest  part  of  their 
ertate  apon  public  faith.  The  Romans  were  forced  in  like 
straits  to  borrow  of  the  people;  but  it  is  recorded  to  their 
gloiy,  that  their  wars  were  no  sooner  ended  than  these 
public  debts  were  discharged.  Let  not  paganish  Rome  rise 
np  in  the  day  of  judgment  to  condtmn  uutaithful  England. 
The  n^lect  of  this  will  involve  the  land  in  national  guUt. 
I  am  persuaded,  if  the  Lord  help  you  to  defray  these  debt^, 
Aat  you  shall  win  the  hearts  of  very  many,  and  stop  the 
months  of  your  greatest  adversaries. 

^'  And  now  that  I  have  taken  upon  me  to  speak,  let  not 
your  highness  be  an^ry  with  your  poor  servant,  if  he 
implore  your  pity  and  candour,  and  petition  for  the  safe 
ntum  of  Mr.  Cawton,  a  sincere  servant  o^  Christ ;  who, 
tiein^  involved  in  the  business  for  which  Mr.  Love  suffered 
death,  half  a  year  since  suffered  a  voluntary  banishment  in 
great  extremity  and  hardship.  May  not  the  blood  of  Love 
mkSer  for  that  offence  ?  Have  not  others  in  other  kinds  done 
as  much  and  more,  and  yet  found  favour  ?  I  beseech  your 
licmour's  protection,  that  the  beginning  of  your  government 
jnaj  be  with  acts  of  grace ;  and  oh  that  such  a  day  of 


196  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

release  might  come  that  your  highness  might  see  it,  both 
for  your  honour  and  safety,  to  proclaim  liberty  to  the 
captives,  and  the  opening  of  the  prison  to  them  who  haY<$ 
been  long  bound.  The  God  of  glory  help  you  to  lay  such 
foundations  in  common  equity  and  righteousness,  that  yoa 
may  leave  the  najlion  in  a  better  condition  when  you  dii; 
thap  you  found  it :  that  you  may  give  up  your  account 
with  joy ;  which  is  the  hearty  prayer  of, 

"  Your  higlmesses  humble  servant, 

«  Jkr.  Whitakeh." 

Hb  Works.— >1.  Cbrlst  the  Settlement  of  Unsettled  Times,  a 
Sermon  preached  before  the  Honourable  House  of  Commons,  at  their 
late  pablic  Fast,  25  Jan.  1G42,  printed  1642.-2.  The  Christian's 
Hop6  Triumphing,  in  a  Sermon  preached  before  the  Right  HonoifP* 
able  the  House  of  Lords,  in  Abbey-church,  Westminster,  May  18^ 
being  the  Day  appointed  for  solemn  and  public  Humiliation,  1646. 
— 3.  The  Danger  of  Greatnesse ;  or,  Uzziah,  his  Exaltation  and 
Destruction,  a  Sermon  before  the  Lords  and  Commons  in  Parliament^ 
and  the  Assembly  of  Divines,  in  the  Church  of  St.  Martin's  in  tilt 
Fields,  January  14, 1645,  being  a  special  Day  of  HumiliatiMi  aet 
apart  to  seek  God's  Direction  in  the  settling  of  Church  GoTenn 
mentyl646. 


William  Strong,  A.  M. — This  excellent  minister 
received  his  education  in  Katherine-hall,  Cambridge,  of 
which  he  was  chosen  fellow.  The  master  of  the  coUcj^  was 
the  celebrated  Dr.  Sibbs.  Upon  leaving  the  university,  be 
was  presented  to  the  living  of  Long  Crichill  in  Dorsetshire, 
where  he  continued  till  he  was  forced  to  flee  from  the  cava* 
liers.*  He  then  fled  to  London,  where  he  often  preached 
before  the  parliament,  was  chosen  one  of  the  aaditional 
divines  to  the  assembly,  and  minister  of  St.  Dunstan^s  in  tlie 
West.  After  some  time  he  gathered  a  congregatioil  uppn 
the  plan  of  the  independents,  which  assembled  in  West^ 
minster  abbey,  and  was  composed  of  many  parliament  ipen 
and  persons  of  quality  residing  in  Westminster.t  He  waa 
chosen  to  the  office  of  pastor  in  this  society,  December  9, 
1650,  upon  which  occasion  he  delivered  a  sermon  on  the 
order  of,  a  gospel  church,  which  may  be  «een  among  Ids 
select  sennons  published  after  his  death.  He  was  iuter- 
wards  nominated  one  of  the  triers  for  the  approbation,  of 
.preachers.^ 

•  Wood's  Atbenae  Onm;  vol.  ii.  p.  1S9. 
-f  Caliiniy*8  Accouot,  ? ol.  H.  p.  41. 

X  Bishop  Keooet  ponn  great  calumny  upon  those  learaed  dl? isiei  wh^ 
>ere  appointed  triers.     '«  By  the  qacstions  they  were  wont  to  tik,** 


STRONG.  197 

Mr.  Strong  died  in  the  vigour  of  life,  and  wa&  buried  ia 
die  AUiey  church,  July  4,  1654 ;  but  bis  remains  were  dug 
up  at  the  restoration  and  thrown  into  a  pit  dug  on  purpose 
in  St.  Margaret's  church-yard ;  but  of  this  brutal  transaction 
a  more  particular  account  is  given  in  another  place.*  Mr. 
Obadiah  Sedgwick,  who  preached  his  funeral  sermon,  says, 
^that  he  was  so  plain  in  heart,  so  deep  in  judgment,  so 
painful  in  study,  so  frequent,  exact,  and  laborious  in 
preaching,  and,  in  a  word,  so  eminently  qu  ilified  ibr  all  the 
datiea  of  the  ministerial  office,  that  he  did  not  know  his 
eqoal/'t  Mr.  Strong  published  several  sermons  and 
flieological  treatises  in  his  life-time  ;  and  others  were  pub- 
liihed  after  his  deatli.  Among  these  we  find,  in  quaito, 
•*  Thirty-one  select  Sermons,  preached  on  spe(^ial  Occasions. 
By  William  Strong,  that  godly,  able,  and  faithful  Minister . 
of  Christ,  lately  ofthe  Abbey  at  Westminster,  1656."  To 
this  volume  there  is  a  preface  by  Dr.  Thomas  Manton,  Mr. 
John  Rowe,  and  Mr.  George  Griffith.  There  is  another 
piefiu:e  by  Dr.  Henry  Wilkinson,  d' an  of  Christ's  Church, 
who jFives  the  following  account  of  Mr.  S troughs  character: 

**  There  is  an  excellent  vein  in  his  sermons,  as  one  siith 
in  the  like  case,  the  farther  you  search  the  richer  treasure 
you  are  likely  to  find.  That  which  made  bis  sennotis  pass 
with  so  great  approbation  of  the  most  judicious  hearers, 
when  he  was  alive,  and  will  be  a  passport  to  his  writm^^s 
though  posthumous,  ^vas,  that  he  followed  the  advice  of  the 
Apostle  to  Timothy,  studying  to  shew  himself  approved  to 
Crod,  a  zoorkman  that  need  not  be  ashamed^  ^igMu  dividing 
ihe  word  of  truth.  He  made  preaching  his  work.  He  was  so 
much  taken  up  in  this  work,  that  to  my  knowled^^e  he  was 
often  in  watchings  a  great  part  of  the  night,  besitles  his 
pains  in  his  day  studies.  But,  besides  that  very  great 
diligence  and  travail  of  head  and  heart,  and  that  unseason- 
able and  hard  study,  that  he  laid  out  in  his  sermons,  he  had 
a  special  faculty  or  kei  ping  close  io  his  text  and  business  in 
band;  which,  as  it  is  very  requisite  in  a  preacher,  so  it  is 
very  advantageous  to  commend  a  discourse  to  the  most 
judicious  ear.  That  which  further  contributed  to  his 
excellency  in  preaching,  was  his  skill  and  deep  insight  into 
the  mystery  ot  godliness,  and  the  doctrine  ofthe  free  grace 
of  God.  And  as  to  the  mystery  of  iniquity  within  us,  he 
was  well  studied  in  the  soul's  anatomy,  and  could  dexterously 

he,  ''  a  man  coold  not  U\\  what  they  aimed  at,  except  it  was  to  advance 
Qukerism,  or  make  way  for  Mahometism."— iVeaf*  Puritans^  fol.  ir, 
p.  lOS.— ifmiici's  Chronicle^  p.  7 14. 

•  See  Art.  Dr.  WiUiam  Twiue.  f  Stronf*^  Fancnil  Sermon. 


t»  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

diBsect  the  old  man.  He  underatood  well  the  mystery  of 
iuiqoity  without  us,  of  Satan  and  antichrist;  and,  by  hk 
knowledge  of  these  mysteries,  he  was  able  to  advance  the 
kingdom  and  honour  of  our  Lord  Christ  in  the  hearts  and 
lites  of  his  hearers ;  to  discover  Satan's  depths,  and  to  di»» 
appoint  his  plots  and  devices.  There  was  one  thing  mor^ 
which  added  very  much  unto  him  and  to  his  labours  in 
preaching,  and  made  him  successful  in  clearing  dark  places^ 
Und  searching  further  into  the  deep  mines  of  the  word,  and 
that  was  his  constant  recourse  to  the  originals,  in  which  ha 
had  good  skill.  By  these  means  he  went  beyond  most  of  hil 
brethren  in  the  work  of  the  ministry ;  so  that  his  sermons  had 
always  something  above  the  ordinary  reach,  and  a  certaitt 
strain  answering  the  advantage  and  happiness  of  the  age  in 
which  he  lived.  There  was  so  great  a  weight,  both  of  words 
lind  sense,  in  this  our  author's  sermons,  and  so  much  of 
worth,  that  they  appeared  as  good  upon  a  narrow  disquisition 
as  they  seemed  to  be  when  they  were  delivered.  The  igno* 
ranee  or  want  of  a  clear  knowledge  of  the  doctrine  of  di^ 
covenant  of  grace,  God's  rich  and  frep  grace  in  the  businels 
of  our  salvation,  was  formerly,  and  is  still,  the  cause  of  miaiy 
errors  in  the  church.  The  author  of  these  sennons  bad 
arrived  to  an  excellency  and  height  in  this  doctrine,  beyond 
die  most  that  I  ever  read  or  knew.  Had  he  lived  to  hzth 
perfected  his  labours  about  the  covenant  of  grace/  I  pre- 
sume I  may  say  they  had  surpassed  all  that  went  before. 
Though  his  adversaries  did  very  much  endeavour  to  asperse 
him,  yet  he  proved  them  to  be  unjust  and  false.  He  was  «3I 
happy  in  the  purity  and  innocency  of  his  life  as  he  was  for 
tiie  fervour  which,  through  grace,  he  erected  in  his  preach- 
ing.". 

Mr.  George  Griffith,  in  his  preface  to  Mr.  Strong't 
sermons,  entitled,  "  The  Heavenly  Treasure,"  l656,  givea 
die  following  account  of  the  author :  **  It  is  abundantly  mani- 
fest to  most  of  the  godly  through  the  nation,  but  more 
especially  in  the  city  of  London,  <vith  what  singular  ability, 
strong  affection,  and  good  success,  Mr.  Strong  employed  and 
i$pent  himself  in  the  service  of  the  gospel.  He  did  the  work 
of  him  who  sent  him  while  it  was  day;  because,  as  he  often 
isaid,  the  night  was  coming  when  no  man  can  work.  While 
he  had  the  opportunity,  neither  the  flatteries  nor  the  frowns  of 
taen  could  hinder  him  fron)  his  beloved  exercise.  He 
fNreached  the  word  with  mu(^  freedom  aad  boldness^  and 


•  WiUuittoii'f  Preface  to  Mr.  Stro^B*s  Thirty-one  Sittmam. 


STRONG.  JS» 

without  fear  or  partiality.  He  was  not  of  them  who  corrupt 
the  word  of  God,  but  declared  .all  the  divine  counsel.  He 
often  told  me  that  one  chief  object  of  his  study  and  prayer  to 
God  was,  that  he  might  be  led  into  all  trutli^  and  teach  the 
same  both  seasonably  and  profitably.  God  appointed  him  to 
labour  in  those  places  where  all  his  abilities  might  be  exer- 
cisedy  and  shine  forth  in  all  their  lustre.  Though  he  com- 
monly preached  four  times  a  week,  and  frequently  oftener^ 
his  sermons  were  not  filled  with  empty  notions ;  but  were 
well  studied  and  enriched  with  substantial  matter,  the  com- 

i)osition  being  close,  elaborate,  and  pithy.  And  while  he 
aboured  more  to  profit  than  to  please,  he  never  failed  to 
please  as  well  as  profit  those  who  heard  him.  What  he 
delivered  harmonized  one  part  with  another,  and  was  ever 
j^upported  with  strong  arguments.  He  compared  spiritual 
thmgs  with  spiritual;  yet  not  with  the  enticing  words  of 
man's  wisdom,  but  in  full  demonstration  of  the  Spirit.  Being 
^lled  with  the  Spirit,  he  was  enabled  to  do  much  work  in  a 
jUttle  timp.  He  did  not  weaf  o^t  with  rusting,  but  with  using* 
He  exhorted  professors  of  the  gospel,  however  thjey  might 
differ  about  matters  of  discipline,  to  maintain  good  works, 
and  bring  forth  the  fruits  of  righteousness.  He  laboured  to 
bring  all  parties  to  live  a  holy  life.  Indeed,  he  well  knew 
that  persons  zealous  about  external  matters,  might  shew  with 
what  pjorty  they  sided ;  but  by  the  holiijiess  of  their  lives  only, 
couljd  they  know  that  they  were  on  the  Lord's  side.  Hence 
he  pressed  the  duties  of  self-examination  and  8elf<ienial  ^tb 
great  earaestpess  ^nd  exactness,  le9t  any  persons  should  pro- 
fess Christianity  out  of  faction^  carrying  a  pagan  heart  under  a 
christian  n^pae."* 

The  learned  Mr.  Theophilus  Gale,  who  published  Mr. 
Strong's  "  Dis^course  of  the  Two  Covenants,"  in  1678,  gives 
him  the  following  character  :  "  He  was  a  wonder  of  nature 
for  n^tu^l  parts,  and  a  miracle  of  grace  for  deep  insight  into 
the  more  profouiid  mysteries  of  the  gospel.  He  had  a  spirit 
capacious  a^d  prompt,  sublime  and  penetrant,  profound  and 
clear ;  a  singular  sagacity  to  pry  into  the  more  difficult  texts 
of  scripture,  an  incomparable  dexterity  to  discover  the  secrets 
of  corrupt  nature,  a  divine  sapience  to  explicate  the  mysteries 
of  grace^  and  an  exact  prudence  to  distribute  evangelical 
doctrines,  according  to  the  capacit}-  of  his  auditors.  He  was 
a  star  of  the  first  magnitude  m  the  right  hand  of  Christ,  to 
diffuse  the  resplendent  li^t  oi    the  gospel.    And  as  he 

•  Griffi(h*s  Preface  to  Mr.  Strong*!  Heavenly  treaiare. 


too  LIVES, OF  THE  PURITANS. 

■ 

transcended  most  of  this  age  in  the  explanation  of  evangelical 
truth,  so,  in  his  intelligence  and  explication  of  the  Jkxfo  Core- 
nantSy  he  seems  to  excel  himself:  this  being  the  study  of  his 
life,  and  that  whereon  his  mind  was  mostly  intent.  The 
notices  I  received  from  his  other  works  gave  me  a  great  , 
impression  of  his  divine  wisdom ;  but  what  mine  eyes  naY6 
seen,  and  my  thoughts  imbided  of  his  incomparable  intel- 
ligence, from  his  elaborate  Discourse  of  the  Two  Covenants, 
assures  me,  that  not  the  half  was  told  me  by  his  works  for- 
merly published.  He  was,  indeed,  a  person  intimately  and 
familiarly  acquainted  with  the  deepest  points  in  theology; 
but  especially  those  which  relate  to  the  covenant  of  grace."* 
The  learned  Dr.  Thomas  Manton  styles  him  '^  an  eminent 
and  a  faithful  servant  of  God,  a  man  eloquent  and  mighty  in 
the  scriptures,  and  a  burning  and  shining  iight  in  the  church 
of  Christ."t 

His  Works. — I.  Thirty-one  Select  Sermons,  preached  on  special 
Occasions,  1656. — 2.  The  Heavenly  Treasure,  1656. — 3.  Commaniom 
with  God,  the  Saint's  Privilege  and  Duty,  1656. — 4.  A  Treatise  Oft 
the  Subordination  of  Man's  WiH  tothe  Will  of  God,  1657.— 5.  Hdl 
Torments,  1672. — 6.  A  Discourse  of  the  Two  Covenants,  1678.1-— 
7.  The  Parable  of  the  Prodigal. 


Thomas  Gataker,  B.  D. — This  celebrated  divine  wm 
the  son  of  Mr.  Thomas  Gataker,  another  puritan  divine,  the 
pastor  of  St.  Edmund's,  Lombard-street,  London.  He  was 
bom  in  the  metropohs,  September  4,  1574,  and  educated  in 
St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  had  Mr.  Hennr 
Alyey  for  his  tutor.  He  greatly  distinguished  himself  by  his 
assiduous  application;  and  he  is  mentioned  among  those 
ardent  students  who  attended  the  private  Greek  lectures 
given  by  the  learned  Mr.  John  Boys,  in  his  chamber,  at  four 
o'clock  in  the  morning.^  He  was  afterwai;ds  chosen  fellow 
of  Sidney  college,  in  the  same  university.  He  entered  with 
great  reluctance  on  the  ministerial  work  while  he  was  at  die 
university,  when  he  engaged  with  Mr.  William  Bedell,  after- 
wards Bishop  of  Kilmore,  and  some  others^  in  the  pious  and 
laudable  work  of  preaching  every  Lord's  day  in  the  adjacent 

*  Gale*8  Sammary,  prefixed  to  Mr.  Strang's  "  Disconne  of  the  Core- 
Bants.*' 

f  Manton's  Preface  to  Mr.  Strong's  Heavenly  Treasore^ 

t  This  is  very  evangelical,  and  oncommonly  jadiciont.— -friOiiMif^f 
Christian  Preacher^  p.  448, 

5  Aikin's  liiYcs  of  Sclden  and  Usher,  p.  406. 


T.  GATAKER,  Jrs.  SRH 

country,  where  didr  UxNirs  were  most  wuded.    Ha^qg 
continued  these  exeroBeB  some  tDne,  he  removed  to  IxmdaB, 
^nd  became  domestic  chafdain  to  Sir  WiQiam  Cook,  to  miioK 
lady  he  was  nearlj  rebted.    Hk  admirable  talent  fur  preadi- 
ing  soon  gained  him  so  great  a  reputation,  diat,  in  the  yar 
1601,  he  was  chosen  preacher  to  the  honourable  Mxaelr  of 
Lincoln  Vinn ;  where,  for  the  space  of  ten  jears,  he  laboured 
with  great  acceptance,  popularitj,  and  usefulness.    Prmout 
to  Mr.  Gataker  s  settlement  in  this  situanon,  Mr.  Lev,  after- 
wards Earl  of  Marlborough  and  lord  treasurer,  having  been 
present,   with   his  lady,  when  Mr.  Gataker    preached  at 
St.  Martin's  in  the  Fields ;  on  their  return  home  she  asked  am 
old  servant  how  he  liked  the  preacher.     "  Why  truly,''  said 
the  man,  **  he's  a  pretty  pert  boy ;  and  he  made  a  reasonable 
good  sermon."     Not  many  weeks  after,  Mr.  Ley,  returning 
from  Lincoln's-inn,  said  to  his  lady,  **  I  wHl  tell  yon  some 
news.    That  young  man,  whom  you  heard  at  St.  Martin's,  is 
chosen  lecturer  at  Lincoln's-inn."    The  old  servant  standii^ 
by  and  hearing  this,  said,  **  What !   will  the  benchers  be 
taught  by  such  a  boy  as  he  .^'     Mr.  Gataker  having  observed 
in  one  of  his  sermons,  that  it  was  as  lau-ful  for  the  husband- 
man to  cultivate  his  ground  as  for  counsellors  to  confer  with 
their  clients  and  give  advice  on  the  Lord's  day ;  die  appro- 
priate admonition  was  well  received,  and  occasioned  the 
alteration  of  the  time  of  public  worship ;  for,  instead  of  preach- 
ing at  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning,  as  had  been  the  constant 
practice,  he  was  desired  to  preach  at  the  usual  hour  of  morn- 
mg  service.     He  did  not,  however,  entirely  leave  Sir  William 
Cook's  family,  but  in  the  vacations  went  down  to  their  seat 
in  Northamptonshire,  where,  during  his  stay,  he  preached 
constantly,  sometimes  in  their  domestic  chapel,  and  some- 
times in  the  parish  church.    In  this  he  acted  purely  from  the 
inotive  of  christian  piety,  uninfluenced  bv  any  worldly  consi- 
derations, as  very  clearly  appeared  from  the  following  circum- 
stance, peculiarly  honourable  to  his  memory:  our  author,  after 
stating  this  fact,  immediately  adds, ''  And  this  he  did  with  an 
apostolical  mind,  not  for  filthy  lucre,  but  freely  making  the 
gospel  a  burden  only  to  the  dispenser.     Yet  such  was  the 
devotion  of  that  religious  pair,  (Sir  William  and  his  lady,) 
that  they  would  not  serve  God  without  cost ;  for  they  after- 
wards, in  consideration  of  those  pains,  freely  taken,  settled 
upon  Mr.  Gataker  an  annuity  of  twenty  pounds  per  annum, 
which  he  indeed  received  a  few  years;  but  afterwards  he 
remitted  it  unto  the  heir  of  that  family,  forbearing  tp  use 
the  right  he  had,  and  forbidding  his  executor  to  claim  any 


801  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

arrears  of  that  annuity.  This  is  mentioned  to  shew  Ihe 
generous  temper  of  his  christian  soul."* 

Mr.  Gataker's  learned  preaching  to  the  above  society,  at 
it  gave  him  much  satisfaction,  so  it  gained  him  great  reputa- 
tion ;  and,  if  it  had  accorded  with  his  views,  woidd  have  pro- 
cured him  considerable  preferment.  But  whei)  various  valuable 
benefices  were  offered  lum,  he  refused  to  accept  of  them,  coin 
eluding  that  the  charge  of  one  congregation  was  sufficient  for 
one  man.  He  therefore  chose  to  remain  in  his  present  sHuar 
tion,  in  which,  though  his  salary  was  small,  his  emplimnent 
was  honourable,  and  his  condition  safe.  Moreover,  it  afforded 
him  great  leisure  for  the  pursuit  of  his  studies,  in  which  he 
was  very  assiduous,  particularly  the  holy  scriptures  in  the 
original  languages,  the  fathers  of  the  church,  and  the  best 
writers  among  uie  Greeks  and  Romans. 

In  the  year  I6II,  he  was  prevailed  upon,  not  without 
some  difficulty,  to  accept  of  the  rectory  of  Botherhithe  in 
Surrey,  a  living  of  considerable  value,  with  which  he  was 
much  importuned  to  hold  his  former  office ;  but  that  being 
inconsistent  with  his  principles,  he  absolutely  refused.  li 
Ais  situation,  notwithstanding  an  almost  perpetual  head-achc[ 
with  which  he  was  afflicted  from  his  youth,  he  continued  for 
many  years  to  discharge  his  numerous  pastoral  duties  witli 
unrenutting  and  indefatigable  industry,  and  to  feed  the  flock 
of  Christ  over  which  the  Holy  Ghost  made  him  overseer, 
God  greatly  blessing  his  labours.  Although  he  had'not  coin- 
mitted  anv  of  his  learned  productions  to  the  press;  yet  his 
.celebrity  foi*  erudition  was  so  great,  that  he  held  a  reguly. 
correspondence  with  the  learned  Dr.  Usher,  afterwards  t}i# 
celebrated  primajte  of  Ireland.  Some  of  his  epistles  ^re  stiljf 
preserved,  and  afford  sufficient  testimonies  of  the  nature  ap4 
extent  of  his  studies,  and  of  his  unremitting  care  to  preseryf 
the  unpublished  works  of  some  of  the  ancient  divines.  Thesf 
letters  contain  very  shining  proofs  of  his  modesty  and  humi* 
lity,  which  do  not  sdways  accompany  profound  literary  acquu'Ot- 
ments.  Mr.  Gataker's  first  letter  is  dated  from  Rotherhithe, 
March  18,  1 6 16,  in  which  he  informs  Usher,  that  he  had  in 
his  possession  a  manuscript,  containing  certain  treatisea 
which  be  could  not  learn  ever  to  have  been  printed ;  among 
which  was  "  Guielmus  de  Santo  Amore,  de  periculis  novissi? 
morum  temponim,"  and  an  oration  delivered  in  writing  to  th# 
Pope  at  Lyons,  by  Robert  Grosthead,  formerly  Bishop  of 
lincoln. 

*  Clark*8  ^vet  amiexed  to  M^tyrolQgie,  jp.  148 — !&!> 


T.  GATAKER,  Jmr.  flOt 

*^  Some  of  these/'  says  he, '' peradventure,  if  they  be  not 
abroad  already,  might  not  be  unworthy  to  see  the  Ught,  nor 
should  I  be  uuwilliiigy  if  they  should  be  so  esteemed,  to  heal 
my  poor  and  weak  endeavours  that  way.  But,  of  that  oration  to 
the  pope,  certain  lines,  not  many,  are  pared  away  in  mj 
copy,  though  so  as  the  sense  of  them  may  be  guessed  and 
gadiered  from  the  context;  and  in  the  other  treatises  tfaera 
are  many  faults  that  cannot  easily,  or  possibly  some  of  them 
without  help  of  other  copies,  be  amended.  My  desire  is  to 
understand  from  you,  whether,  at  your  being  in  England,  for 
I  wot  well  how  carefril  you  were  to  make  inquiry  after  suck 
monuments,  you  lighted  upon  any  of  these,  and  where,  or  ia 
whose  hands  they  were." 

In  another  letter  to  Usher>  date^  from  Rodierhitfae,  June 
94,  1617>  he  writes  thus: — ''  I  esteem  myself  much  beholdea 
unto  you,  as  for  your  former  love,  so  for  this  your  late  kind* 
ness,  in  vouchsafing  me  so  large  a  letter,  with  so  full  instruo 
tions  concerning  this  business,  that  'I  was  bold  Co  break  unto 
you,  though  the  same,'  as  by  your  information  appeareth,  wert 
wholly  superfluous.  True  it  is,  that  diough  not  fully  pur- 
posed to  do  ought  therein  myself,  willing  rather  to  have 
offered  mine  endeavours  and  furtherance  to  some  others.** 
Having  mentioned  two  of  the  manuscripts,  he  adds,  '^  But 
I  perceive  now,  by  your  instructions,  that  the  one  is  out 
already,  and  the  other  perfect  and  fit  for  the  press,  in  die 
hands  of  one  better  furnished  and  fitter  for  the  performance 
of  such  work  than  myself,  whom  I  would  therefore  incite  to 
send  what  he  hath  perfect  abroad,  than  by  his  perfect  copy, 
having  pieced  out  mine  imperfect  one,  to  take  his  labours  out 
of  his  hand.  I  have  heard,  since  I  wrote  to  you  by  Mr.  Bill, 
that  Sir  Henry  Savile  is  about  to  publish  Bishop  Grosthead's 
epistles,  out  of  a  manuscript  remaining  in  Merton  college 
library.  If  I  meet  with  your  countryman  -Malachy,  at  any 
time,  I  will  not  be  unmindftil  of  your  request.  And  if  any 
good  ofiice  may  be  performed  by.  me  for  you  here,  either 
about  the  impression  of  your  learned  and  religious  labours,  so 
esteemed  and  desired,  not  of  myself  alone  but  of  many  others 
of  greater  judgment  than  myself,  or  in  any  other  employment 
that  my  weak  ability  may  extend  itself  unto,  I  shall  be  ready 
and  glad  upon  any  occasion  to  do  my  best  therein."* 

Dr.  Usher  and  Mr.  Gataker  had  an  ardent  Jiredilection  for 
publishing  the  remains  of  ancient  divines,  which  introduced 
ihem  to  an  acquaintance  with  each  other,  and  occauoned  their 

•  Pkirr^fl  Idfe  of  U&ker,  p.  37—76. 


«*  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

friendly  correspondence.  Hie  letters  of  our  divine^  it  is  said^ 
shew  his  true  genius  and  disposition,  and  will  account  for  diat 
hot  and  eager  opposition  which  his  writings  met  with^  when 
he  ventured  to  publish  his  opinions  from  the  press.  As  he 
never  ^Tote  upon  any  subject  which  he  had  not  fully  studied, 
iand  thorouglily  examined  what  had  been  said  upon  it  by  men 
of  all  ages  and  all  parties ;  so  his  penetrating  skill  in  distin- 
guishing truth,  and  his  honest  zeal  in  supporting  it,  laid  him 
continually  open  to  the  clamours  of  those  who  had  nothing  in 
view,  but  the  maintenance  of  those  systems  to  which  they 
were  attached  from  their  education,  or  the  magnifying  of  such 
notions  as  were  popular  in  those  times ;  and,  by  defending 
which,  they  were  sure  to  have  numerous  admirers,  thougk 
their  want  of  learning,  and  the  weakness  of  their  arguments, 
were  ever  so  conspicuous.  But  in  these  kind  of  disputes, 
such  furious  opponents  were  sure  to  have  the  worst ;  and  how 
considerable  soever  they  might  be,  either  in  figure  or  numb^, 
they  served  only  to  heighten  the  lustre  of  his  triumph.  For, 
it  is  added,  as  the  modesty  of  his  nature  withheld  him  from 
printing  any  thing  till  he  was  forty-five  years  of  age ;  so  by 
that  time  his  judgment  was  so  confirmed,  and  his  leamii^ 
supported  by  an  extraordinary  and  almost  incredible  memory, 
80  greatly  extended,  that  he  constantly  carried  his  point,  and 
effectually  baiBed  all  the  attempts  to  envelope  again  in  dark- 
ness and  obscurity  any  subject  that  he  had  once  proposed  to 
enlighten. 

The  great  regularity  of  his  life,  his  unblemished  character, 
and  the  general  esteem  in  which  he  was  held  by  the  greatest 
and  best  men  in  the  nation,  fortified  him  sufficiently  against 
all  those  low  and  little  artifices  by  which  a  writer,  deiScient  in 
any  of  these  respects,  would  certainly  have  suffered.  He  had 
not  the  least  tincture  either  of  spleen  or  arrogance  in  his 
nature ;  and  though  it  be  true  that  he  gave  no  quarter  to  die 
arguments  of  his  adversaries,  nothing  could  provoke  him  to 
stake  at  their  persons.  He  always  remembered  that  the  prize 
contended  for  was  truth,  and  that,  for  the  sake  of  obtaining  it^ 
the  public  undertook  to  sit  as  judges:  he  was  cautious^  there- 
fore, of  letting  fall  any  thing  that  was  unbecoming,  or  that 
might  he  indecent  or  ungrateful  to  his  readers  to  peruse. 
He  was  not,  however,  so  scrupulous  as  to  forbear  disclosing 
vulgar  errors,  through  fear  of  giving  the  multitude  offence. 
His  modesty  might,  indeed,  hinder  his  preferment,  but  it 
never  obstructed  his  duty.  He  understood  perfectly  weli 
how  easily  the  people  may  be  wrought  either  to  superstition 
or  profanehess ;  and  no  man  could  be  more  sensible  than  he 


T.  GATAKER,.Jnir.  805 

wasy  that  true  religion  was  as  far  distant  from  t)ie  one  as  from 
die  other.  He  was  well  acquainted  with  the  arts  of  hypo* 
critea,  and  thought  it  as  necessary  to  guard  against  them  as 
to  avoid  the  allurements  of  open  libertines.  He  understood 
ditt  souls  might  be  ensnared,  as  well  as  seduced ;  and  that 
canting  words,  and  a  solemn  shew  of  sanctity,  might  enable 
presumptuoas  or  self-interested  persons  to  put  a  yoke  upon 
the  necks  of  christians,  very  different  from  the  yoke  of  Jesus 
Christ.* 

This  IS  certainly  a  very  high  character  of  our  learned  divine. 
He  wa?  very  careful,  in  the  exercises  of  the  pulpit,  to  preach 
not  only  sound,  but  suitable  doctrine,  such  as  might  edity  any 
christian  congregation ;  and  was  particularly  appropriate  to 
die  people  of  his  charge.     His  desire  to  discharge  his  duty 
induced  him,  among  other  subjects,  to  discourse  on  one  both 
furious  and  critical,  which  he  applied  to  common  use.    This 
was  the  nature  of  lots,  about  which  much  had  been  written, 
and  more  spoken ;  from  which,  in  the  opinion  of  the  learned 
(jataker,  some  very  great  inconveniencies  had  arisen.     He, 
dierefore,  thought,  that,  by  a  minute  investigation  of  the  sub- 
ject, it  might  give  his  congregation  clear  and  correct  views  of 
the  nature,  use,  and  abuse  of  lots,  and  might  prove  very 
beneficial  to.  them.     This  induced  him  to  handle  the  matter, 
as  he  did  all  subjects,  freely,  fully,  and  fairly ;  without  sus- 
pecting, however,  that  this  would  oblige  him  to  have  recourse 
to  the  press,  and  involve  him  in  a  long  and  troublesome 
controversy.     Some  ill-disposed  persons   reported  that  he 
defended  dice   and   cards,   with   otlier  groundless   stories; 
which  induced  him  to  publish  his  thoughts  on  tlie  subject  in 
a  small  treatise,  "  in  which,"  says  my  author,  "  it  is  hard  to 
say  whether  the  accuracy  of  the  method,  the  conclusiveness 
of  his  reasoning,  or  the  prodigious  display  of  learning,  de-: 
serves   most  to  be  admired."     He  dedicated  his  work  to 
Sir  Henry  Hobart,  bart.  chief  justice  of  tlie  common-pleas, 
with  all  the  benchers,  barristers,  and  students  of  Lincoln's-inn, 
as  a  mark  of  his  gratitude  and  respect  for  their  past  favours. 
This  piece  made  a  great  noise  in  the  world,  and  gained  the 
audior  great  reputation. 

.  The  title  of  this  learned  treatise  is,  "  Of  the  Nature  and 
Use  of  Lots,  a  Treatise  Historical  and  Theological,  written 
by  Thomas  Gataker,  B.  of  D.  sometime  Preacher  at  liu^ 
coln's-inn,  and  now  Pastor  of  Rotherhithe,"  1 6 19*  In  the 
prQ&ce  to  the  judicious  and  ingenuous  reader,  he  observes, 

...  •  Biof.  BriUo.  toI.  It.  p.  S160. 


JM  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

#uit  how  baekward  he  had  eyer  been  to  publish  any  Aag 
from  the  press,  thej  knew  best  who  had  often  pressed  hia 
Aereto,  but  had  never  till  that  time  prevailed.  *^  A  twofold 
ftecessitj/'  says  he,  ''is  now  imposed  upon  me  of  doing 
somewhat  in  this  kind,  partly  by  the  importunity  of  divert 
ehristian  friends,  religious  and  judicious,  who  having  eidier 
beard,  being  partakers  of  my  public  ministry,  or  heard  of  \y 
ike  refiort  of  others,  or  upon  request  seen  some  part  of  Au 
weak  work,  have  not  ceased  to  solicit  the  further  put^ishiog 
of  it ;  as  also  partly,  and  more  especially,  by  die  iniquity  of 
iome  others ;  who,  being  of  a  contrary  judgment  on  some 
particulars  therein  disputed,  have  been  more  forward  thaa 
was  fit,  by  \mchristian  slanders,  and  uncharitable  ceoMirefl^ 
to  tax  and  traduce  both  me  and  it."  He  dien  remarics,  tbal^ 
if  any  should' surmise  that  these  kind  of  writings  mi^ht  pcea* , 
tion  too  much  liberty,  a  thing  not  necessary  in  that  licentioos 
age;  he  answers  briefly, ''  First,  that  it  is  unequal,  that,  for  the 
looseness  of  some,  the  consciences  of  those  that  be  godj 
riiould  be  entangled  and  ensnared ;  and,  secondly,  that  whe^ 
ioever  shall  take  no  more  liberty  than  is  here  given  rindl  be 
sure  to  keep  within  the  bounds  of  piety  and  sobriety/ ef 
equity  and  of  charity,  than  which  I  know  hot  what  can  be 
more  required.  For  no  sinister  ends,  I  protest  before  God% 
face,  and  in  his  fear,  undertook  I  this  task ;  neither  haive  I 
averred  or  defended  any  thing  therein  but  what  I  am  verily 
persuaded  to  be  agreeable  to  God's  word." 

llie  first  chapter  describes  what  a  lot  is,  and  treata  of 
lottery  in  general ;  the  second,  of  chance  or  casualty,  and  of 
casual  events ;  the  third,  of  the  several  sorts  or  kinds  of  lots; 
the  fourth,  of  ordinary  lots ;  the  fifth,  of  the  lawlidness  of 
such  lots,  with  cautions  to  be  observed  in  the  use  of  tfien; 
the  sixth,  of  ordinary  lots  lusorious^  and  of  the  lawfuloesB  of 
them ;  the  seventh  contains  an  answer  to  the  principal  olge«>> 
lions  against  hisorious  lots;  the  eighth,  an  answer  to  die 
lesser  arguments  used  against  them ;  the  ninth,  6f  ca^itioiis 
to  be  observed  in  the  use  of  them;  the  tenth,  of  extraoi^ 
dfaaryw  divinitary  lots ;  the  eleventh,  of  the  unhiwfrihMie  oif 
such  lots ;  the  twelfth  contains  an  admonition  to  avoid  ihem, 
with  an  answer  to  some  ailments  produced  in  the  defence 
of  them,  and  the  conclusion  of  the  whole.  The  second 
CaKtton  of  this  treatise,  revised,  corrected,  and  enlai^geA  by 
ftft  author,  was  published  in  1627. 

The  publication  of  the  first  edition  of  Urn  woA  drew 
Mr.  Gataker  into  a  public  controversy,  which  continued  many 
years.    A  very  warm  writer,  who  bad^beeil  misled  by  com* 


t.  GATAKER,  Jitir.  fOf 

Mtt  UltfMij  tendered  wliat  he  took  to  b«  a  MfetatifMi  of  Ui 
doctrin^  to  those  who  were  then  intrusted  with  the  lacensing  of 
die  press.  But  his  perfommnce,  being  written  with  greater 
apprarance  of  ai^r  than  argument,  was  stopped ;  which  dio 
piMsionate  Wiiter  considered  as  an  additional  injury,  and  of 
wbiA  ht  fp6  loudly  complained,  that  our  author,  who  oa^ 
idught  die  investigation  of  truth,  generously  interposed,  and 
opened  die  way  as  well  for  his  adversary  ad  for  himsdf* 
He  was,  indeed,  convinced  that  he  could  not  better  defend 
Us  own  duuncter  and  sentiments  against  evil  reports,  than  by 
affording  his  virulent  adversary  the  fan-est  opportunity.  H« 
did  not,  however,  treat  him  Mith  total  silence*  After  the 
poblicalion  of  his  opponent*s  angry  piece,  he  employed  hit 
jfct  in  a  most  learned  refutation  of  his  ailments  and  obteo- 
tMMifl,  in  a  work  entided,  **  A  just  Defence  of  certain  PMi- 
s^Jea  in  a  former  Treatise  concerning  the  Nature  and  Use  of 
IMb,  againift  such  exceptions  and  oppositions  as  have  been 
made  thereunto  by  Mr.  J^  B.  2.  e.  John  Balmford,  wher^ 
Ae  insufficiency  of  his  Answers  given  to  the  Arguments 
hfonght  in  defence  of  a  Lusorious  Lot  is  manifested ;  thi 
imbecility  of  his  Arguments  produced  against  the  same  further 
dBscovCTed;  and  the  point  in  controversy  more  fully  cleared,** 

•  About  twelve  years  after,  Mr.  Gataker  had  to  contend  witk 
taore  leaitied  opponents,  and  he  found  himself  under  ti^ 
necessity  of  publishing  a  defence  of  his  sentiments  in  Latin^ 
against  two  very  learned  men  who  had  written  on  the  same 
Subject.  His  treatise  is  entitled,  "  Thomae  Gatakeri  Lon* 
dinatis  Antithesis  partim  Gulielmi  Amesii  partim  Gisberti 
VsBtii  de  sorte  ITiesibus  reposita,"  1637.  In  this  performance 
he  discovered,  as  in  all  the  productions  of  his  pen,  his  great 
piety,  modesty,  and  erudition.* 

Mr.  Gataker,  in  the  year  l6£0,  made  a  tour  into  the  Low 
Countries,  which  gave  him  a  very  favourable  impression  of 
the  tnx)testantism  of  the  Dutch,  and  doubtlessly  inclined  him 
to.  m^  rehgious  moderation  by  which  he  was  characterized. 
WhHe  he  gave  much  satisfaction  to  the  protestants,  by  his 
preadhing  to  the  English  church  at  Middleburg,  he  excited 
the  warm  displeasure  of  the  catholics,  by  disputing  vnth  great 
freedom  and  boldness  against  the  ablest  of  their  pnestK. 
Though  he  might  not  convert  them,  he  certainly  confounded 
Aem,  which  occasioned  their  great  resentment.  His  mother, 
teidfdte,  knowing  his  fervent  zeal  in  the  cause  of  truth,  and 

'  *  Biog.  Britan.  fol.  iv.  p.  2160— 2165. 


108  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

tfie  proTOCfttion  bis  .Mrorks  had  already  giveOi  had  certainly 
some  cause  to  apprehend  his  danger  from  a  party  never, 
famous  for  their  moderation.  Upon  his  return  he  applied- 
himself^  with  his  former  assiduity,  to  his  beloved  studies  and 
die  duties  of  his  charge.  He  also  addressed  a  letter  to  his 
learned  and  pious  friend  Usher,  now  preferred  to  a  bishopric,  ia 
which  be  gives  a  very  affecting  description  of  the  state  of  the 
foreign  protestants.  In  this  letter,  dated  from  Rotherhithe, 
September  29,  1621,  he  expresses  himself  as  follows : 

^'  My  duty  to  your  lordship  remembered.  This  messenger 
so  fitly  offering  himself  to  me,  I  could  not  but  in  a  line  or. 
two  salute  your  lordship,  and  therefore  signify  my  continueil 
and  deserved  remembrance  of  you,  and-  hearty  desire  of  your 
welfare.  By  this  time  I  presume  your  lordship  is  settled  in 
your  weighty  chaige  of  oversight,  wherein  1  beseech  tiie 
JLord  in  mercy  to  bless  your  labours  and  endeavours,  to  the 
glory  of  his  own  name  and  the  good  of  his  church,  never 
more  oppressed  and  opposed  by  mighty  and  malicious  adver* 
saries,  both  at  home  and  abroad;  never  in  foreign  parts 
generally  more  distracted  and  distressed  than  at  present.  Out 
of  France  there  is  daily  news  of  murders  and  massacrei^ 
cities  and  town  taken,  and  all  sorts  put  to  the  sword.  Nor 
are  those  few  that  stand  out  likely  to  hold  long  against  the 

tower  of  so  great  a  prince,  having  no  succours  from  without^ 
n  the  Palatinate  likewise  all  is  reported  to  go  to  ruin.  Nor  dO; 
the  Hollanders  sit,  for  ought  I  see,  any  surer ;  for  that  the  coals 
that  have  been  heretofore  kindled  against  them  about  trans- 
portation of  coin,  and  the  fine  imposed  for  it,  the  quarrels 
of  the  East  Indies,  and  the  command  of  the  narrow  seas, 
the  interrupting  of  the  trade  into  Flanders,  &c.  are  daily 
more  and  more  blown  up,  and  fire  begiuneth  to  break  pu^ 
which  I  pray  God  may  not  bum  up  both  them  and  us. 

"  I  doubt  not,  worthy  sir,  but  you  see  as  well,  yea  much 
better  I  suppose,  than  myself  and  many  others,  being  able 
further  to  pierce  into  the  state  of  the  times,  and  the  conse- 
quences of  these  things,  what  need  the  forlorn  flock  of  Christ 
hath  of  hearts  and  hands  to  help  to  repair  her  ruins ;  and  to 
fence  that  part  of  the  fold  that  as  yet  is  not  so  openly  broken 
down,  against  the  incursions  of  such  ravenous  wolves,  as, 
having  prevailed  so  freely  against  the  other  parts,  will  not  in 
likelihood  leave  it  also  unassaulted :  as  also  what  need  she 
hath,  if  ever,  of  prayers  and  tears  (her  ancient  principal 
armour)  unto  Him  who  hath  the  hearts  and  hands  of  all  men 
in  his  hand,  and  whose  help  (our  only  hope  as  things  now 
stand)  is  oftentimes  then  most  present  when  all  human  helps 


T.  GATAKER,  Jxw. 

«nd  hopes  do  fail.  But  these  lamentable  occurrences 
me  fardier  than  I  had  purjx>8ed  mrhen  I  put  my  pen  to  paper, 
I  shall  be  right  glad  to  hear  of  your  lordship's  health  and 
Mrelfare,  which  the  Lord  vouchsafe  to  continue;  gladder  to 
see  the  remainder  of  your  former  learned  and  laborious  work 
abroad.  The  Lord  bless  and  protect  you.  And  thus  ready 
to  do  your  lordship  any  service  I  may  in  these  parts^  I 
rest,  &c."« 

Mr.  Gataker  had  not  yet  finished  all  his  writings  on  points 
of  controversy.  His  zeal  and  courage  in  the  cause  of  ffnh 
testantism  engaged  him  to  enter  the  list  of  disputants  against 
the  popish  party.  Observing  that  the  papists  labftured  to 
prove  the  doctrme  of  transubstantiation  to  be  agreeable  to 
the  holy  scriptures^  he  resolved  to  shew,  in  the  most  con- 
vincing manner,  the  absurdity  and  impossibility  of  their 
attempts;  and,  having  driven  them  firom  this,  which  was 
tiieir  strongest  post,  he  prosecuted  his  attack,  and  forced 
his  opponents  to  quit  every  other  refuge.  This  he  did  in  hit 
work  entided  ^'  Transubstantiation  declared  by  the  PopiA 
Writers  to  have  no  necessary  Foundation  in  God's  Word,** 
1624.  He  also  published  a  *^  Defence"  of  this  work.  His 
learned,  performances  in  this  controversy  proved  a  great  and 
.seasonable  service  to  the  cause  of  protestants,  and  verjr 
deservedly  rendered  him  conspicuous  in  the  eyes  of  the  most 
worthy  persons  of  those  times,  who  admired  his  erudition  and 
his  fortitude  as  much  as  his  humility  and  his  readiness  to 
serve  the  church  of  Christ.t 

In  the  year  1640,  he  was  deeply  engaged  in  the  controversy 
about  justification,  which  greatly  increased  his  reputatioii. 
In  1643,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  and 
constantly  attended  during  the  session.  His  endeavours  hi 
this  learned  synod,  for  promoting  truth  and  suppressing 
error,  were  equally  strenuous  and  sincere ;  yet  his  study  of 
peace  was  so  remarkable,  that  when  his  reason  canceming 
Christ's  obedience  in  order  to  our  justification,  could  not 
obtain  the  majority  of  that  assembly,  by  whom  die  question 
was  determined  contrary  to  his  sense,  his  peaceable  and  pious 
spirit  caused  him  to  keep  silence,  and  hindered  him  fiom 
publishing  the  discourses  which  he  had  designed  to  publish 
on  that  subject.  In  the  year  1644,  he  was  chosen  one  of  tbt 
committee  for  the  examination  of  ministers.  He  was  r^ 
peatedly  urged  to  take  hb  doctor's  degree,  but  he  alwayi 

•  FutH  Life  of  Uiher,  p.  16,  f  Biog.  Britea.  vsl.  H.  f.  flM. 

YOL.  III.  F 


»lt)  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

refused :  and  when  he  was  offered  the  mastership  of  Trinity 
college,  Cambridge,  by  the  Earl  of  M^ncheister,  he  declined 
the  honourable  preferment.* 

Mr.  Gataker,  content  with  his  own  pastoral  charge,  was 
more  ambitious  of  doing  good  to  others  than  of  exalting  him- 
self; he  therefore  assiduously  applied  himself  in  those  tur- 
bulent times  to  his  ancient  studies,  which  could  give  offence 
to  no  party,  and  which  might  entitle  him  to  the  gratitude  and 
approbation  of  all  the  friends  of  good  literature.  With  this 
object  in  view  he  published  his  judicious  and  laborious  dis- 
course on  the  name  by  which  God  made  himself  known  to 
Moses  \nd  the  people  of  Israel.  In  this  performance  he 
diewed  himself  a  very  great  master  of  Hebrew;  and  the 
work  was  so  well  received  by  all  competent  judges,  that  it 
has  been  often  reprinted.  This  very  profound,  curious,  and 
instructive  treatise  is  entitled,  **  De  nomine  Tetragrammato 
Dissertatio,  qu&  vocis  Jehovah  apud  nostros  receptae  usus 
defenditur,  &  a  quorundam  cavillationibus  iniquis  pariter 
atque  inanibus  vindicatur,"  1645.  The  work  was  reprinted  m 
1652 ;  it  is  also  inserted  amongst  his  "  Opera  Critica ;"  and  it 
found  a  place  among  the  ten  Discourses  upon  this  subjecf, 
collected  and  published  by  Hadrian  Reland,  the  first  five  of 
which  were  written  by  John  Drusius,  Sextinus  Amama, 
Ijcwis  Capel,  John  Buxtorff,  and  James  Alting,  who  opposed 
the  received  usage,  which  is  defended  in  the  other  five  disser- 
tations, the  first  of  which  was  written  by  Nicholas  Fuller^the 
second  by  our  author,  and  the  three  others  by  John  Leusden* 

This  celebrated  scholar^  by  his  continual  application  to  die 
study  of  the  best  Greek  authors,  his  wonderful  memory,  his 
unconunon  penetration,  and  his  accurate  judgment,  :wai 
enabled  to  look  into  the  very  principles  and  elements  of  diat 
copious,  elegant,  and  expressive  language.  This  might  seem 
Ibeneath  the  attention  of  so  great  a  man ;  but  he  resolved  to 
vindicate  these  inquiries,  and  to  shew  how  much  a  thorough 
knowledge  of  grammatical  learning  contributes  to  the.inl- 
provement  of  science.  He  was  aware  that  the  singularities 
of  his  opinion  might  lessen  his  reputation,  if  they  were  not 
clearly  and  fully  established.  He  knew  that  they  did  not 
spring  either  from  a  naked  imagination,  or  an  affectation  of 
opposing  common  opinions ;  but  were  in  reality  the  produce 
of  nuich  reading  and  reflection,  and  they  had,  at  least  to  him* 
^Ifj  the  appeai'ance  of  certain,  though  not  vulgar  trutbi.    It 

♦  Clark'i  LiTfi,  p.  158— 155.  " 


T.  GATAKERy  Ji7)r/ I  Ml 

'Was  from  these  motives,  therefore,  that  he  y^tured  to  pdb- 
lish  a  work  which  would  scarcely  have  been  noticed  from  any 
other  hand,  but  which,  from  its  own  merit,  and  the  respect 
due  to  its  author's  skill,  especially  in  Greek  literature,  was 
very  wellreceived,  and  highly  commended,  by  able  and  candid 
judges.  This  learned  and  critifaT  work  is  entitled,  **  De 
jDiphthongis  sive  Bivocalibus  Dissertatio  Philologica,  in  qua 
Ifiteraruni  quarundam  sonus  germanus  natura  genuina  Agura 
nova  et  scriptura  vetus  veraque  investigatur,"  1646..  This  is 
also  printed  amongst  his  "  Opera  Critica."  ITie  point  which 
he  endeavours  to  establish  is,  that  there  are  in  reality  no 
diphthongs,  and  that  it  is  impossible  two  vowels  should  be  so 
Uended  together  as  to  enter  into  one  syllable.  This,  as  we 
have  observed,  was  one  of  our  author's  singularities.  We 
shall  not  enter  into  this  controversy,  nor  attempt  to  decidt 
whether  he  was  right  or  wrong  in  his  views  of  orthography.* 

Notwithstanding  Mr.  Gataker's  assiduous  application  to 
these  deep  and  critical  studies,  he  paid  the  most  exact  attend- 
ance to  his  pastoral  duties,  and  to  the  assembly  of  divioet. 
In  obedience  to  their  appointment,  he  wrote Hhe  annotationt 
upon  Isaiah,  Jeremiah,  and  Lamentations,  published  in  the 
Assembly's  Annotations  on  the  Bible.t    Though  he  was  a 
divine  most  distinguished  for  moderation,  he  disapproved 
of  many  things  in  &e  national  church,  but  would  have  been 
satisfied  with  moderate  episcopacy.    He  was  of  opmion,  dbnt  t 
iMshops  and  presbyters,  accordii^  to  the  New  TeaCament,  ' 
were  the  same.     He  was  always  opposed  to  the  great  power " 
and  splendour  of  the  prelates;  and  concluded,  that  tbej 
ought  to  be  divested  of  their  pompons,  titles  and  their  seats 
in  parliament.!     He  differed  more  than  once  with  the  lety 
learned  Dr.  Ljghtfoot,in  their  meetings  at  the  asaenrirfy; 
'  though  they  sometimes  debated  warmly^  they  never  lost 
tempers,  or  indulged  any  rancour  on  account  of  these 

As  our  divine  advanced  in  years,  his  incessant  iabonrs^  bodi 
of  body  and  mind,  brought  upon  him  those  inliiiniliis  whtrh 
slackened  his  speed,  but  did  not  wholly  stop  the  proyet  of 
his  studies.  For  even  under  these  wAnaotii^  vtA  m\iitm  tjM^ 
fined  to  his  chamber  by  the  diieclion  of  hk  plrvfi^vMM,  he 
was   continually  em|doyed  m  hb  beloved  tfmUsmifkmw^m, 

•  BioK.  Brifu.  ▼•!.  H.  ^  aii(. 

f  This  wefbl  work  b  imprmftnfj  i^mbmi  *«»  ffe«r  tum^mMf  ^  ^^^Jtm 
but  was  OBdrrtakra  hj  tatum  <t%jm^  x^f^ikrM  17  iw»  jnr^iKiif»    mw 
of  wbon  were  ■e»brri  of  ihe  jii'MSfy.     fj^\  y0't^in.  m4  «w  y^tJJuil 
acriptore appotoird  bia  \j  tkoot  •«•  Mt  •«»  4«  m^B.      4>»«#m  4^  4^* 
were  celebraicd  fonUM.  m  ifte  «ate  ffitt  Surf  uA^M  m  I01O  wWm, 


tit  LITES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

But  when,  through  the  excellency  of  his  consdtiition,  1^ 
temperate  manner  of  livings  and  the  skilful  efforts  of  the 
f|u:ulty9  he  recovered  a  moderate  share  of  health,  he  betook 
himself  again  to  the  duties  of  his  ministry ;  but  was  after- 
wards under  the  necessity  of  declining  the  ei^ercises  of  the 
pulpit,  though  he  cdntini^ed  to  administer  the  sacraments, 
and  to  deliver  short  discourses  at  funerals.  The  chief  part 
of  his  time  was  now  employed  in  study,  and  in  composiiK 
several  learned  works.  He  employed  his  learning,  his  zeal, 
and  his  moderation  in  the  antinomian  controversy,  by  pub^ 
lishing  a  work,  entitled,  ^'  A  Mistake  or  Misconatructiofi 
removed,  (whereby  little  di£ference  is  pretended  to  have  hwit 
acknowlefdged  between  the  antinomians  and  us^)  and  Fiee 
•Grace,  as  it  is  held  forth  in  God's  Word,  as  well  by  the 
Prophets  in  the  Old  Testament,  as  by  the  Apostles  and 
«Qurist  himself  in  the  New,  shewed  to  be  other  than  is  by  the 
Antinomian  Party  in  these  times  maintained.  In  way  of 
.Answer  to  some  Passages  in  a  Treatise  of  Mr.  John  Sub- 
.marsh,  concerning  that  subject,"  1646.  This  is  written  .ip 
answer  to  Mr.  Saltmarsh's  "  Free  Grace,  or  the  Flow]iigs,of 
Christ's  Blood  freely  to  Sinners ;  being  an  Fxperim^pt  of 
V Jesus  Christ  upon  one  who  hath  been  in  Bondage  .of  xP 
'troubled  Spirit  at  times  for  twelve  years,''  1645.  Mr.  Qatn- 
;ker  .in.his  work  observes,  **  That  it  seems  a  thing  piuch  to  im 
jfeared,  that  this  course,  which  I  see  some  effect,  and  maii|f 
.people  are  much  taken  with,  of  extracting  divinity  in  a  kiipii 
'(Qfchymical  viray,  even  chimerical  conceits,  will,  if  it  hold  op, 
«aa  .much  corrupt  the  siipplicity  of  the  gospel,  and  the  doctrins 
lOf  firith,  as  ever  the, quirks  and  quillets  of  the  old  schoolmen 
<did«"  During  the  same  year  he  published  '*  Shadows  with- 
out Substance,  in  the  pretended  New  Lights,"  in  answer  to 
.Saltmarsh's  '^  Shadows  flying  awav.''  Also  his  "  Mysteriou* 
.Clouds  and  Mists,"  in  answer  to  Mr.  J.  Simpson. 

jyf  r.  Gataker  soon  after  published  his  discourse  on  the 
-ityle  of  the  New  Testament,  in  which  he  opposed  the  senti- 
HiMits  of  Pfochenius,  who  maintained  that  there  were  no 
Hebraisms  in:  those  sacred  writings,  which  he  endeavoured  to 
prove  as  well  by  authorities  as  arguments.  All  this  over 
s^tlior  undertook  ^  overthrow,  which,  in  the  opinion  of  it)ie 
best  critics,  he  most  effectually  accomplished ;  and  more  than 
this,  he  so  clearly  and  concisely  explained  the  true  meaning 
of  many  texts  in  the  Old  as  well  as  the  New  Testament; 
corrected  such  a  variety  of  passages  in  ancient  authorsL;.aiid 
discovered  such  a  consummate  skill  in  both  the  living  :aDd 
dead  languages,  as  very  justly  gained  him  the  character  of 


T.  GAfAKER,  Jun;  «15 

if  by  them,  why  not  by  the  ancienU?  **  1  could  readfly 
grant  you  diat,"  says  our  divine,  "  and  yet  deny  the  conse- 
quence that  you. would  draw  from  it.  For  the  Grreek  lan- 
guage itself  was  much  declined,  in  the  time  of  the  apostles, 
by  the  admission  of  a  multitude  of  exotic  words  and  phrases 
borrowed  from  the  Italians,  Sicilians,  Cyrenians,  and  Cartha- 
genians,  partly  from  their  being  under  the  same  government, 
and  partly  from  their  commercial  intercourse  with  those 
nations.  But,  after  all,"  says  he,  */  if  Demosthenes  could 
live  again,  it  is  most  likely  he  would  find  many  obstacles  in 
reading  Paul's  writings,  and  would  object  to  many  of  the 
words  and  phrases."  He  then  quotes  a  long  passage  from 
Beza's  Annotations  on  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles,  m  which  that 
learned  commentator  shews  the  reasons  why  the  apostles  were 
not  studious  about  their  style,  but  endeavoured  to  make  them- 
selves understood  by  those  with  whom  they  conversed,  rather 
than  to  render  their  dfscourses  elegant  from  their  pure  and 
correct  language. 

In  the  same  manner  he  proceeds  through  the  rest  of  his 
treatise,  in  which  he  explains,  as  they  occur,  a  multitude  of 
passages  in  sacred  and  profane  authors,  correcting  some  and 
commending  other  critics  who  have  gone  before ;  but  with  so 
much  mildness  and  moderation,  with  such  apparent  can- 
dour and  respect  to  truth  above  all  things,  that  it  is  impossible 
for  the  reader  not  to  admire  his  excellent  temper,  while  be 
ruins  the  reputation  of  the  contrary  party.  In  the  forty- 
fourth  chapter,  Mr.  Gataker  gives  a  recapitulation  of  the  whole 
dispute  between  him  and  Pfochenius,  and  observes,  that  the 
true  state  of  the  question  is,  whether  the  style  of  the  New 
Testament  in  Greek  is  evefy  where  the  same  with  that  which 
was  used  hy  the  ancient  writers,  at  the  time  when  the  lan- 
guage w'as  m  its  greatest  purity  ?•  Or,  whether  it  is  not  such 
as  frequently  admits  of  Hebraisms  and  Syriasms  f  Pfochenius 
^rms  the  former,  and  denies  the  latter ;  while  our  learned 
critiQ  maintains  the  opposite  sentiments.  Mr.  Gataker  con- 
dudes  by  observing,  that,  notwithstanding  all  that  Pfochenius 
jbas  urged,  he  does  not  doubt  that  nearly  six  hundred  phrases 
MjOil^t  be  produced  from  the  New  Testament,  and  a  much 
'^^  '^  number  from  the  Greek  version  of  the  Old  Testa^ 
lii  ^  purity  of  which  Pfochenius  seems  tacitly  to  main- 
fl^\which  there  are  plain  characters  of  the  Hebrew  or 
'^^  kc  tongues,  and  not  the  least  resemblance  of  the 
le^  so  far  as  men  of  the  greatest  labour  and  eruditioQ 
to  discovered.*  The  venerable  primate  of  Ireland 

..     •BiOf.Brltea.Tol.W.  p.8167— Sl^. 


««  LIVES  OF  THB  PURITANS. 

than  whom  there  could  not  be  a  better  judge,  shewed  His  gnmi 
laBspect  both  for  our  author  and  his  {>ei  formance,  by  sending 
it  with  his  own  Annals  as  a  present  to  Dr.  Arnold  Boate, 
then  residing  at  Paris.* 

Though  this  literary  production  was  a  very  considerable*' 
yvatk,  and  greatly  increased  the  author's  reputation,  it  wai^ 
indeed,  no  more  than  a  specimen  of-  a  much  larger  work,  in^ 
which  he  had  been  employed  for  many  years.  He  at  first, 
intended  his  discourse  against  Pfochenius  only  as  an  appendix 
to  this  celebrated  perfoimance;  but  that  treatise  being  ready* 
for  the  press,  and  it  being  very  doubtful  whether  he  should  liv€: 
to  complete  the  other,  he  judged  it  most  expedient  to  publish- 
that  alone,  particularly  that  he  might  see  what  kind  of  recep* 
tion  his  iarger  work  was  likely  to  meet  with  from  the  repubUa. 
of  letters.  Finding  this  specimen  universally  applauded,  he. 
determined  to  publish  the  first  two  books  of  the  other,  the; 
whole  being  divided  into  six,  to  which  he  gave  this  title  i 
''  Thomas  Qatakeri  Londinatis  Cinnus ;  sive  adversaria  nm^ 
eellanea  animadversionum  veriarum  libris  sex  comprehensa: 

Juorum  premores  duo  nunc  primitius  prodeunt  reliquiv 
einceps  (Deo  favente>  seorsim  insecuturis,"  1651.  la  dw 
Eefbce  the  author  shews,  that  these  collections  were  pub^ 
hed  in  fulfilment  of  his  promise  made  in  his  dissertation  qb 
the  style  of  the  New  Testament ;  which  promise  would  have 
heen  fulfilled  much  sooner,  had  he  not  been  prevented  by  Inx 
numerous  avocations,  apd  by  a  dangerous  eruption  of  blood,. 
by  which  he  was  brought  very  low,  and  for  a  long  time, 
withheld  from  his  studies.  The  first  book  is  divided  into< 
deven  chapters,  and  the  second  into  twenty,  but  they  aier 
mostly  independent  one  of  another.  The  account  given  of 
the  forgoing  work  renders  it  unnecessary  to  enlarge  upon 
this  performance.  They  are  exactly  the  same  in. their  nature^ 
except  that  this  tends  to  no  one  particular  point,  but  dift< 
covers,  in  numerous  instances,  the  author's  opinion  on  difficult 
passages  in  the  Old  and  New  Testaments,  the  primitive 
fitthers,  modem  critics,  and,  as  his  subjects  occasionally  led 
him,  he  illustrates  a  vast  variety  of  obscure  or  perplexed 
places  both  in  Greek  and  Latin  authors ;  and  there  are  aonMt 
observations  on  words  and  phrases  in  our  own  lang^age^ 
This  work  was  received  with  the  highest  commendatioo^ 
Morhoff  particularly  applauds  the  author  for.  his  singular 
happiness  in  distinguishing  the  true  sense  of  the  most  difficult 
passages^and  of  making  it  appear  that  what  h»  diefenda  i$ 

• 

•  Parr*i  life  of  Uiher,  {».569. 


T.  GATAKER,  Jcm.  f  17 

litb  tmef  sense,  and  this  in  few  words^  without  any  ostentation^ ' 
Vid  without  ever  insulting  those  whom  he  corrects :  but,  on 
the  contrary,  he  ascribes  their  mistakes,  sometimes  as  a  slip 
of  the  memory,  and  at  others,  to  the  bad  editions  of  the 
kioks  which  they  used.*  The  remainuig  books  of  this  col- 
lection were  published  after  his  decease,  by  his  son  Mr,- 
Charles  Gataker,  with  the  following  tide*:  **  Adversaria  Mis- 
cellanea Posthuma,  in  quibus  sacrse  Scripturse  primo  deinde 
alionim  Scriptorum  locis  multis  Lux  afFunditur,"  1659. 

Mr.  Grataker's  natural  modesty,  as  well  as  his  christian 
moderation,  kept  him  from  that  publicity  of  character  which, 
from  his  great  abilities,  and  his  numerous  friends,  he  might 
easily  have  attained.     Notwithstanding  the  mildness  of  his 
temp^,  and  his  aversion  to  whatever  might  render  him  the 
object  of  public  discourse ;  yet  the  trial  of  the  king  moved 
him  to  make  a  public  declaration  of  his  sentiments.   He  was, 
accordingly,  the  first  of  the  forty-seven  London  ministers 
who  subscribed  their  ^'  Letter  to  the  Generall  and  his  Councell 
of  Warre,"  commonly  called  their  "  Declaration"  against  the 
kill's  death.     In  this  address  they  firmly  remind  them  of 
dieur  duty  to  the  parliament,  and  of  the  obligations  they  were 
under,  as  well  as   the  parliament,  to  defend  his  majesty's 
person  and  maintain  his  just  rights.     They  told  the  general 
and  his  council  that  the  one  could  not  be  injured,  or  the 
other  invaded,  without  manifest  breach  of  many  solemn  oaths, 
particularly  the  covenant:   they  taught  them  to  distinguish 
between  God's  Approbation  and  permission ;  they  set,  in  its 
true  light,  the   folly  of  pretending  to   secret  impulses  in. 
vkdation  of  God's  written  laws;  they  made  it  evident  that 
necessity  was  a  false  plea ;  and  they  concluded  by  recom- 
mending them  to  follow  the  rule  of  John  the  Baptist,  Do 
violence  to  no  man,  neither  accuse  any  falsely ,  and  scrupled 
not  to  tell  them,  that,  if  they  persisted  in  theur  design,  their 
sin  would  surely  find  them  out.f 

During  the  year  in  which  Mr.  Gataker  published  the  first 
two  books  of  his  Miscellanies,  he  printed  a  small  piece  on 
iirihnt  baptism,  which  was  very  much  admired.  He  was 
deq>ly  versed  in  that  controversy ;  therefore,  in  addition  to 
dus,  he  wrote  several  other  discourses,  in  whieh  he  treated 
ibe  main  questions  with  great  seriousness  and  solidity  of 
aMpnent.  He  published  two  Latin  discourses  on  this 
tiB|ect,  which,  in  point  of  modesty,  learning,  and  argumen- 
it  is  said,  were  not  at  all  inferior  to  any  of  the  other 

If.  Britan.  toI.  W.  p.  2169, 2170. 
•fnr  to  tkt  Gen. 


fl8  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

productions  of  his  pen.  The  first  of  these  is  entitled,  "  De 
JBaptismatis  Infantilis  vi  &  efiicacia  Disceptatio  privatimhabita 
inter  V.  C.  Dom.  Samuelem  Waidum,  theoiogise  sacrae  docto- 
rem,  &  in  academia  Cantabrigiensi  Professorem,  &  Thomam 
Gatakerum,"  1651.  The  other  is  entitled,  "  Stricturae  ad 
Jllpistolam  Joannis  Davenantii  de  Baptismo  Infantum,"  1654. 
.  In  the  year  1652,  he  favoured  the  world  with  his  admirable 
edition  of  the  Emperor  Marcus  Antouinus's  Meditations,  to 
which  he  prefixed  a  preliminary  discourse  on  ihe  philosophy 
of  the  Stoics,  which,  in  the  opinion  of  the  ablest  critics,  both 
at  home  and  abroad,  is  allowed  to  be  a  most  complete  and 
correct  treatise,  as  well  as  a  most  useful  compendium  of 
•  morality.  He  added  also  an  exact  translation,  together  with 
a  commentary.  In  some  of  his  former  works  he  had^  given 
occasional  specimens  of  his  perfect  acquaintance  with  the 
works  of  this  imperial  philosopher,  whose  celebrity  has 
always  been  as  high  among  the  learned  as  his  station  was  in 
Ae  world ;  therefore,  when  the  work  was  published,  men''8 
expectations  were  highly  raised,  and  abundantly  gratified.  It 
had  been  published  in  Greek  by  Conrad  Gesner,  with  a  Latin 
translation  by  William  Hy lander,  and  had  passed  through 
several  editions;  Mr.  Gataker  found  both  the  text  and  the 
translation  exceedingly  faulty,  and  spent  nearly  forty  years 
in  considering  how  the  former  might  be  amended,  and  a  new 
translation  made,  which  might  do  justice  to  so  exquisite  a 
production.  He  found  prodigious  difficulties  in  the  arduous 
undertaking,  being  able  to  meet  with  very  few  manuscript 
copies,  and  receiving  very  slender  helps  from  those  learned 
persons,  whose  assistance  he  solicited  in  the  progress  of  his 
endeavours.  He  sent  indeed  a  list  of  his  principal  difficul- 
ties to  the  celebrated  Salmasius,  who,  in  his  answer,  vefy 
gratefully  acknowledged,  and  warmly  commended  his  under- 
taking; but  gave  him,  at  the  same  time,  a  dismal  pro- 
spect of  the  obstacles  he  had  to  overcome:  as,  innumerable 
corruptions,  fi-equent  chasms,  more  frequent  transpositions, 
and  many  other  misfortunes,  for  the  removal  of  which  he 
promised  his  assistance;  which,  however,  his  frequent  joumie^ 
and  other  occurrences  prevented.  Mr.  Gataker,  nevertheless; 
persevered  in  the  arduous  work,  and,  with  the  few  helps  be 
enjoyed,  his  own  sagacity,  and  the  comparing  of  various' 
copies,  at  length  completed  his  design,  and,  to  the  great  satis- 
faction of  the  learned  world,  published  his  admirable  edition 
of  this  valuable  work,  about  two  years  before  his  death,*  uiMlep 
the  following  title :  *'  Marci  Antonini  Imperatoris  de  r^buf 
suis  sive  de  iis  quae  ad  se  pertinere  censebat  JLebri  xii.  ciw 


T.  GATAKER,  J0K.  :  fI9 

Versioiie  Latin^  8c  commentariis  Gatakeri/'  1652.    The  work  ^ 
was  reprinted  in  1697^  with  the  addition  of  the  Emperor's  life,, 
by  Mr.-  Dacier^  together  with  some  select  notes  of  the  same 
author,  by  Dr.  George  Stanhope,  who,  in  his  dedication  to  the 
Lord  Chancellor  Somers,  gives  a  high  (Character  of  our  author  .* 
.   Mr.  Gataker,  in  the  evening  of  his  days,  when  he  earnestly 
deatred  that  repose  which   his  labours   so   well  deserved, 
waa  warmly  attacked  by  an  active  and  angry  adversary,  who 
was  infinitely  beneath  him  in  point  of  knowledge,  but  who 
had  credit  with  certain  persons  high  in  office,  and  who  was 
esteemed  by  the  vulgar  as  a  person  of  transcendent  abilities. 
This  was  Mr.  Wilham.  Lilly,  the  famous  astrologer,  who, 
finding  that  our  author  had  a  very  bad  opinion  of  his  pre- 
tended art,  and  a  worse  opinion  of  his  personal  character,  had 
the  confidence  to  take  up  his  pen  against  him ;  but  he  expe- 
rienced the  disappointment  which  he  might  easily  have  fore- 
seen.    Mr.  Gataker,  who  possessed  all  the  sacred  and  pro- 
fane learning  relative  to  this  subject,  not  only  defended  him- 
self with  great  strength  of  argument,  but  very  clearly  detected 
aO  die  plausible  sophisms  tliat  could  be  urged  in  support  of 
this  pretended  science.     The  ground  of  this  controversy  was 
Mr.  Gataker's  Annotations  on  Jeremiah  x.  2.,  in  which  chap- 
ter the  Jews  are  warned  against  listening  to  the  predictions  of 
astrologers,  and  complying  with  the  practice  of  idolaters,  the 
two  great  sins  to  which  they  would  be  tempted  in  a  state  of 
captivity.     Our  author  considered  it  his  duty  to  expose  the 
vanity  of  predictions  from  the  stars,  and  to  shew  to  the  chris- 
tian world,  that  it  was  not  only  folly  and  ignorance,  but  great 
wickedness  to  rely  upon  them.     Uis  exposition  is  curious, 
lull  of  solid  sense  and  sound  learning,  and  effectually  destroys   - 
fl{e  credit  of  that  delusive  art,  by  which,  in  all  ages,  weak  and 
wandering  minds  have  been  misled. 

'  These  annotations  roused  all  the  tribe  of  astrologers  against 
our  learned  author,  from  the  highest  to  the  lowest.  William 
Lilly,  John  Swan,  and  Sir  Christopher  Hey  don,  took  great 
offence,  and  wrote  against  him  without  mercy.  I'his  induced 
Mr.  Gataker  to  publish  a  discourse  in  defence  of  himself,  and 
what  he  had  before  advanced  against  the  illuminated  star- 
gazers,  which  is  entitled,  "  A  Vindication  of  the  Annotations 
on  Jeremiah,  chap.  x.  ver.  2.,  against  the  scurrilous  aspersions 
of  that  grand  impostor  Mr.  William  Lilly ;  as  also  against  the 
various  expositions  of  two  of  his  advocates,  Mr.  John  Swan, 
and  another  by  him  cited  but  not  named.    Together  with  the 

*  Bio|;,  Britao.  toI.  It*  p.  2171.  » 


no  LIVES  OF  i;he  PUEITANS- 

annotadons  themselves;  wherein  the  pretended  gromids  of 
judiciary  astrology,  and  the- scripture' proofs  produced  for  i^ 
are  discussed  and  refuted/'  1653.  In  this  treatise  he  ffilly  and 
openly  exposed  his  opponents  and  their  pretended  science ; 
and  enforced  all  that  he  had  said  against  it  by  substantial 
arguments,  and  produced,  in  support  of  his  own  sentiments, 
9  numerous  train  of  respectable  authorities.  I'his  excited 
their  scurrility  and  abuse  more  than  ever ;  which  induced  him 
to  publish  a  reply  to  their  raillery  and  bitter  language,  in  a 
piece  entitled, "  A  Discourse  Apolegitical,  wherein  Lillies  lewd 
and  Ibwd  lies  in  his  Merlin  or  Pasquil  for  the  year  1654,  aro 
clearly  laid  open ;  his  shameful  desertion  of  his  own  cause  it 
furttier  discovered ;  his  shameless  slanders  fully 'refuted;  and 
his  malicious  and  murtherous  mind  inciting  to  a  general  mas* 
sacre  of  God's  ministers,  from  his  own  pen  evidently  evinced  i 
together  with  an  advertisement  concerning  two  allegations 
produced  in  the  close  of  his  postscript ;  and  a  postscript  con- 
cerning an  epistole  dedicatory  of  one  I.  Gadburie,"  1654« 
In  this  treatise  our  venerable  author  speaks  of  the  most  con^ 
siderable  transactions  of  his  life,  relates  at  large  the  manner  lo 
which  he  arrived  at  his  several  preferments,  and  completdy 
refutes  all  the  idle  and  malicious  reflections  of  Lilly  aiid  liia 
associates.  He  mentions,  among  other  particulars,  his  seiH 
timents  upon  church  government,  and  declares  that  he  never 
was  an  advocate  for  the  power  and  splendour  of  the  prelacy  ; 
but  that,  on  the  contrary,  he  had  always  inclined  to  a  mode 
rate  episcopacy.  As,  for  the  sake  of  doing  good  in  his  gene* 
ration,  he  had  submitted  to  the  bishops ;  so,  when  they  were 
taken  away  by  what  he  esteemed  the  supreme  power,  he  suIh 
mitted  to  that  likewise,  yet  never  sought  any  preferment,  but 
refused  it  from  both  parties.  This,  it  appears,  was  written  a 
very  little  time  before  his  death. 

Although  Mr.  Gataker  convinced  all  judicious  and  impar- 
tial inquirers  after  truth  of  the  vanity  of  this  delusive  science^ 
he  could  never  silence  his  conceited  and  obstinate  antagonist^ 
whose  bread,  indeed^  was  in  some  degree  at  stake ;  and  who 
was,  therefore,  bound  by  one  of  the  strongest  ties  to  defend 
that  craft  by  which  he  lived.  By  his  frequent  publicattons^ 
he  vilified  and  persecuted  our  venerable  divine  to  the  end  of 
his  days,  and,  contrary  to  all  the  rules  of  religion  or  hmnaiiity^ 
insulted  him  when  laid  in  his  silent  grave..*  As  for  die  pioua 
and  learned  Mr.  Gmtateer,  he  pursued  the  same  peaceable  and 
useful-  coinrse,^tUl  hi»' years,  his  infirmities,  ana  hi»perpetaai 
labours^  wore  out  his  constitution. 

•  DIog.  Britao.  vdl.  It.  p.  «n2— ^175, 


f .  6ATAKER,  Jim.  SM 

In  his  last  sickness  his  faith  and  patience  were  Btrikiii|^ 
manifest.  To  a  servant  who  waited  upon  him  when  confined 
to  his  bed,  and  who  told  him  that  his  head  did  not  lie  rights 
he  said,  ^'  It  will  lie  ri^ht  in  my  coffin."  The  day  before  hit 
departure,  being  exercised  with  extreme  pain,  he  cried,  'MIow 
long,  Lord,  how  long?  come  speedily!"  A  little  before  he 
died,  he  called  his  son,  his  sister,  and  his  daughter,  to  each  of 
whom  he  delivered  his  dying  charge,  saying,  **  My  heart  fails, 
and  my  strength  fails :  but  God  is  my  fortress,  and  the  rock 
of  my  salvation.  Into  thy  hands,  therefore,  I  commend  my 
soul ;  for  thou  hast  redeemed  me,  O  God  of  truth. — Son," 
aaid  he,  **  you  have  a  great  charge,  look  to  it.  Instruct  your 
wife  and  family  in  the  fear  of  God,  and  discharge  your  minis* 
try  conscientiously. — Sister,"  said  he  ^*  I  thou^t  you  might 
have  gone  before  me,  but  God  calls  me  first.  I  hope  we 
shall  meet  in  heaven.  I  pray  God  bless  you. — Daughter," 
«aid  he,  ^*  mind  the  world  less  and  God  more ;  for  all  tilings, 
without  religion  and  the  fear  of  God,  are  nothing  wordi.^ 
He  then  wished  them  all  to  withdraw  and  leave  him  to  rest, 
when  he  {>resently  expired,  July  £7,  1654,  aged  seventy-nine 
years,  having  been  forty-three  years  pastor  at  Rotherhithe. 
Jlis  funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  his  very  esteemed  friend 
-Mr.  Simeon  Ashe,  and  afterwards  published  with  the  follows 
iiig  tide :  "  Gray  Heyres  crowned  with  Grace,  a  Sermon 
preached  atRedriff,  August  1,  at  the  Funeral  of  ^at  reverend 
and  eminently  learned  and  faithful  Minister  of  Jesus  Christ, 
Mr.  Thomas  Gataker." 

This  venerable  divine  was  married  four  times.  His  third 
wife  was  sister  to  Sir  George  Farwell.  He  would  never 
suffer  his  picture  to  be  taken ;  but  the  following  is  said  to  be 
a  just  description  of  his  person.  He  was  of  a  middle  stature, 
a  thin  body,  a  lively  countenance,  and  a  fresh  complexion* 
He  was  temperate  in  diet,  free  and  cheerful  in  conversation, 
and  addicted  to  study,  but  did  not  seclude  himself  from  useful 
company.  He  possessed  a  quick  apprehension,  a  solid  judg- 
ment, and  so  extraordinary  a  memory,  that,  though  he  us^ 
no  common-place  book,  he  had  in  readiness  whatever  he  had 
read.  His  house  was  a  private  seminary  for  both  Englishmen 
•and.foreigners,  who  resorted  to  him,  lodged  at  his  house,  and 
received  instructions  from  bim.  His  extensive  learning  was 
admired  by  the  great  men  of  the  age,  both  at  home  and 
abroad,  with  whom  he  held  a  regular  correspondence.  It  is 
•aid,  "  Of  all  the  critics  of  this  age  who  have  employed  their 
pens  in  illustrating  polite  learning,  tlicre  are  few,  if  indeed 
any,  who  deserve  to  be  preferred  to  Thomas  Gataker  fpr 


LIVES  OF*  THE  PURITANS. 

diligence  and  accuracy,  in  explaining  those  authors  whose 
writings  he  has  examined."  He  is  styled  ^'  a  writer  of  infr 
iiite  learning  and  accurate  judgment;"*  and  his  name  as  a 
scholar  is  paralleled  witb  those  of  Selden  and  Usher.f  He 
was  an  ornament  to  the  university,  a  light  to  the  church,  a 
loving  husband,  a  discreet  parent,  a  faithful  friend,  a  kind 
bene^ctor,  a  candid  encouragei*  of  students,  and  a  stoat 
champion  for  the  truth ;  yet  so  much  for  peace  and  modera- 
tion, diat  he  maintained  unity  and  affection  towards  those  vrbo 
differed  in  lesser  matters.*  Echard  says,  "  He  was  remark- 
able for  his  skill  in  Greek  and  Hebrew,  and  the  most  cele- 
brated among  the  assembly  of  divines ;"  and  adds,  '^  it  is  hard 
to  say  which  was  most  remarkable,  his  exemplary  piety  and 
charity,  hb  poUte  literature,  or  his  humility  and  modesty  in 
refusing  preferment."^ 

His  Works,  in  addition  to  tliose  whose  titles  have  been  already 
given. — I.  David's  Instructor. — 2.  The  Christian  Man's  Car©.— 
3.  The  Spiritual  Watch.— 4.  The  Gain  of  Godliness.— 5.  The  Jifit 
Man's  Joy,  with  Signs  of  Sincerity. — 6.  Jacob's  Thankfulness. — 
7.  David's  Remembrances. — 8.  Noah's  Obedience. — ^9.  A  Memorial 
of  England's  Deliverance. — 10.  Sorrow  for  Zion. — 11.  God's  Parley 
with  Princes,  with  an  Appeal  from  them  to  Him. — 12.  £leaaeK^ 
Prayer,  a  Marriage  Sermon. — 13.  A  Good  Wife  God's  Qift.-*' 
14.  A  Wife  Indeed. — 15.  MarriageDuties.— 16.  Death's  Advantage. — 
17.  The  Benefit  of  a  Good  Name,  and  a  Good  End. — 18.  Abraham's 
Decease,  delivered  at  the  Funeral  of  Mr.  Richard  Stock,  late  Pastor 
of  Alt-hallows,  Bread-street — 19.  Jeroboam^s  Son's  Decease. — 
20.  Christian  Constancy  Crowned  by  Christ. — ^ITie  above  Sermons,  of 
which  the  pious  Bishop  Wilkin's  gives  a  ver}'  high  character,J|  were 
published  separate,  but,  in  1637,  collected  and  published  m  one 
▼olnnie  foli6. — ^21.  Francisci  Gomari  Disputationis  ElencticaSy  de 
Jttstificationis,  &c.,  1640. — ^22.  Animadvertionis  in  J.  Piscatoris  k 
L.  X<ucii  scripta  adversaria,  de  causa  meritoria  JustificationiSy  1641.*:- 
23.  Mr.  Anthony  Wotton's  Defence,  1641.— 24.  A  true  Relation  of 
Passages  between  Mr.  Wotton  and  Mr.  Walker,  1642. — 26.  An 
Answer  to  Mr.  Walker's  Vindication,  1642. — 26.'  Stricturae  in  Barth. 
Wigelini  Sangallensis  de'  obedientia  Christi  disputationum  Theol0N> 
gicam,  1653. — 27.  Ejusdam  Yindicatio  adversus  Capellum. — 2S.  The 
Decease  pf  Lazarus. — 29.  St.  Stephen's  last  Will  and  Testament-^ 
30.  God's  Eye  on  his  Israel. — 31.  A  Defence  of  Mr.  Bradshaw  against 
Mr.  J.  Canne. — I'he  celebrated  Hermannus  Witsius,  in  the  year 
1698,  collected  and  published  in  one  volume  all  Mr.  Gataker's 
critical  works,  entitled,  *'  Opera  Crilica;"  which  will  stand  a  mono* 
meut  to  his  memory  as  durable  as  time. 


♦  Biog.  Britao.  vol.  iv.  p.  fin5<  217«. 

f  Aikin's  Lives  of  Selden  and  Utber,  p.  40S. 

t  Clark's  Lives,  p.  256—260. 

S  Ecbard'a  Hist,  of  Eog.  vol.  ii.  p.  77U 

I  Wilkiat  on  Preachiag,  p.  82, 83. 


S;  BOLTON. 

Samubl  Bolton,  D.  D. — This  excellent  idivine  was  bom 
b  the  year  1606,  and  educated  in  the  university  of  Cambridge. 
He  afterwards  became  minister  of  St.  Martin's  church,  Lud- 
ntie-atreet,  London ;  where  he  continued  about  three  years. 
Upon  his  removal  from  this  situation,  he  was  chosen  minister 
tf  St.  Saviour's,  Southwark,  where  he  continued  seven  years, 
and  then  removed  to  St.  Andrew's,  Holbom.  At  each  of  these 
places  hb  ministry  was  made  a  blessing  to  many  souls.     He 
was  Dominated  one  of  the  additional  members  in  the  assem- 
bly of  divines.     Upon  the  death  of  Dr.  Bainbrigge,  he  was 
chosen  master  of  Christ's  college,  Cambridge,  which   he 
fovmied  with  great  wisdom  and  prudence  the  rest  of  his 
fltys.     Having  strong  desires  to  win  souls  to  Christ,  though 
lie  was  master  of  a  college,  and  had  no  ministerial  charge  of 
bis  own,  he  preached  gratuitously  every  Lord's  day  for  many 
yean.     In  the  year  1648,  a  minister  of  his  name,  and  pro- 
iiaUy  die  same  person,  attended  the  Earl  of  Holland  upon 
die  scaffold  when  he  was  beheaded  in  the  palace-yard,  West- 
minster.* 

l)iiring  his  last  sickness,  which  was  long  and  painful,  he 
•lercised  great  patience,  and  often  said,  though  the  provi- 
dence of  God  was  dark  towards  him,  he  had  light  and  cSm* 
fort  within.  A  little  before  he  died,  he  said  to  a  person 
moving  him  in  bed, "  Let  me  alone ;  let  me  lie  quietly.  I  have 
as  much  comfort  as  my  heart  can  hold."  The  last  time 
Mr.  Calamv  visited  him  he  was  anxious  to  be  with  Christ, 
flaying,  "  Oh  this  vile  body  of  mine !  when  will  it  give  way, 
diat  my  soul  may  get  out  and  go  to  my  God  ?  When  will  it 
be  consumed,  tliat  I  may  mount  up  to  heaven  f"  When  he 
perceived  any  symptoms  of  his  approaching  dissolution,  he 
rejoiced  I  exceedingly,  calling  tbem,  "  the  little  crevices 
through  which  hb  soul  peeped."  He  died  greatly  lamented, 
October  15,  1654,  aged  forty-eight  years,  and  was  buried  in 
St.  Martin's  church,  mentioned  above.  He  gave  orders,  in 
his  last  will  and  testament,  to  be  interred  as  a  private  chris- 
tian, and  not  with  the  outward  pomp  of  a  doctor;  "  be- 
cause," as  he  observed,  "  he  hoped  to  rise  in  the  day  of 
judgment,  and  appear  before  God,  not  as  a  doctor,  but  as  an 
kumble  christian."  ^Numerous  elegies  were  published  on  his 
death.   . 

Dr.  Bolton  was  a  person  of  good  parts  and  considerable 
learmng,  a  burning  and  shining  light  in  his  day,  and  a  man  'of 
great  piety  and  excellent  ministerial  abilities.     He  was  ortho- 


*  Whitlocke'i  Mem.  p.  387.    Edit.  173?. 


/  / 


LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

dk>x  in  his  judgment,  philanthropic  in  his  8|Miit,  end  A  cde<- 
brated  interpreter  of  scripture.  He  studied,  not  oaly  ti» 
preach  the  word,  but  to  live  as  he  preached.  His  life  was  an 
excellent  comment  on  his  doctrine.  He  was  the  voice  .^ 
God  crying  aloud  to  those  around  him,  by  his  exemplary 
life  as  well  as  his  holy  doctrine.  He  was  a  man  of  much 
prayer,  reading,  meditation,  and  temptation,  the  four  thiogi 
which,  in  the  opinion  of  Luther,  make  a  preacher.  He  was 
assaulted  with  manifold  temptations,  and  very  probably  with 
more  than  many  hundreds  of  his  brethren.  He  laboured 
under  the  buffetings  of  Satan,  that,  being  himself  tempted,  he 
might  be  better  able  to  comfort  those  who  were  tempted. 
The  words  from  which  Mr.  Calamy  preached  his  funeral 
sermon  had  often  been  a  source  of  great  joy  to  his  aouT: 
'*  Who  shall  change  our  vile  body,  that  it  may  be  fashioned 
like  unto  his  glorious  body,  according  to  the  mighty  workiQ|( 
whereby  he  is  able  even  to  subdue  all  things  to  himself."* 

His  Works. — I.  A  Vindication  of  the  Rights  of  Law  and  Hm 
Liberties  of -Grace,  1645. — 2,  The  Arraignment  of  Error,  1646^— 
3.  The  Sinfulness  of  Sin,  held  forth  in  a  Sermon  preached  to  the 
Honourable  House  of  Commons,  upon  the  late  Solemn  Day  tff 
Humiliation,  March  26,  1646— 1646^-^.  A  Guard  of  the  Trae  ti 
Ijife,  1647. — 5.  The  Dead  Saint  speaking  to  Saints  and  Sinners,  16&T. 
— ^.  A  Word  in  Season  to  a  Sinking  Kingdom. — 7.  The  Weddiq^ 
Garment, 


John  Murcot,  A.  B. — ^This  very  pious  man  was  bomjA 
Wanvick,  in  the  year  1625^  and  educated  in  Merton  college, 
Oxford,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Ralph  Button.  Oxfati 
being  garrisoned  by  the  king's  forces,  he,  to  avoid  beariiu 
arms,  ned  from  the  place  in  disguise,  and  went  to  live  wim 
Mr.  John  Ley,  vicar  of  Great  Bud  worth  in  Cheshire,  where 
he  continued  several  years  in  close  application  to  his  studies. 
Upon  his  entrance  on  the  work  of  the  ministry,  he  was 
ordained  according  to  the  presbyterian  form  at  Manche^t^, 
and  settled  first  at  Astbury  in  Cheshire;  afterwards,  he 
•removed  to  Eastham,  and,  upon  the  death  of  Mr.  llalph 
Marsden,  to  West  Kirby,  both  in  the  same  county.  In  each 
of  these  situations  he  was  much  beloved,  and  his  labours 
were  rendered  particularly  useful.  About  the  time  of  his  last 
removal,  he  married  Mr.  Marsden's  daughter.  The  Oxforfi 
historian  says,  that  he  at  last  removed  to  Chester;  where,  by 

•  Calamj»s  Faneral  Sermon  for  Dr.  Bolton.— Clark's  Lifts,  part  i. 
p.  4S-47. 


MURCOT. 

liis  damage,  (meuuB^  imdodbtedljyliii  CXI 
he  became  ridicHtoms  to  tie  KuJberf.*  It  does  not  apfw^ 
however,  that  he  ever  settled  at  Chester.  For  the  vmcr  id 
his  life,  who  is  very  paiticiilar  in  speciirii^  bis  vanou 
removals,  gives  no  intimatioD  of  the  kiiid. 

Though  he  never  settled  in  that  dtr,  vet,  after  labouriiig 
aome  time  at  Kirbj,  and  finding  himself  unable  to  prcmote 
church  discipline  according  to  his  wishes,  he  went  to  Ireland 
and  settled  in  the  city  of  Dublin.  He  was  there  chosen  one 
of  the  preachers  in  ordinary  to  the  l(Md  deputy  and  council^ 
and  was  greatly  admired  and  followed.  In  this  sitnatkMi  he 
was  in  labours  more  abundant  than  most  of  his  brethieii,  and 
die  Lord  sufiered  him  not  to  labour  in  vain.  He  was  instrv- 
mental  in  the  conversion  of  many  sinners,  and  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  many  saints.  The  Lord,  who  had  prepared  hina 
for  this  service,  blessed  his  endeavours  in  umniug  multi- 
tudes of  souls  to  Christ.  In  matters  of  worship  and  ceremo- 
nies, he  was  zealous  in  opposing  the  iuventions  and 
impositions  of  men,  closely  adhering  m  all  things  to  die  word 
of  God.  A  public  disputation  was  held  at  Cork,  May  26, 
1652,  between  the  psdobaptists  and  the  antipaedobaptists, in 
which  Dr.  Harding,  Dr.  W  orth,  aud  Mr.  Murcot,  were  par* 
ticularly  engaged,  though  we  have  no  further  account  of  it.t 

During  his  last  sickness  his  mind  was  most  serene  and 
happy.  Apprehending  that  the  hour  of  his  departure  was  at 
hand,  he  said  to  his  friends,  ''  I  must  now  tell  you  I  am  not 
long  for  this  world ;"  and,  raising  himself  up,  he  ciied,  "  Lord^ 
remember  me  in  this  trying  hour."  To  his  affectionate  wife 
he  said,  "  Haste,  haste,  love,  for  my  time  is  very  short.  I 
shall  not  reach  midnight.  These  raptures  tell  me  I  must 
quickly  be  gone."  His  sister,  asking  him  whether  he  was  in 
charity  with  all  the  Lord's  people,  though  in  certain  things 
they  differed  from  him ;  '^  Yes,"  said  he,  stretching  forth  his 
arms ;  and  with  a  loud  voice  added, ''  Lord  Jesus,  draw  me 
up  to  *hyself ;"  and  breathed  his  sotil  into  the  hands  of  his 
dear  Redeemer,  December  3,  1654,  aged  twenty-nine  years. 
His  remams  were  interred  with  great  funeral  solemnity  in 
St.  Mary's  chapel,  Dublin;  when  the  lord  deputv^  the 
coimcil,  and  the  mayor  and  aldermen  of  the  city  followed, 
with  great  laibentation,  his  body  to  the  grave.t 

Though  Wood,  with  most  palpable  untruth,  denominates 
him  "  a  forward',  prating,  aad  pragmatical  precisian,  who 

*  Wood*8  Athene  Ozon.  ▼ol.  ii.  p.  112. 

f  Crosby's  Baptists,  vol.  iii.  p.  S18. 

t  Ifr.  Mnrcot's  Life  prefixed  to  tail  Works.    Edit.  1057. 

▼OL.  III.  g 


tS6  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

cave  .up  the  gbost  very  unmllingb/;*'*  it  appears  from  hk 
ufe,  ^  that  he  w^s  an  eminently  humble^. hmy,'  i|nd  happy 
man;  and  a  most  zealous,  laborious,  and  usefid  preacher. 
*  Granger  says,  "  he  was  an  admired  preacher,  a  man  ^  great 
industry  in  his  profession,  and  of  uncommon  stric^ss^q^ 
life/'t  Mr.  Murcot's  works,  consisting  of  various  ..articles, 
were,  published  at  different  times;  but  were  afterw^^ 
collected  and  published  with  his  life  prefixed,  in  one  vpluoif 
quarto,  1657- 

Joshua  Hoy  lb,  D.  D. — This  learned  divine  was  bom 
at  Sawerby,  near  Halifax,  Yorkshire,  and  educated  in 
Magdalen  college,  Oxford.  Afterwards,  being  invited  |Dio 
Ireland,  he  became  fellow  of  Trinity  college,  Dublin,  took 
his  degrees  in  divinity,  and  was  chosen  divinity  professor  m 
that  university.  In  his  daily  lectures  he  expounded  die 
whole  Bible,  seldom  taking  more  than  one  verse  at  a  tnao^ 
which  lasted  about  fifteen  years ;  and  in  about  ten  years  mon 
he  went  through  greatest  part  of  the  sacred  volume  a  second 
time.  In  the  year  1634  he  sat  in  the  convocation,  held  at 
Dublin.  But,  upon  the  commencement  of  the  rebeUioB  in 
Ireland,  in  ljS41,  he  fled  i^rom  the  terrible  effusion  of  blocMl^ 
returned  to  Ei^land,  and  became  vicar  of  Stepney,  near  Lon- 
don ;  but,  according  to  Wood,  he  being  too  scholastical,  ^U 
not  please  the  parishionera.^  In  the  year  1643  he  was 
appointed  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  abd  constandy 
attended.  He  was  witness  against  Archbishop  Laud  at  hii 
trial,,  when  he  attested  that  the  archbishop  had  cotrupted  the 
university  of  Dublin,  by  the  arbitrary  mtroduction  of  the 
errors  of  popery  and  arminianism.||  In  the  year  1645  he 
was  elected  one  of  the  committee  of  accommodation ;  «od  id 
'  1648  he  became  master  of  University  college,  Oxford,^  and 
king's  professor  of  divinity  in  that  university.  In  the  office 
of  professor  he  has  incurred  the  severe  animadversioa  of 

♦  Wood^s  Athens  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  1 13. 

f  Granger's  Biog.  Hist.  toI.  iii.  p.  49. 

(  Acrordiog  to  the  computation  of  the  popish  prietts  themeWcf,.  wIm 
were  actively  employed  in  this  rebellion,  upwards  of  one  hundred  mndjlf^ 
four  thousand  protestantM  were  massucred  in  Irelaod  in  the  space  of  'm  .few 
Booths:  but,  during  the  continuance  of  the  rebellion,  according  tofQirj. 
Temple,  there  were  above  three  hundred  thousand  cruelly  mnrdered  UI'mH 
blood,  or  ruined  in  some  other  way.  Cardinal  Richelieo  was  deepljr  toa* 
cerned  in,this  massacre ;  and,  according  to  Rapin,  King  Charl^  I.  **'  spread 
abroad  that  the  catholics  had  his  authority  for  what  they  did.**^— ifiW.  tf 
England,  vol.  ii.  p.  386. 

^  AtbensB  Ozon.  vol.  ii.  p.  113. 

I  Pryane  s  Gaat.  Doome,  p.  178,  359. 


vSei 


HOTLE--FERNE.  9K 

.  Dr.  WalkjfCf •    This  abusive  writer  says  diat  he  opened  hi^ 

Isctiirea  bj  a  speech  void  of  all  spirit  and.  learning ;  ai^d  tha^ 

Us  lectures  had  neither  method  nor  argument  in  diem,  and 

dwi^j^  hini  to  be  ignorant  even  of  the  most  common  rides  o^ 

logjo;*     Wood  however  styles  him  "  a  person  of  great  reading 

and  fomiory,  much  devoted  to  study,  profound  in  the  feculty 

of  div^utj,  a  constant  preacher,  and  a  noted  puritan;"  and 

'^  be  was  highly  respected  by  the  famous  Archbishop 

Uier/'t     In  vindication  of  this  learned' prelate,  he  wrota 

^  A  R^ynder  to  Will  Malone  Jesuit  his  Reply  concerning 

the^Retd  Presence,''  1641.     Dr.  Hoyle  was  a  member  of 

great  hpnour  and  esteem  in  the  assembly  of  divines,  as  master 

of  all.i&e.anqent  leamine  of  Greek  and  Latin  fathers^ and 

mie,  who  ragned  in  his  chair  and  in  the  pulpit.}    He  died 

Xkefi^q^ber  6,  1654,  and  his  remains  were  interred  in  the  olcl 

d|UM|>bidpiq;ing  to    University  college.     His  successors 

B|.,9K.  offices  of  master  and  professor  were  Mr.  Francis 

Johnson  and  Dr.  John  Conant,  both  silenced  nonconformists 

b  1662^ 

Andbew  Peene,  A.m. — ^This  worthy  minister  was 
bcMn  in  the  year  1596,  and  afterwards  chosen  fellow  of 
Katfaerine-hall,  Cambridge,  where  he  probably  received  his 
education.  Having  finished  his  studies  at  the  university,  he 
became  rector  of  Wilby  in  Northamptonshire,  where  he  con- 
tinued a  laborious,  faithful^  and  successful  preacher  twenty- 
seven  years.  One  of  his  name  and  degree  was  of  Peter<> 
house,  and  elected  master  of  the  Charter-house  in  I6l4;|| 
and  die  year  following  he  became  vicar  of  Southminster  or  -^ 
Sudminster  in  Essex.  But  this  could  not  be  the  same  person.f 
In  the  ^ear  1643  Mr.  Perne  was  chosen  one  of  the  assembly 
of  divines,  and  constantly  attended  during  the  whole  session. 
He  often  preached  before  the  parliament,  and  several  of  his  . 
sermons  were  published ;  one  of  which  is  entitled,  "  Gospel 
Courage,  or  a  Christian  Resolution  for  God  and  his  Truth, 
in  a  Sermon  preached  before  the  Honourable  House  of 
Commons,  at  Margaret^s,  Westminster,  at  a  Publique  Past, 
ft^  21  of  May,  1643"— 1643.  Being  called  up  to  London, 
hf  sained  a  high  reputation,  and  was  offered  considerable 

•  Walker's  Attempt,  part  i.  p.  141. 

f  Wood's  Athens,  vol.  ii.  p.  113. 

1  Calamy's  Account,  vol.  ii.  p*  472. 

\  Palmer's  Nnncon.  Mem.  vol.  t.  p.  229,  267,  4SS. 

I  NicboU's  Hist,  of  Leicestershire,  vol.  ii.  p.  369. 

f  Newcoort't  Repcrt.  Ecrl.  vol.  ii.  p.  537. 


9Sk  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

preferments ;  but  he  refiued  them  all,  resolving  to  retinrn  to 
his  charge  at  Wilby.  In  this  place,  by  his  awakemng  sermofi^ 
and  exemplary  life  and  conversation,  a  most  signal  and  happy 
reformation  was  effected ;  and  his  people  revered  and  loved 
lum  as  a  father.  *'  He  was  full  of  spiritual'  warmth'/'  says 
Mr.  Ainsworth, ''  filled  vrith  an  holy  indignation  asaiint  sin, 
active  in  his  work,  and  never  more  in  his  element  ttian  wheA 
he  ¥ras  in  the  pulpit."  As  his  life  was  holy,  so  his  death 
was  happy.  He  blessed  God  that  he  was  not  afraid  to  die ; 
my,  he  earnestly  desired  to  be  gone ;  and  often  cried  out, 
durinff  his  last  sickness,  *'  When  will  that  hour  come  i  One 
assault  more,  and  this  earthen  vessel  will  be  broken,  and  I 
shall  be  with  God.'**  He  died  December  13,  1654,  9%ei 
sixty  years.  Mr.  Samuel  Ainswordi,  one  of  die  silenced 
nonconformists,  preached  and  published  his  funeral  sennoD^ 
His  remains  were  interred  in  the  chancel  of  Wilby  chordi ; 
where,  at  the  foot  of  the  altar,  is  the  following  monumeotri. 
inscription  erected  to  his  memory  :f 

Here  lietb 

iDtcrred  Mr.  Andrew  Pernr, 

a  faitbfiil  servant  of  Jesus  Christ, 

a  zealous  owner  ever  of  God's  cause 

in  perilous  times, 

a  powerfal  and  successfu)  preacher 

of  the  gospel, 

a  gpreat  blessing  to  this  town 

and  country, 

where  he  lived  twent^*seven  years. 

He  departed  December  13, 

1664. 

Albxander  Gross,  B.  D. — ^This  pious  man  was  bom ia 
Devonshire,  and  educated  first  in  Caius  college,  Camhricbe, 
then  in  Exeter  college,  Oxford,  where  he  was  admitted  tbUi« 
reading  of  the  sentences.    Entering  upon  the  work'df  the 
ministry,  he  became  preacher  at  Plympton,  in  his  own  coun^« 
afterwards  rector  of  Bridford,  near  Exeter,  aud  at  tfen^ 
▼icar  of  Ashburton,  in  his  own  county ;  at  each  of  l^hich 
'places  he  was  much  followed,  .especially  by  persons  of 
aerious  piety.     He  was  a  zealous  puritan,  aiid,  upon  the 
conmiencement  of  the  civil  wars,  he  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
parliament.^     He  was  a  man  of  a  strong  mendory,  a  aoond 
judgment,  and  great  integrity^  abhorring  all  kinds  of  auper- 

♦  Neal's  Puritans,  vol.  iv.  p.  128. 

+  Brid^8*s  Hist,  of  NortbamptoDshire,  vol.  i.  p.  155. 

J  Wood'i  Atbeos  Oxoo.  vol.  ii.  p.  lOJ. 


GROSS— 6RAILE. 

■ 

athion.  He  was  a  judicious,  faithful,  laborious,  and  constaal 
preacher,  and  deeply  versed  in  a  knowledge  of  die  scripturea, 
and  furnished  with  an  excellent  gift  in  prayer.  His  public 
mimstry-  was  accompanied  widi  the  rich  blessing  of  God, 
and  made  abundandy  usdful  in  the  conversion  of  souls.  Hit 
holy  life  was  an  excellent  practical  comment  upon  his 
holy  doctrine.  While  he  urged  the  necessity  of  holiness 
ippon  others,  he  practised  holiness  himself.  He  was  a 
burning  and  shining  light.  In  a  word,  be  spent  his  strenffth, 
his  life,  his  all,  for  die  honour  of  God  and  the  good  of  soids.* 
He  died  in  a  good  old  age,  in  the  year  1654. 

■ 

His  Works. — 1.  Sweet  and  Soal-persuading  IndacemeDts  leading 
unto  Christ,  1632. — 2,  The  Happiness  of  enjoying  and  making  a 
trac  and  speedy  use  of  Christ,  1640. — 3.  Severml  Sermons,  1640.— 
4.  The  Mystery  of  Self-denial;  or,  the  Cessation  of  Man's  living  to 
Himself,  1642.— 5.  Man's  Misery  without  Christ,  1642.-<6.  The  Waj 
to  a  Blessed  Life,  1643.— This  is  sometimes  entitled,  '*  The  Fiery 
Pillar."— 7.  Buddings  and  Blossomings  of  Old  Thiths,  1656.-6.  Hm 
Anatomy  of  the  Heart. — 9.  Of  Sacred  Things. 


John  Gratle,  A.  M.— This  worthy  minister  was  bora  in 
Gloucestershire,  in  the  year  l6l4,  and  educated  in  Magdalen 
college,  Oxford.  Upon  his  leaving  the  university,  he  became 
a  famous  puritanical  preacher;  and,  about  the  year  1645^ 
succeeded  Mr.  George  Holmes  as  master  of  the  free-school 
at  Guildford  in  Surrey.  Towards  the  close  of  this  year,  he 
married  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Heni^  Scudder ;  and,  the  year 
following,  he  lived  at  Collin^born-Dukes  in  Wiltshire,  where 
he  was  most  probably  exercised  in  the  ministerial  function. 
Afterwards  he  became  rector  of  Tidworth  in  Hampshire, 
where  he  was  much  followed  by  the  precise  and  godty  parijf, 
as  they  are  contemptuously  called.  Wood  says  '^  he  Mras  a 
presbyterian,  but  tinged  with  arminiaiiism.''f  Whether  he 
was  or  was  not  tinged  with  arminianism,  we  shall  not  under- 
take to  determine ;  but  in  his  work  entitled  "  A  modest 
Vindication  of  the  Doctrine  of  Conditions  in  the  Covenant 
of  Grace,  and  the  Defenders  thereof,  from  the  Aspersions 
of  Arminianism  and  Popenr,*'  1655,  he  certainly  labours 
much  to  repel  the  charge.  He  was  a  man  of  g^at  learnings 
humility,  integrity,  and  christian  circumspection ;  and  a  pious, 
faidi&l,  and  laborious  minister  of  Christ,  beipff  ever  opposed 
to  the  use  of  superstitious  ceremonies.    He  hved  mucb 

•  Grow*8  Blossomings  of  Old  Truthf,  Prcf. 
f  Wood's  AtheiUi  Ozon.  yoU  il.  p.  lOft* 


iStf  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANTS. 

rfeipectedy  and  died  greatly  lamented.*  During  his  last  sick- 
oesSy  when  afflicted  with  extreme  pain,  he  discovered  becom- 
ing submission  to  the  will  of  God.  He  said,  ''  I  could  be 
obntented,  if  the  Lord  see  it  good,  to  abide  a  while  in  this 
c6i|dition,  amongst  these  poor  people.  It  may  be,  I  shall  do 
more  good  amongst  them,  ;n  my  sickness,  than  they  have 
recmed  firom  all  my  labours  during  the  time  of  my  health.*'f 
He  died  in  the  year  1654,  dnd  the  fortieth  of  his  age.  His 
remains  were  interred  in  Tjdworth  church,  when  Dr.  Cham- 
bers preached  his  funeral  sermon  to  a  very  numerous v^on* 
gregation.  This  sermon  was  afterwards  published,  fronai 
which  part  of  the  above  account  is  collected. 


Richard  Vines,  A.  M. — This  learned  and  excellent, 
divine  was  bom  at  Biason  in  Leicestershire,  about  the  year 
1600,  and  educated  in  Magdalen  college,  Cambridge.  From 
the  university  he  wa3  chosen  schoolmaster  at  Hinckley  in  his 
native  county ;  and  afterwards,  on  the  death  of  Mr.  James 
Cranford,  he  obtained  a  presentation  to  the  rectory  of  Wed- 
diiigton  in  Warwickshire.  Here  he  was  a  zealous  and  faithful 
labourer  in  the  vineyard  of  Christ.  His  ministry  was  verjp 
much  foUowed ;  and  his  endeavours  were  made  a  great 
blessing  to  (he  people.  He  also  preached  at  Caldecot,  a 
place  near  Weddmgton,  and,  at  the  death  of  the  incumbent 
was  presented  to  the  living.  With  great  care  and  diligence, 
be  served  both  parishes,  the  profits  of  which  amounted  only 
to  eighty  pounds  a.  year.  He  also  delivered  a  lecture  at 
Nuneaton  in  the  same  county,  to  which  multitudes  resorted. 
Mr.  Evans,  afterwards  ejected  in  166^,  succeeded  him  in  bis. 
two  livings,  who,  it  is  said,  found  that  side  of  tlie  country,  well 
stocked  with  religious  knowledge  and  solid  christians,  pror 
duced  by  the  preaching  of  many  excellent  men,  but  especiaDy 
his  wordiy  predecessor.^ 

On  the  breaking  out  of  the  civil  war,  Mr.  Vines  was  driven 
fW>m  his  flock,  and  forced  to  take  shelter  in  Coventry.  Indeed, 
there  were  about  thirty  worthy  ministers  in  that  city,  who, 
driven  from  their  flocks,  fled  thither  for  safety  from  the  plunder 
of  soldiers  and  popular  fury,  though  they  never  meddled  in 
the  wars.^  The  heavy  judgments  of  God  being  now  inflicted 
upon  the  nation,  these  divines  set. up  a  morning  lecturo  in 

*  Chambers's  Faneral  Sermon  for  Mr.  Graile. 

f  Grace's  Doct.  of  Cooditioos,  Pre£. 

t  Calaroy's  Account,  vol.  n.  p.  744,745.  , 

(  Sylvester's  Life  of  Baxter,  part  i.  p.  44. 


VINES.  .     SSI 

• 

diat  city,  in  which  Mr.  Vines  was  frequently  engaged,  aft  well 
as  on  the  Lord's  day. 

'In  the  year  1643,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  assembly  of 
divinesy  and  he  constantly  attended  during  the  session.  Here 
his  excellent  abilities  and  great  moderation  were  called  forth 
into  daily  exercise ;  and  how  much  good  he  did,  in  the  matter 
of  church  government^  says  our  author,  may  be  safely  con- 
cealed, but  can  scarcely  be  expressed  without  giving  offence 
to  some.*  In  1644,  he  was  appointed  by  the  parliament  one 
of  the  assistant  divines  at  tne  treaty  of  Uxbiidge.  llie 
Oxford  historian,  speak'mg  of  Dr.  Hammond,  one  of  the 
king's  party,  on  this  occasion,  thus  triumphantly  observes : 
"  It  being  his  lot  to  dispute  with  Richard  Vines,  a  presby- 
terian  minister,  who  attended  the  commissioners  appointed  by 
parliament,  he  did,  vnth  ease  and  perfect  clearness,  disperse 
all  the  sophisms  that  he  brought  against  him."t  How  ht 
this  statement  is  correct,  we  are  unable  to  say.  Whitlocke,  a 
writer  fkr  more  correct  and  impartial,  however,  speaking  of 
Ais  treaty,  says,  '^  That  while  Dr.  Steward  and  Dr.  Sheklen 
argi!ied  very  positively y  that  the  government  by  bishops  was 
Jure  Divtno;  Mr.  Vines  and  Mr.  Henderson  arguea  as 
positively,  but  more  -moderateluy  to  the  contrary,  and  that 
Ae  government  of  the  church  by  presbyteries  vras'  Jure 

Divino^t 

'  Mr.  Vines  vms  chosen  a  member  of  the  committee  of 

accommc^dation,  and  was  chairman  at  their  meetings.}  On 
the  subject  of  a  general  accommodation  of  all  parties,  he 
wr6te  an  excellent  letter  to  Mr.  Baxter,  discovering  his  mild 
and  accommodating  8pirit.|  He  was,  at  the  same  time, 
appointed  master  of  Pembroke-hall,  Cambridge,  by  the  Earl 
of  Manchester,  and,  it  is  swd,  few  persons  were  better  qua- 
lified for  the  situation.  Here  he  promoted  true  religion  and 
sound  literature  to  the  utmost  of  his  power,  and  restored  the 
college  to  a  very  flourishing  state,  till,  m  the  year  1649;  he  was 
turned  out  for  refusing  the  engagement.^  In  the  year  1645, 
he  was  one  of  the  committee  of  learned  divines  appointed  by 
the  assembly  to  prepare  the  Confession  of  Faith.**  In  1648 
he  was  appointed,  by  order  of  the  parliament,  one  of  the 
assistant  divines  at  the  treaty  of  the  Isle  of  Wight;  on  which 

•  Clark*«  Lives,  last  yoI.  part  i.  p.  48. 

+  Wood*t  Athene  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  159. 

%  Whitlucke's  Mem.  p.  119,  123,  126.  S  ^V^^  of  Accom.  p.  S« 

I  Sylvester's  Baxter,  part  ii.  p»  147.  I  Ibid,  part  i.  p.  64, 

«-•  Neari  Paritani,  vol.  iii.  p.  350. 


LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS, 

occasion  he  was  much  applauded  by  his  own  party,  pardcu^' 
larly  for  proving  the  suniciency  of  presbyterian  ordination. 
Ministers,  he  observed,  who  had  been  ordained  by  the  pres- 
byterian churches  in  France  and  the  Low  Countries,  wem 
formerly  owned  and  acknowledged,  to  all  intents  and  pur- 
poses, by  our  bishops,  as  lawfully  ordained,  both  to  preach 
and  admiinister  the  sacraments.*  During  the  treaty,  he  had 
much  converse  and  some  disputation  with  the  king.t  His 
majesty  highly  valued  him  for  his  ingenuity,  aud  seldom  spoke 
to  nim  without  touching  his  hat,  which  Mr.  Vines  returned 
with  most  respectful  language  and  gestures 4 

Dr.  Grey,  m  his  answer  to  Mr.  Neal,  relates,  that  when 
Mr.  Vines  returned  from  this  treaty,  he  addressed  one  Bfr. 
Walden,  saying,  *^  Brother,  how  hath  tliis  nation  been  fooled ! 
We  have  been  told  that  our  king  is  a  child  and  ^Jool;  but  if 
I  understand  any  thing  by  my  converse  with  him,  which  I  have 
bad  with  great  liberty,  he  is  as  much  of  a  christian  prince  as 
ever  I  read  or  heard  of,  since  our  Saviour's  time.  He  is  a^ 
very  precious  prince,  and  is  able  of  himself  to  argue  vidth  the 
ablest  divines  we  have.  And,  among  all  the  king's  of  Israel 
and  'Judah,  there  was  none  like  him."  This  account  is  said 
to  have  been  given  about  the  year  1675,  by  one  Nathaniel. 
Gilbert  of  Coventry,  in  an  information  subscribed  by  bis  own 
hand,  having  himself  heard  Mr.  Vines.  Dr.  Grey  tran-r 
scribed  it  from  an  attested  copy  of  the  original,  which  original 
was  in  possession  of  his  fadier,  to  whose  grandmother  the 
above  Gilbert  was  half  brother !  $ 

When  sentence  of  death  was  pronounced  upon  the  king, 
Mr.  Vines,  and  several  of  his  brethren,  presented  their  duty  to. 
his  majesty,  with  their  humble  desires  to  pray  with  him,  and 
perform  other  serviceable  offices,  if  he  would  be  pleased  to 
accept  them.  The  king  returned  them  thanks  for  their  kind 
offers,  but  declined  their  services.||  About  the  year  1653» 
Mr.  Vines  was  appointed,  by  order  of  the  parliament,  one  of 
the  divines  to  draw  up  the  Fundamentals,  to  be  presented  to 
the  faouse.i 

When  Mr.  Vines  first  went  up  to  London,  he  was  chosen 
minister  of  St.  Clement's  Danes,  where  many  persons  of 
quality  were  his  constant  hearers.  After  some  time,  by  the 
solicitation  of  the  Earl  of  £ssex,'  he  resigned  the  place  and 

«  Poller's  Cborch  Hist.  b.  xi.  p.  215. 

f  Whiilocke*8  Mem.  p.  S36,  339.  %  FiOler^  Woitbies,  pt.  \u  p.  184. 

^  Grey's  ExaminatinD,  voL  i.  p.  414. 

I  Wood's  Atbenn  OiLon.  vol.  ii.  p.  fifiS. 

I  Sylvester's  Baiter,  part  ii.  p.  197. 


VINES.  SSS 

Tcmoved  to  Walton  in  Hertfordshire.  He  afterwards  accepted 
an  invitation  to  Su  Lawrence  Jewry,  London;  where  his 
exc^ellent  talents  were  still  employed  in  promoting  the 
Redeemer's  glory,  and  the  salvation  of  his  people,  jianj 
flocked  to  his  ministry,  and  his  labours  were  made  a  blessing 
to  their  souls.  While  pastor  of  St.  Lawrence,  he  was  chosen 
one  of  the  weekly  lecturers  at  St  Michaers,  ComhiU,  and  was 
often  called  to  preach  before  the  parliament.  It  is  but  just, 
however,  to  observe,  that  our  divine,  with  several  of  his 
brethren,  preached  too  warmly  against  the  baptbts.*  On  the 
death  of  the  Earl  of  Essex,  die  parliament  appointed  a 
public  funeral  for  him,  which  was  performed  with  great 
solemnity  in  St.  Peter^s  chur/ch,  Westminster,  when  Mr.  Vines 
preached  his  funeral  sermon  to  a  very  great  audience,  com- 
posed of  persons  of  very  high  distinction.t 

After  a  laborious  and  useful  life,  Mr.  Vnies,  at  length, 
became  the  subject  of  painful  bodily  affliction.  Thougii 
afflicted  with  racking  pam  in  his  head,  which  nearly  took 
away  his  sight,  yet  he  would  not  desist  from  his  public 
labours.  He  was  resolved  to  spend  and  be  spent  in  the  work 
of  the  Lord.  The  day  before  he  died,  he  preached  and 
administered  the  Lord's  supper ;  and  about  ten  o'clock  the 
same  evening  he  was  taken  with  bleeding  at  the  iKMe,  and 
died  betwixt  two  and  three  next  morning,  aged  fijfty-five 
years.  His  remains  were  interred,  with  great  lamentation,  ia 
the  church  of  St.  Lawrence  Jewry,  February  7,  l65o ;  whea 
Dr.  Thomas  Jacombe  preached  his  funeral  sermon,  civxng  the 
following  high  commendations  of  his  character : — He  was  a 
burning  and  shining  light  in  his  day,  and  po>4sessed  vefj 
excellent  parts,  even  taller  by  the  head  than  most  of  hm 

•  Nears  Paritmns,  yoI.  iii.  p.  130. 

f  Robert,  Earl  Qf  Enez,  was  oalj  mb  of  the  ■■fortsaMe  faravtec  mt 
Qaeen  Elizabeth,  and  inherited  nach  of  hi«  father  «  p«p«larirj.  He  «ai  a 
DoblemaD  of  verj  aprighf  iDCeatioBi.  Owiayr  to  ih^  cnrnpiminm  o^  Us 
■atore,  and  the  tiacerity  of  hb  zeal  fvr  the  cMemcialt  of  r^ii^jtm^  kt 
the  wed  jrreat  kiadnev  to  the  penecaied  p«riiaa«.  He  wai  me  of  (lM«t 
few  Doblrnieo  in  parliaaent  who  dared  to  auaek  the  **  fra*  ■mi»t^r  cao 

Crogative.^'  Bat  he  never  appearvd  to  lo  gvfsa  an  adv-innicr  mM  'he 
d  of  an  army.  He  acqnired  a  gr^^t  rt  ptarinn  an  a  loMa^  s  a  a*«4  ^ 
merit  that  was  detpiied  b?  JaaM^  f.  and  ovrrioolled  hj  Chtkr^^.  M« 
conraj^e  was  i^reat,  aod  hi«  hooonr  oas  iuM^tirhte ;  !Mf  h^  r^ih^f  wa.'^ 
than  soaght  for  opportnaiiiet  for  ighrinc;  ar.«(  ka^^  \^i»r  iMw  *^  f*^ 
than  improre  a  TiciorT.  When  he  loofc  the  rtmmemit  4f  «»-*  pm^U^m^t^t 
army,  he  was  better  q'aaliird  than  any  naa  m  rh^  k*»r4*vm  f^f  fA^  /*ww  j 


bat  he  is  «aid  to  teve  been  Moa  eriipvpd  b?  \  a-^w  r*r*  *f  iouf.^i  »**, 
if  BOt  his  snperiors  in  the  an  of  war.  went  far  bryowd  hi«  m  •#•#*  *«4 
enterprise.  He  died  S#>preBber  14,  l4-*«;  emA  wm  deaib  IbmC  a  SiM«4a^ 
for  the  adraarement  of  CromwHI.— •iof-  Mritem,  m4»  *'  F-  ^*  '^' 
Sdit.  ni9.'~Qrmgm'9  BUg.  HiU.  voL  u  f.  SJ3:  i«-  tf** 


SM  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

brethren.  He  was  mighty  in  the  scriptures,  and  an  intw- 
prater  one  of  a  diousand.  He  was  an  accomplished  scholar, 
a  perfect  master  of  the  Greek,  an  excellent  philolo^st,  and 
an  admirable  orator.  He  was  a  ready  and  close  disputant, 
and  approved  himself,  to  the  admiration  of  many,  in  the 
treaties  of  Uxbridge  and  the  Isle  of  Wight.  He  was  a 
tolid,  judicious,  and  orthodox  divine,  mighty  in  points  of 
controversy,  giving  a  death-wound  tb  error.  His  spiritual 
and  powerftiT  ministry  was  principally  upon  the  doctrine  of 
justification,  debasing  man  and  exalting  the  Saviour.  He 
wbhed  to  die  praying  or  preaching.  That  which  wotdd  have 
made  some  keep  their  beds,  did  not  keep  him  out  of  die 
pulpit:  and  as  he  preached,  so  he  lived  and  died.  He  was 
of  an  heroical  and  undaunted  spirit ;  and,  like  Luther,  notbing 
would  hinder  him  from  a  courageous  and  conscientious  dis- 
-  charge  of  his  duty.*  He  was  accounted  ^'  the  very  prince  of ' 
preachers,  a  thorough  Calvinist,  and  a  bold,  honest  man,  void 
of  pride  and  flattery.^f  FuUer  styles  him  ^*  sm  excellent 
]|^acher,  and  the  very  champion  of  the  assembly;"  and 
adds,  ^*  that  he  was  constant  to  his  principles,  yet  moderate 
and  charitable  towards  those  who  dinered  from  him.'^t  Wood 
says  nothing  of  him,  only  denominates  him  a  zealous  puritan.^ 

Dr.  Grey  insinuates  a  reflection  on  the  simplicity  and 
mtegrity  of  Mr.  Vines,  by  a  story  of  his  praying  m  the 
morning  of  an  Easter  Sunday,  before  the  Marquis  of  Hert- 
ford, for  the  king's  restoration  to  hi&  throne  and  regal  AAtsl 
but,  in  the  afternoon,  when  the  Marquis  was  absent,  and  Liont  « 
Fairfax  come  to  church,  he  prayed  in  stulo  parlianientario, 
that  God  would  turn  the  heart  of  the  king,  and  give  him 
|;race  to  repent  of  his  grievous  sins,  especially  all  the  blood 
he  had  shed  in  those  civil,  uncivil  wars.  On  this  it  was 
observed,  that  Mr.  Vines  was  much  more  altered  between  the 
forenoon  and  afternoon,  tlian  the  difference  between  an 
English  marquis  and  an  Irish  baron^  The  reader,  however, 
will  easily  perceive,  that  each  of  these  prayers  might  have 
bjBen  very  consistently  offered  up  by  the  same  person. 

When  Mr.  Vines  was  schoolmaster  at  Hinckley,  he  had  for 
one  of  his  pupils  Mr.  John  Cleiveland,  a  noted  royalist  and 
popularpoet  in  the  reign  of  Charles  L,  who,  it  is  said,  "  owed 
the  heavmg  of  his  natural  fancy,  by  the  choicest  elegancies  in 

^  Jacombp'a  Fan.  Ser.  for  Mr.  Vioet. 

f  Clark*«  Lives,  part  i.  p.  48—51. 

t  F«llcr*i  Worthies,  pan  ii.  p.  184,  ISS. 

^  AtbcniB  Oxoo.  fol.  i.  p.  801. 

I  Grejr*!  Ezaminatioo,  toI.  iii.  p.  115,  176.. 

1    * 


a.  ROBINSON.  83S 

Greek  and  Latiiiy  to  Mr.  Vbes."* — ^A  few  days  before  the 
death  of  our  pious  dirine,  as  he  was  preaching  at  St.  Gregoiya 
church,  a  riide  fellow  cried  aloud  to  him,  **  Lift  up  your 
voice,  for  I  cannot  hear  you:"  to  whom  Mr.  Vines  replie<^ 
'<  Lift  up  your  eais,  for  I  can  speak  no  iouder."f 

His  Works.— 1.  A  Treatise  on  the  Sacrament,  1667.— 2.  Chriil 
tiie  Christiau*8  only  Gain,  1661,-r-3.  God's  Drawing  and  .^laals 
Cominjc  to  Christ,  1662.— 4.  The  Saint's  Nearness  to  God,  1062. — 
6.  Funeral  Sermon  for  the  Earl  of  Essex. — 6.  Funeral  Sermon  for 
Mr.  William  Stronfc- — 7.  Caleb's  Integrity  in  following  the  Lord  fully, 
a  Sermon  before  the  Honourable  Honne  of  Commons,  at  tlielr  lat« 
solemn  Fast,  Not.  30, 1642.— 8.  The  Posture  of  David's  Spirit,  wbea 
he  was  in  a  Doubtful  Condition,  a  Sermon  before  the  Commons,  1644. 
— 9., The  Happiness  of  Israel,. a  Sermon  before  both  Houses,  1640i.—» 
He  was  aathor  of  some  other  Sermons. 


Hugh  Ro^Inson^  D.  D. — This  learned  person  was  borb 
in  St.  Mary's  parish,  Anglesea,  and  educated  first  at  Wick- 
ham  school,  then  at  New  College,  (!>xford,  where  he  took 
his  degrees  in  arts,  and  was  admitted  perpetual  fellowi  After 
finishing  his  studies  at  the  university,  he  was  chosen  principal 
master  of  Winchester  school;  and,  taking  his  degrees  in 
lUvinity,  he  became  archdeacon  of  Wiuton,  canon  of  Wellsp 
and  archdeacon  of  Gloucester.  In  the  beginning  of  the 
civil  war  he  lost  all  his  preferment,  joined  himself  to  the 
puritans,  espoused  the  cause  of  the  parliament,  took  die 
covenant,  and  afterwards  became  rector  of  Hinton,  near 
Winchester.  He  was  an  excellent  linguist,  an  able  divine, 
and  very  well  skilled  in  ancient  history.)  He  died  March  30« 
1655;  and  his  remains  were  interred  in  the  chancel  of 
St.  Giles's  in  the  Fields,  London. 

KDs  WoRRs.^1.  Pieces,  written  for  the  Use  of  the  ChOdren  of 
Winchester  School^  in  Latin  and  English,  1616.— 2.  Grammaticalia 
qosedam,  in  Latin  and  En^cUsh,  1616.— 3.  Antiquao  Histori»  Synopsii, 
1616.— 4.  The  Latin  Phrases  of  Winchester  School,  16&i.— 
6.  Annaliuro  Mundi  Universaliom,  1677, — ^Ue  alsb  wrote  a  pieca  in 
Vindication  of  the  Covenant 


•  Biojr.  Britan.  yoI.  iii.  p.  688.    Edit.  1778. 
t  Fuller's  Worthies,  part  ii.  p.  136. 
}  Wood's  Atheh*  Oxen.  vol.  ii.  p.  117. 


S36  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

John  Angel,  A.  M. — This  pious  divine  was  bom  ia 
Gloucestershire,  and  educated  in  Magdalen-hall,  Oxford. 
Having  taken  his  degrees,  he  Jeft  the  university  and  entered 
upon  the  ministerial  worL.  Previous  to  the  year  1629>  Mr. 
Higginson,  being  chosen  by  the-  mayor  and  aldermen  of- 
Leicester  to  be  the  town  preacher,  but  refusing  the  office,  on 
account  of  his  growine  nonconformity,  he  recommended  Mr. 
Aneel,  then  a  learned  and  pious  conformist,  to  their  appro- 
bation. They  accordingly  made  choice  of  him ;  v\rhen  he 
removed  to  Leicester,  and  continued  in  the  office  of  public 
lecturer,  vvith  some  interruption,  upwards  of  twenty  years.*. 
Though  at  first  he  was  conformable  to  the  established  diiutdi, 
he  afterwards  imbibed  the  principles  of  the  puritans,  and 
became  a  sufferer  in  the  common  cause.  Archbishop  Laud, 
giving  an  account  of  his  province  in  the  year  1634,  observes, 
*^  lliat  in  Leicester  the  dean  of  the  arches  suspended  one 
Angel,  who  hath  continued  a  lecturer  in  that  great  town 
for  divers  years,  without  any  license  at  all  to  preach ;  yet. 
took  liberty  enough."  His  grace  adds,  *^  I  doubt  his  violence 
hath  cracked  his  brain,  and  do  therefore  use  him  the  mote 
tienderly,  because  I  see  the^hand  of  God  hatb  overtaken 
bim.^'t  Mr.  Angel  most  assuredly  had  the  license  of  those 
-who  employed  him,  and  who  paid  him  for  his  labours^ 
though  he  might  not  have  the  formal  allowance  of  hie 
diocesan  or  the  archbishop.  What  his  lordship  can  mean  by' 
insinuating  that  '^  his  violence  had  cracked  his  brsdn,  and  the' 
hand  of  God  having  overtaken  him,"  is  not  very  easy  to 
understand.  If  he  laboured  under  some  afflictive,  mental,  or 
bodily  disorder,  as  the  words  seem  to  intimate,  he  was  surely 
more  deserving  of  sympathy  and  compassion  than  a  heaiy' 
ecclesiastical  censure.  But  tlie  fact  most  probably  was,  tfai^^ 
Mr.  Angel  was  deeply  involved  in  spiritual  darkness  about 
his  own  states  and  in  painful  uncertainty  concerning  his  own 
salvation.  '^  For,"  says  Mr.  Clark,  "  there  was  a  great  light, 
Mr.  Angel,  formerly  of  Leicester,  afterwards  of  Grantham, 
but  now  with  God,  who  being  under  a  sore  and  grievous 
deseHion,  received  much  comfort  from  the  conversation  oC' 
Mr.  Richard  Vines."*  This  undoubtedly  refers  to  the  same 
affliction. 

Though  it  do^s  not  appear  how  long  Mr.  Angel  contiBued 
under  suspension,  he  was  afterwards  restored  to  his  ministEy ; 
and  he  continued  his  lecture  till  the  year  1650,  when  he  vim 

•  Mmther's  Hist,  of  New  Eb|;.  b.  iii.  p.  73. 
-f  Wharton^s  Troubles  of  Land,  toI.  i.  p.  531. 
t  Clark's  Lives,  last  vol.  part  i..p.  &0. 


AN6EL--R.  ROBINSON.  1S7 

turned  oat  for -refusing  die  engagement.  About  theMune 
time  the  company  of  mercers  in  London  made  choice  of  him 
as  public -lecturer  at  Ghrandiam  in  Lincolnshire;  and  not 
long  after  be  was  appointed  assistant  to  the  commissibners  of 
diat  county,  for  ejecting  ignorant  and  scandalous  ministers 
and  schoolmasters,  but  did  not  long  survive  the  appointment. 
He  died  in  the  banning  of  June,  1655)  vrhen  his  remains 
were  interred  in  Grandiam  church.  Having  gained  a  dis- 
tinguished reputation,  and  being  so  exceedingly  beloved  while 
he  lived,  his  funeral  was  attended  by  a  great  number  of 
ministers,  when  Mr.  Lawrence  Sarson  delivered  an  oration  at 
his  grave,  in  high  commendation  of  his  character.  Wood 
denominates  him  **  a  frequent  and  painfid  preacher ;  a  man 
mighty  in  word  and  doctrine  among  the  puntans ;"  and  adds^ 
^'  mat  as  his  name  was  Angel,  so  he  was  a  man  indeed  of 
angelical  understanding  and  holiness,  a  burning  and  shining 
li^t,  and  he  continued  to  shine  as  a  burning  light,  until  God 
translated  him  to  shine  as  a  star  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven 
for  ever.''*  Mr.  Henry  Vaughan,  ejected  at  the  restoration, 
was  his  successor  at  Grantham.t 

Ifis  Works. — I.  The  right  ordering  of  the  ConvenatioD,  1650.-* 
2.  Funeral  Sermon  at  the  Burial  of  John  Lord  Darcey,  l6A0.~-> 
9,  Preparation  for  the  Communion,  1609. — 4.  Tlie  right  Government 
of  the  Thoughts ;  or,  a  Discovery  of  all  vain,  unprofitable,  idle,  and 
wicked  Thoughts,  1650. 


Ralph  Robinson. — ^This  holy  minister  was  bom  at 
Heswall  in  Cheshire,  in  the  month  of  June,  I6l4y  and  edu- 
cated in  Katherine-hall,  Cambridge.  Here,  for  several  years, 
he  made  good  use  of  his  time  and  academical  advantages,  and 
came  fordi  well  qualified  for  the  ministry.  Upon  the  com- 
mencement of  the  national  confusions,  in  1642,  he  left  the 
university  and  went  to  London,  where  he  gained  consider- 
able reputation.  Being  richly  furnished  with  gifts  and 
■graces,  he  was  gready  beloved  by  the  London  ministers,  and 
his  preaching  rendered  him  exceedingly  popular.  He  ac- 
cepted an  invitation  to  the  pastoral  charge  at  St.  Mary's, 
•  Woolnoth,  and  was  ordained  presbyter, .  by  fasting  and 
prayer  and  the  imposition  of  hands,  in  the  year  1647  he 
"was  chosen  one  of  the  scribes  to  the  first  provincial  assemUy 
in  London.    In  1648  he  united  with  the  London  ministers  in 

• 

*  Atbenn  Oxod.  yoI.  ii.  p.  118. 

t  Fdmer's  NoBcoa.  Mfia«  Yiih  tt»  p.  417. 


S98  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

decLuii^  i^nst  t)ie  king's  deaths*  And  in  1651  he  wif 
concerned  in  Love's  plot;  but,  upon  his  petitioning  .for 
pardon^  and  promising  submission  to  the  existing  govemm^t 
m  future,  he  was  released.^ 

Mr.  Robinson  died  in  the  meridian  of  life*    When  be  wap 
seized  with  his  last  sickness,  having  no  (freat  degree  cipfia^ 
he  was  unapprehensive  of  his  approaching  change.     When 
he  was  requested  to.  make  his  will,  he  said,  **  I  will  do  it 
with  all.  readiness,  though  I  perceive  not  myself  in  m 
danger  of  death :"  adding,  ''  I  pray  you  flatter  me  not*    ff 
my  physician  apprehend  danger,  let  me  know  it ;  for,  I  Ucm 
God,  the  thoughts  of  death  are  not  dreadful  to  me/'    To  an 
mtimate  friend  he  said,  **  I  bless  God,  I  have  loved  fastiiig 
and  prayer  with  .all  my  heart."    And  being  asked  what  was 
the  present  state  of  his   mind,  he    replied,   *^  Thoiq^h  I 
have  not  ravishing  joys,  I  enjoy  uninterrupted  and  satiating 
peace ;  not  in  the  least  questioning  my  everlasting  happiness 
through  the  grace  of  God  in  Christ  Jesus."    Being  reminded 
of  the  rest  to  be  found  in  the  bosom  of  Christ,  he  said,  ^  Gkl 
true  rest  can  be  found  no  where  else ;"  with  which  woids  he 
breathed  his  last,  June  15,  1655,  aged  forty-one  years.    He 
was  a  person  of  exemplary  piety ;  and,  in  his  judgment  wtii 
practice,  a  thorough  presbyterian,  and  ever  true  and  steadjr  tp 
hb  principles.  He  was  an  indefatigable,  orthodox,  and  useftl 
preacher ;  a  loving  husband,  a  tender  father,  a  viffilant  pastoTt 
a  cheerful  companion,  and  a  faithful  friend.t     Many  poems 
and  elegies  were  published  on  his  death.     He  was  author 
of  the  following  works :    '^  Self  Conduct ;  or,  the  Saint's 
Guidance  to  Glory,  opened  in  a  Sermon  at  the  Funeral  of 
the   virtuous  and  reUgious  Gentlewoman,  Mrs.  Thoinaiin 
Barnardiston,"  1654. — '^  The  Christian  completely  Anned^'' 
1656.^"  Christ  AU  and  in  All,"  1656. 


Nathaniel  Rooebs. — ^This  excellent  minister  was  boffH 
at  Haverhil. in. Suffolk,  about  the  year  1598;  and  at  .theagu 
of  fourteen  was  sent  to  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge,  wheDp 
he  became  a  hard  student,  made  great  proficiency  in  idl  kinds 
of  useful  leamipg,  and  was  a  great  ornament  to  the  college* 
He  was  son  of  Mr.  John  Il(^rs,  famous  for  his  ministry  and 
nonconformity  at  Dedham  in  Essex*     Under  the  pioaf 

•  Calamy*8  Contin.  vol.  ii,  p.  744. 
f  Wood's  AtbrnflB  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  77. 

X  Asbe's  Fun.  Ser.  for  Mr.  Robinson,  eotiUed,  <«  The  Qsod  lfM*i  Death 
IjimeBte4.'*<-^ark*s  Uves,  Ust  tolr part  i.  p.  ftf— M 


N.  ROGERS. 

kifltruotions  of  his  excellent  parentfl,  he  feared.tfae  Lord  from 
liifl  youth ;  and,  as  he  grew  up  to  the  age  of  man,  he  trod  ia 
the  footsteps  of  his  honoured  and  worthy  &ther«  Hough  he 
was  indeed  a  person  of  most  exemplary  piety ;  yet  it  is  reuted^ 
that,  through  the  hurry  of  business,  he  went  one  morning  from 
home  without  attending  to  his  usual  private  .devotiona,.whea 
his  horse  atumliied  and  fell,  by  whidb  h^  lost  much  bloo^ 
and  was  exceedingly  briused.  This  event,  however,  taught 
him  a  valuable  lesson.  It  awakened  him  to  so  deep  a  sense 
of  his  onussion  of  duty,  that,  from  that  time  to  the  day  of  his 
deaths  no  engagements' whatever  would  hinder  him  from 
attending  upon  the  exercises  qf  the  closets 

Mr.  Kogers,  having  fimshed  his  studies  at  the  university, 
became  domestic  chaplain  to  a  ()er8on  of  quaUty,  when  he 
gave  the  first  s^cimen  of  his  ministerial  abilities.  After  he 
had  continued  m  this  situation  about  two  years,  he  became 
assistant  to  Dr.  Batkam,  at  Bocking  in  Essex.  The  doctor 
being  a  high  churchman,  and  particularly  intimate  with 
Bishop  L«aud^  many  people  wondered  that  he  employed  for 
his  curate  the  son  or  one  of  the  most  noted  puritans  in  die 
IdngdouLi  Mr.  Rogers  was  much  beloved  by  the  people, 
and  they  were  remarkably  kind  to  him.  Though  tiie  doctor 
treated  him  widi  civility,  he  did  not  allow  him  one^enth  of  his 
benefice,  amounting  to  many  hundreds  a  year,  when  he  did 
above  three-fourths  of  the  work.  Mr.  Rogers  now  began  to 
examine  the  controversy  about  ecclesiastical  matters,  and,  as 
the  result  of  his  inquiries,  he  became  thoroughly  dissatisfied 
with  the  ceremonies  and  discipline  of  the  church.  After- 
wards, the  doctor  being  present  at  a  funeral,  and  observing 
that  Mr.  Rogers  did  not  use  the  surplice,  he  was  so  completely 
disgusted,  tliat  he  advised  his  curate  to  provide  for  himself, 
and  so  dismissed  him.  What  a  sad  crime  was  it  to  bury  the 
dead  without  a  jsurplice ! 

After  he  had  preached  about  five  years  at  Bocking,  he  was 

Sesented  to  the  living  of  Assington  in  Suffolk,  where  the 
ishop  of  Norwich  allowed  him  to  go  on  in  the  Lord's  work, 
without  molestation,  for  about  five  years.  His  preaching 
was  highly  esteemed,  and^eady  blessed  among  persons  of 
all  descriptions.  He  had  commonly  more  headers  than  could 
crowd  into  the  church.  The  ignorant  weiie  instructed,  the 
careless  awakeaed,.and  the  sorrowfrd  comforted.  He  was  a 
'^  fisher  of  men,"  and,  by  the  blessing  of  God  upon  his 
endeavours,  many  were  caught  in  the  gospel-net.  At  length, 
the  ruling  ecclesiastics  were  resolved  to  stop  the  mouths  of 


f  40  LIVES  OP  THE  PURITANS. 

all  ministen  who  refused  to  conform  to  their  arbitrary 
injunctions ;  on  \vhich  account  sreat  numbers  of  the  most 
laborious  and  useful  preachers  m  the  kingdom  were  either 
buried  in  silence,  or  forced  to  abscond,  to  avoid  the  fiiry  of 
the  star-chamber  and  of  the  high  commission.  Mr.  Rogers, 
perceiving  the  approachmg  storm,  chose  to  prevent  rather 
than  receive  the  terrible  sentence  of  those  tribunals;  and 
therefore  he  resigned  his  living  into  the  hands  of  his  patron. 
Not  being  satisfied  to  lay  down  his  ministry,  he  forsook  the 
neighbourhood  of  his  father,  with  all  his  prospects  of  worldly 
advantage ;  and,  casting  himself  and  his  youne  family  on  the 
providence  of  God,  embarked  for  New  England,  where  he 
arrived  November  16,  1636.  Mr.  Ralph  Partridge,  another 
puritan  minister,  accompanied  him  in  the  same  ship.* 

Upon  their  arrival,  Mr.  Rogers  was  chosen  co-pastor  with 
Mr.  Norton  over  the  church  at  Ipswich.    These  judicious 
and  holy  men,  whose  hearts  were  cordially  united  in  pro- 
moting the  glory  of  God  and  the  salvation  of  souls,  were 
rendered  a  peculiar  blessing  to  this  religious  society.     Mr. 
Rogers  was  much  afflicted,  especially  with  the  spittins  of 
blood.     When  the  complaint  was  upon  him,  he  used  to 
comfort  himself  by  observing,  *^  Though  I  should  spit  out 
my  own  blood,  by  which  my  life  is  maintained,  I  shall  never 
cast  out  the  blood  of  Christ,  or  lose  the  benefits  of  that 
blood  which  cleanseth  us  from  all  sin."    Under  one  of  these 
afflictions,  Mr.  Cotton  wrote  him  a  consolatory  letter,  dated 
March  %  1631,  in  which  he  addressed  him  as  follows :— "  I 
bless  the  Lord  with  you,  who  perfecteth  the  power  of  his 
grace  in  your  weakness,  and  supporteth  your  feeble  bodj  to 
do  him  still  more  service.   You  know  who  said,  *  Unmortified 
strength  posteth  hard  to  hell :  but  sanctified  weakness  creepetfa 
fest  to  heaven.'     Let  not  your  spirit  faint,  though  your  hoisj 
do.     Your  soul  is  precious  in  God's  sight.     ^  Your  hairs  are 
all  numbered.'    The  number  and  measure  of  your  fainting 
fits,  and  wearisome  nights,  are  all  weighed  and  limited  l^ 
him  who  hath  given  you  his  son  Jesus  Christ  to  take  upon 
him  your  infirmities,  and  bear  your  sicknesse8."+     During  the 
last  conflict,  he  was  full  of  heavenly  conversation,  and  closed 
his  life  and  labours  saying.  My  times  are  in  thy  hands.    He 
died  July  3,  1655,  aged  fifty-seven  years.    He  was  an  emi- 
nently holy  man,  an  admirable  preacher,  and  an  incomparable 
mast^.  of  the  Latin  tongue.    ^^  And  I  shall  do  an  injury 

•  Mather's  Hist,  of  New  Eog.  b.  iii.  p.  104—106.  f  Ibid.  p.  lOT. 


f/TUHNEIU-MARSHALL.  Ml 

Id  his  rnemoty/'  says  our  author,  '^  if  I  do  not  decfaure  that 
he  was  one  of  the  greatest  men  and  one  of  die  best  ministert 
Aat  ever  set  his  foot  on  the  American  shore."* 


Jerom  Turneb,  a.  B. — ^This  worthy  person  was  bom 
at  Yeovil  in  Somersetshire^  in  the  year  I6l5,  and  educated 
at  Edmund's-hall,  Oxford/  Having  finished  his  studies  at 
the  university,iie  became  schoolmaster  at  Bear  in  Devonshire, 
where  he  also  preached  as  assistant  to  his  friend  and  kins* 
man,  Mr.  Hugh  Gundry,  for  the  space  of  two  years.  At  the 
expiration  of  this  period,  he  removed  to  Exmoudi  in  the 
same  county,  where,  for  about  two  years,  he  was  assistant  to 
Mr.  William  Hook,  afterwards  silenced  at  the  restoration.f 
He  next  removed  to  Compton,  near  the  place  of  his  nativity, 
and  afterwards  became  chaplain  to  Sir  Thomas  Trenchard. 
But,  upon  the  commencement  of  the  civil  war,  he  was  forced 
to  flee  for  safety,  when  he  took  refuge  at  Southampton. 
There  he  abode  during  the  national  confusions,  and  preached 
among  the  puritans  with  considerable  approbation.  Upon 
the  conclusion  of  the  wars,  in  1646,  he  became  pastor  at 
Nelherbury  in  Dorsetshire,  where  he  continued  a  zealous 
and  useful  preacher  to  the  time  of  his  death.  In  the  year 
1654  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  assistant  commis- 
noners  of  Dorsetshire,  for  ejecting  ignorant  and  scan- 
dalous ministers.  Wood  says,  ^^  his  love  to  learning  was 
very  great,  and  his  delight  in  the  ministerial  exercise  was 
greater  than  his  weak  body  could  bear.  He  had  a  strong 
memory,  was  well  skilled  in  Greek  and  Hebrew,  and  was  a 
constant,  zealous,  fluent,  and  useful  preacher ;  but,"  says  he, 
**  too  much  addicted  to  Calvinism,  t  He  died  at  Nether- 
bury,  November  27,  1655,  aged  forty  years. 

His  Works. — 1.  A.  Breast-plate  for  the  Keeping '  of  the  Heart, 
1660.-2.  A  Rich  Treasarie  for  the  Promises,  1660.-9.  Am  Exposir 
tbn  on  the  first  Chap,  of  the  Epistle  of  St  Paul  to  the  I^hesians. 


Stephen  Marshall,  B.  D. — This  celebrated  persou 
ffViS  born  at  Godmanchester  in  Huntingdonshire,  and  educated 
Uk  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge.  He  was  some  time  minister 
at  Wethersfield  in  Essex,  then  presented  to  the  benefice  of 
Finchingfield  in  the  same  county ;  but  hb  memory  has  greatly 

•  Mmther^  Hist,  of  New  Bug.  b.  iii.  p.  106— lOS. 

f  Palmer*8  Noncoo.  Mem.  vol.  i.  p.  184. 

I  Wood's  Athens  Ozoo.  ^ol.  ii.  p.  121,  ISt. 

VOL.  III.  R 


94t  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

tuflkred  from  men  of  opposite  principles.  In  the  fornHSC 
situation,  his  people,  from  their  warm  attachment  to  him^ 
expended  fifty  pounds  to  purchase  him  a  library,  and 
performed  for  him  many  friendly  offices.  It  is  further 
observed,  that  ''  he  was  sensible  of  their  kindness,  and 
engaged  himself  by  a  voluntary  promise  never  to  leave 
them.  He  had  not  continued  long  in  this  situation  before 
Mr.  Pickering,  a  reverend  and  learned  divine,  minister  of 
Finchingfield,  died.  The  fatness  of  the  benefiV'  it  is  said, 
^<  helped  the  patron  to  suitors  enow,  but,  amongst  all,  our 
Marshall  was  the  man  w}iom  his  affection  made  choice  of 
to  bestow  his  presentation  upon;  who  having  unluckily 
married  himself  to  Wethersfield,  knows  not  what  course 
to  take  to  sue  out  a  bill  of  divorce.  The  great  living,  worth 
j£200  a  year,  is  a  strong  temptation  to  the  holy  man's  conv 
cupiscible  appetite ;  however,  Wethersfield  holds  him  to 
his  promise,  never  to  leave  them.  A  little  assembly  of 
divines  is  called ;  and  it  is  there  debated  bow  far  Mr. 
Marshall's-  promise  is  obligatory.  The  casuists,  knowkig 
his  mind  before,  conclude,  that  it  bound  him  not  to  leave 
them  for  a  lesser  salarj/,  but  left  him  at  liberty  to  take  a 
bigger  living  when  he  could  get  it.  Indeed,  there  is  no 
reason  why  any  promise,  though  ever  so  solemnly  imd 
deliberately  made,  should  stand  a  perpetual  palisado  to  anj 
jnMllv  man's  preferment.  This  decision  satisfies  his  corvan. 
For  ne  leaves  Wethersfield,  and  awfnr  he  goes  to  Finchine* 
field.  This,'*  it  is  added,  '^  is  the  first  noted  essay  that  he 
gave  of  his  fidelity  in  keeping  his  promise."* 

In  this  partial  and  curious  account  of  Mr.  Marshall,  it  hs 
also  thus  observed :  <<  He  was  as  conformable  as  could  be 
desired,  reading  divine  service,  wearing  the  surplice,  le* 
ceiving  and  administering  the  sacrament  kneeling;  approv* 
ing,  commending,  and  extolling  episcopacy  and  the  litoi^ ; 
ol^rving  all  the  holidays  with  more  than  ordinary  mli- 
gence,  preaching  upon  most  of  them.  This  he  did  so  long 
as  he  had  any  hopes  of  rising  that  way.  His  ambition 
was  such,"  says  this  writer,  ^'  I  hare  great  reason  to  believe 
that  he  was  once  an  earnest  suitor  for  a  deanery,  which  is  th^ 
next  step  to  a  bishopric ;  the  loss  of  which  made  him  turn 
schismatic.  His  son-in-law  Nye  was  heard  to  say,  <  tfafit 
if  they  had  made  his  father  a  bishop,  before  he  had  he^ttiS 
far.  engaged,  it  might  have  prevented  all  the  war ;  and  sincii 
he  cannot  rise  so  high  as  a  bishop,  he  will  pull  the  bishopi^. 

•  Life  of  Marihall>  p.  5.    Sdit.  1680. 


MARSHALL.  MS 

I     • 

as  low  as  himself  4  yea,  if  he  can,  lower  than  he  was  hlm« 
self,  when  he  was  at  Godmanchester.'^'* 

This  is  the  representation  of  a  known  adveisary,  and  is 
evidently  designed  to  cast  a  stigma  upon  his  character* 
Notwithstanding  his  conformity,  as  here  represented,  after 
his  removal  to  Finchingfieid  he  was  silenced  for  noncon- 
formity ;  and  he  remaim  d  a  long  time  in  a  state  of  suspen* 
sion.  Upon  his  restoration  to  his  ministry,  in  1640,  he  did 
not  return  to  his  former  charge,  but  was  appointed  lecturer 
mt  St.  Margaret's  church,  Westminster.  Although  he  was 
greatly  despised  and  reproachcrd  by  the  opposite  party,  he 
^was  a  man  of  high  reputation,  and  was  often  called  to 
preach  before  the  parliament,  who  consulted  him  in  all  afiairs 
of  importance  relating  to  religion.  ^^  And  without  doubt," 
says  Clarendon,  <^  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  had  never 
so  great  an  influence  upon  the  councils  at  court,  as  Mr. 
Marshall  and  Dr.  Burgess  had  upon  the  houses  of  parlia- 
ment."+  November  17,  1640,  nas  observed  as  a  day  of 
solemn  fasting  by  the  house  of  commons,  at  St.  Margaret's, 
Westminster,  when  these  two  divines  were  appointed  ,to 
ccHifiuct  the  public  service  of  the  day ;  on  which  occasion, 
it  is  said,  they  prayed  and  preached  at  least  seven  hours^ 
The  service  being  closed,  the  house  voted  thanks  to  both 
the  preachers,  desiring  them  to  print  their  sermons ;  and,  to 
afford  them  encouragement  in  future,  a  piece  of  plate  was^ 
by  order  of  the  house,  presented  to  each.t 

Lord  Clarendon,  with  other  historians  of  a  similar  spirit, 
brings^  against  him  a  charge  unworthy  of  any  honest  man. 
The  accusation  relates  to  the  ministers'  petition  presented 
io  the  parliament ;  and,  says  he,  ^^  The  paper  which  con- 
tained the  ministers'  petition,  was  filled  with  very  few 
hands,  but  that  many  other  sheets  were  annexed  for  the 
reception  of  numbers  who  gave  credit  to  the  undertaking. 
But  when  their  names  were  subscribed,  the  petition  itself 
was  cut  off,  and  a  new  one,  of  a  very  different  nature, 
annexed  to  the  long  list  of  names ;  and  when  some  of  the 
ministers  complained  to  Mr.  Marshall,  with  whom  the 
petition  was  lodged,  that  they  never  saw  the  petition  to 
which  their  names  were  annexed,  but  had  signed  another 
petition  against  the  canons,  Mr.  Marshall  is  said  to  reply, 
that  it  was  thought  fit  by  those  who  understood  the  business 
bett^  than  they,  that  the  latter  petition  should  be  preferred 

•  Life  of  Marshall,  p.  10.  f  Clarendon*!  Hiit.  toI.  i.  p.  9S9. 

%  Nalsoo*!  Collec.  toI.  i.  p.  530,  53S. 


S44  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS.  . 

rather  (ban  the  form^/'*  This,  indeed,  is  a  cbai{ge  43f  a 
very  high  nature,  and  ought  to  have  been  wdl  suhstaotiated. 
Dr.  Walker,  notwithsta^ing  his  extreme  bigotrjr  and 
enmity  against  the  puritans,  seems  not  to  give  full  credit  to 
the  noble  historian.  ^<  It  is  probable^'^  says  he,  ^'tbat 
Mr.  Marshall  was  deeply  enough  concerned  in  this  affiur  ;" 
but  he  appears  unwilling  to  affirm  it  as  a  matter  iAfs^ 
If,  however,  the  above  account  had  been  true,  why  did  noi 
the  ministers  complain  to  the  committee  appointed  by  the 
hous^  of  commons  to  inquire  into  their  regiuar  methods  of 
procuring  hands  to  petitions  ?  The  learned  historian  an- 
swers, that  they  were  prevailed  upon  to  sit  still  and  pass  ii 
by ;  for  the  truth  of  which  we  have  only  his  loroship's 
word,  as  nothing  of  the  kind  appears  in  Rushwortfa,  Wlut- 
locke,  or  any  other  impartial  writer  of  those  times.  The 
whole  a&ir  has,  therefore,  the  appearance  of  a  mere  forceiT, 
designed  to  blacken  the  memory  of  Mr.  Marshall  and  tht 
rest  of  the  puritans.  , 

Few  persons  have  censured  our  divine  with  greater  seyet 
rity  than  the  anonymous  author  of  ^<  A  Letter  of  Spiritual 
Advice,  written  to  Mr.  Stephen  Marshall  in  his  Sicknesf,^' 
1643.  ''  When  I  heard  of  your  sickness,''  says  this  writer, 
^<  I  assure  you  I  found  in  myself  such  a  different  apprehen- 
sion of  your  state,  from  that  of  other  ordinary  sick  men,  that 
I  think  you  will  not  wonder  if  all  the  king's  subgects,  who 
wish  good  success  to  his  majesty  in  this  war,  cannot  impotB 
your  visitation  to  any  thing  but  the  just  severity  and  reveage 
of  Almighty  God,  for  having  had  so  strong  an  influence 
upon  the  ruin  of  this  kin^om  and  church.  For,  sir,  is  it 
not  apparent  that  your  eminent  gifts  of  preaching  have  been 
maAQ  use  of  for  the  kindling  of  those  flames  of  rebellion  and 
civil  war,  and  most  unchristian  bloodshed  ?  Have  not  yon, 
with  all  the  earnestness  and  zeal  imaginable,  persuaded  vom 
hearers  to  a  liberal  contribution  for  the  maintaining  of  thb 
unnatural  war  ?  Have  not  you  forsaken  your  own  cSurge^  to 
accompany  and  strengthen  the  general  of  your  anny  in  his 
resolutions  and  attempts  against  the  just  pow^  and  life  of 
his  and  your  anointed  sovereign?  Does  not  the  whoia 
kingdom  impute  almost  all  the  distractions  and  combustioM 
therein  as  much  to  the  secHtious  sermcnis  of  the  preachers  nf 
your  faction,  as  to  the  contrivances  of  those  persons  who  aal 
you  on  work  7  Let  your  own  conscience  be  your  own  JoH^ 

«  ClareDdon's  Hist.Tol.  i.  p.  161,  162.  ' 

f  Walker's  Attempt,  part  i.  p.  Ijk 


MARSHALL.  945 

in  tbis  matten  and  it  ^ill  tell  you,  that  if  all  tbese  new 
iatgoB  ahould  succeed  to  your  wish,  and  tliere  should 
kqipen  to  be  a  change  of  government,  you  would  think 
JiiinidTes  wronged  if  you  should  not  be  acknowledged 
TOy  effectual  instruments  in  that  change.  These  things 
ftoefore  being  so,  you  cannot  accuse  of  nncharitableness 
those  who  think  these  designs  not  only  unjust,  but  ruinous 
both  to  justice  and  religion,  if  they  attribute  it  to  God^s 
aercy  to  them,  and  vengeance  on  vou,  if  he  take  such  a 
fln^-brand  as  ^ou  out  of  the  world.  • 

While   this  anonymous  calumniator   thus  reproaches 
Mr.  Marshall  for  his  zeal  in  the  cause  of  the  parliament^ 
he  b  extremely  lavish  in  the  die nified  compliments  con« 
fared  upon  his  majesty,  styling  him  ''  God's  anointed,  and 
a  moot  righteous  christian  king.'*   Wood  says,  ^^  that,  upon 
liie  approach  of  the  troublesome  times  in  1640,  Mr.  Mar« 
sludl,  Mr.  Calamy,  Dr.  Burgess,  and  some  others,  fint 
whiiipered  in  their  conventicles,  then  openly  preached,  that 
far  the  cause  of  religion  it  was  lawful  for  subjects  to  take  up 
arms  against  the  king/'f    <<As  to  Mr.  Marshall,"  says 
Dr.  Cuamy,  ^^  lie  was  an  active  man,  and  encouraged 
takmg  up  arms  for  securing  the  constitution,  when  it  ap- 
]MBarea  not  only  to  him  and  his  brethren,  but  to  a  nural:^ 
of  as  worthy  gentlemen  as  ever  sat  in  St.  Steplien's  chapol^ 
te  be  in  no  small  danger ;  yet  I  am  not  aware  that  he  can  be 
jostly  charged  with  any  concurrence  in  those  things  wliich 
ajfterwards  overthrew  the  constitution,  and  tendecf  to  con* 
forion.     He  wrote  a  defence  of  the  side  which  he  took  in  our 
civil  broils,  and  I  cannot  hear  that  it  was  ever  answered.''^ 
Mr.  Marshall,  at  ttie  same  time,  took  an  active  part  in 
the  controversy  concerning  church  government.    The  cele- 
brated Bishop  Hall  having  published  his  work  in  defence  of 
episcopacy  and  the  liturgy,  called,  ''  An  Humble  Remon- 
strance to  the  high  Court  of  Parliament,"  1640,  he  united 
with  several  of  his  brethren  in  writing  the  famous  book, 
entitled,  <^  An  Answer  to  a  Book,  cntituled,  <  An  flumble 
Remonstrance;'   in  which  the  Original  of  Liturgy  and 
Episcopacy  is  discussed,  and  Queries  propounded  concern- 
ing botn.«  The  Parity  of  Bisiiops  and  Prrsbyters  in  Scripture 
dmonstrated;   the  Occasion  of  fhrir  Imparities  in  Anti- 
quitv  discovered ;   the  Dis])arity  of  the  ancient  and  our 

maaem  Bishops    manifested ;    the  Antiquity  of  Ruling 

• 

*  letter  of  Advice,  p.  1, 2. 

I't  AUieuB  Dion.  vol.  ii.  p.  2S5,  236. 
F'i  CoDtiB.  vol.  ii.  p.  137. 


t46  .  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Elders  in  the  Church  vindicated:  the  Prelatical  Chul^h 
bounded.  Written  by  Smectymnuus,"  1641.  The  word 
smectymnuus  is  composed  of  the  initi:ils  of  i- s  authors'  nnme^^ 
who  were  Stephen  Marshall,  Edmi|n(t  Calamy,  Thomas 
Young,  Matthew  Newcomen,  and  William  Spurstowe. 
^^  The  work,"  it  is  said,  '^  is  certainly  written  with  great 
fierceness  of  spirit  s^nd  much  asperity  in  language,  ccm- 
taining  eighteen  sections,  in  'the  last  of  wliiph  the  differ- 
ences between  the  prelatists  and  puritans  are  aggravated 
with  great  bitterness."  The  same  author,  on  the  same  page^ 
says,  "  it  was,  indeed,  a  very  well  writt<*n  piece,  theretore 
we  find  frequent  reference  to  it  in  all  the  detences  and  apo- 
Wiesfor  nonconformity,  which  have  been  since  published.'' 
A4^.  Calamy  affirms,  that  it  ^'  gave  the  first  deadly  blow  to 
episcopacy."  The  learned  Dr.  Kippis  says,  "  it  was  a 
production  of  no  small  importance  in  its  diy;  and  wAs 
d[awn  up  ip  a  style  of  composition  superior  to  that  of  the 
puritans  in  general,  and,  indeed,  of  many  other  nriteiB  at 
that  period."  The  learned  Bishop  Wilkins  represents  it  as 
^^  a  Cfipital  work  against  episcopacy."* 

The  book  is  concluded  by  a  postscript,  in  which  is  cqq^ 
tained  an  historical  narrative  of  the  bitter  effects  of  episco- 
pacy, as,  pride,  luxury,  brilxTv,  extortion,  rebellion,  treasaii| 
&c. ;  and  the  whole  is  closed  thus : — ^^  The  inhuman  butphee 
ries,  blood-sheddings,  and  cruelties  of  Gardiner,  Bonner, 
and  the  rest  of  the  bishops  in  Queen  Mary's  days,  are  so 
fresh  in  every  man's  memory,  as  that  we  conceive  it  a  UAng 
altogether  unnecessary  to  make  mention  of  them.  Only  we 
fear  lest  the  guilt  of  the  blood  then  shed  should  yeC  remain 
to  be  required  at  the  hands  of  this  nation,  becau<se  it  hath 
not  quickly  endeavoured  to  appease  the  wrath  of  God,  by  ft 
general  and  solemn  humiliation  for  it.  What  the  practices^ 
of  the  prelates  have  been  ever  since,  from  the  beginning  of 
Queen  Eliz^bith  to  this  present  day,  would  fill  a  volume^ 
like  E^ekiel's  roll,  with  lamentation,  mourning,  and  woe 
to  record.  For  it  hath  been  their  great  design  to  hinder  all 
further  reformation ;  to  bring  in  doctrines  of  popery,  armi- 
nianism,  and  libertinism ;  to  maintain,  propagate,  and  mach 
increase  the  burden  of  human  ceremonies ;  to  keep  out,  and 
beat  down  the  preaching  of  the  word,  to  silence  the  faithful 
ministers  of  it,  to  oppase  a.rd  persecute  the  most  zealoua 
professors,  and  to  turn  all  religion  to  a  pompous  outside  j^ 
and  to  tread  down  the  power  of  godliness.    Insomuch,  M 

•  Biog.  BritaQ.  toI.  iii.  p.  132, 186.    Edit.  17T8. 


MARSHALL.  S*7 


^      •*    • 


it  is  come  to  an  ordinary  proverb,  that  irhen  any  thing  is 
spoiled,  we  use  to  say,  The  bishop's  foot  haih  been  in  U. 
And  in  this,  and  much  more  which  might  be  said,  fulfilling 
Bishop  Bcmner's  prophecy,  which,  when  he  saw  that  in 
King.  Edward's  reformation  there  was  a  reservation  of 
ceremonies  and  hierarchy,  is  credibly  reported  to  have 
4ised  these  words,  ^  Since  they  have  begun  to  taste  our  broihj 
they  voiUnot  be  long  ere  they  xsnll  eat  our  beef  J*  "• 

tjpon  the  publication  of  the  above  work.  Bishop  Hall 
wrote  his  ^^  Defence  of  the  Humble  Remonstrance  against 
the  frivolous  and  false  Exceptions  of  Smectymnuus,''  1641  • 
To  this,  Smectymnuus  published  a  reply,  entitled, "  A  Vin- 
dication of  the  Answer  to  the  Humble  Remonstrance,  from 
the  unjust  Imputations  of  Frivolousness  and  Falsehood: 
wherein  the  cause  of  the  Lititrgy  and  Episcopacy  is  further 
debated,"  1 64 1 .  The  learned  prelate  concluded  the  dispute 
by  publishing  his  piece  entitled,  <<  A  short  Answer  to  a 
t^ious  Vindication  of  Smectymnuus,"  1641.f 

In  tbisvear,  Mr.  Marshall  was  appointed  chaplain  to  the 
Earl  of  ^sex's  regiment  in  the  parliament's  armv.  Dr. 
Grey,  in  contempt,  denominates  him  and  Dr.  Downing 
*^  the  two  famed  casuistical  divines,  and  most  eminent  camp- 
chaplains  ;"  and  charges  them,  on  the  authority  of  Clarendon 
and  Echard,  with  publicly  avowing,  <<  that  the  soldiers  lately  . 
taken  prisoners  at  Brentford,  and  released  by  the  king  upon 
their,  oaths,  thai  they  would  never  again  bear  arms  against 
him^  were  not  obliged  by  that  oath;  but  by  their  power 
they  absolved  them,  and  so  engaged  those  miserable  wietches 
in  a  second  rebellion."^  This,  as  well  as  the  foregoing 
account,  has  all  the  appearance  of  forgery,  with  a  view  to 
calumniate  the  two  excellent  divines.  Priestly  absolution 
was  as  remote  as  possible  from  the  practice  of  the  puritans ; 
and  they  rejected  all  claims  to  the  power  of  it  with  the 
utmost  abhorrence.  The  parliament's  army,  at  the  same 
time,  stood  in  so  little  need  of  these  prisoners,  which  were 
only  150  men,  that  there  is  good  reason  to  suspect  the  whole 
account  to  be  a  falsehood. § 

In  the  year  1643,  Mr.  Marshall  was  chosen  one  of  the 
assembly  of  divines,  and  was  a  most  active  and  valuable 
member.  In  this  public  office  it  was  impossible  for  him  to 
escape  the  bitter  censures  of  the  opposite  party.    One  of 

*  Smectymnnns,  p.  77,  78.     Edit.  1654. 
f  Biog.  BriUn.  vol.  iv.  p.  2498.     Edit.  1747. 
±  Grey's  ExamiBatioD,  vol.  ii.  p.  10. 
)  Nears  Paritansy  vol.  iii.  p.  3, 4. 


91»  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

them,  speaking  of  him  as  a  member  of  the  assemUj,  tftjrs^ 
<<  He  quickly  grows  to  be  master,  anil  is  so  called  1^  allw 
They  si^  not  to  consult  for  the  reformation  of  religion  ia 
things  that  are  amiss,  but  to  receive  the  parliament's  ccrtn* 
maaas  to  undo  and  innovate  religion.  In  which  work,  ot 
rather  drudgery  of  the  devil,  our  active  Siephen  needs 
neither  whip  nor  spur:  tooth  and  nail  he  bends  himself  to 
the  overthrow  of  the  hierarchy,  root  and  branch.*'*  Dr. 
Heylin,  with  his  usual  modesty,  calls  him  "  the  great  bell- 
wether of  the  presbyterians  ;"f  and  aflirms,  that  though  he 
had  the  chief  hand  in  compiling  the  directory,  he  married 
his  own  daughter  by  the  form  pntscribed  in  the  Book  of 
Common  Piayer ;  which  he  had  no  sooner  done  than  he 
paid  down  five  pounds  to  the  churchwardens  of  the  parish^ 
as  a  fine  for  using  any  other  form  of  marriage  than  that 
contained  in  the  directory  .J  The  truth  of  this  rrprcseuta* 
tioii  of  so  excellent  a  person  as  Mr.  Marshall,  especially 
from  the  pen  of  Dr.  Heylin,  is  extremely  dcmbtful,  if  ki^fc 
unworthy  of  the  smallest  en  dit. 

Mr.  Marshall  frequently  united  with  his  brethren  in  the 
observance  of  public  fasts,  when  the  services  were  usually 
protracted  to  a  very  great  length.  On  one  of  these  occar 
sions,  it  is  said,  ^<  that  Dr.  Twisse  having  commenced  Um 
public  service  with  a  short  prayer,  Mr.  Marshall  prayed  in 
a  wonderful,  pathetic,  and  prudent  manner  for  two  htmrtm 
Mr.  Arrowsmith  then  preached  an  hour,  then  they  suog  ai 
psalm ;  after  which  Mr.  Vines  prayed  nearly  two  hoar% 
Mr.  Palmer  preached  an  hour,  and  Mr.  Seaman  prayed 
nearly  two  hours.  Mr.  Henderson  then  spoke  of  the  evils  of 
the  time,  and  how  they  were  to  be  remedied,  and  Dr.  TwisM 
closed  the  service  with  a  short  prayer."^ 

*  Life  of  MarshaU,  p.  11. 

f  Dr.  Peter  Heylin,  preaching  at  Westminster  abbey,  before  Bisbop 
Williams',  and  endeavourini^  to  justify  the  church  in  the  impositioii  ot 
doctrine  and  ceremonies,  and  to  censure  the  nonconformists,  be  said,  *'  Id* 
stead  of  hearkening  to  the  voice  of  the  church,  every  man  hearkens  to  biin* 
lelf,  and  cares  not  if  the  whole  miscarry  so  that  be  himself  may  carry  hit 
own  devices.  Upon  which  stubborn  height  of  pride,  what  quarrels  have 
been  raised  ?  what  schisms  in  every  corner  of  the  church  P-r-To  Inquire  no 
further,  some  put  all  into  open  tumult  rather  than  conform  to  the  lawful 
government  derived  from  Christ  and  bis  apostles."  On  expressing  these 
words,  the  bishop,  sitting  in  the  great  pew,  knocked  aloud  with  bis  staff 
npon  the  pulpit,  saying,  "  No  more  of  that  point,  no  more  of  that  poiit,- 
Peter.'*  To  wbom  lleylin  immediately  answered,  *'  I  have  a  little  more  to 
say,  my  loid,  and  then  I  have  done ;  when  be  proceeded  to  finish  bii  sabject* 
Biog,  Britan.  vol.  iv.  p.  8597.     Edit.  1747. 

fHeylin's  Ezamen  Historicum,  p.  864.  ' 
Biog.  Britan.  vol.  i.  p.  518.    £;dit.  1778. 


MARSHALL.  S19 

in  the  yetur  1644,  he  attended  the  oommisiionen  of  par* 
liament  at  the  treaty  of  Uxbridge.  In  1645,  he  was  chosea 
one  of  the  committee  of  accomnoodation,  to  secure  the  peace 
of  the  church,  and  promote,  as  far  as  possible,  the  satisfao* 
tion  of  all  parties.  The  year  fcdiowiiig,  he  was  appointed, 
together  with  Mr.  Joseph  Caryl,  chaplain  to  the  commia* 
SLoners  who  were  sent  to  the  king  at  Newcastle,  in  order  to 
an  accommodation  for  peace.  Removing  thence,  by  easj 
joumies,  to  Holmby-house  in  Northamptonshire,  the  two 
chaplains  performed  divine  worship  there ;  but  his  majesty 
never  attended.*  He  spent  his  Lord's  day  in  privatr. ;  and 
thou^  they  waited  at  table,  he  would  not  so  much  as  allow 
them  to  ask  a  blessing.  The  Oxford  historian,  who  men- 
tions this  circumstance,  relates  the  following  curious  anec- 
dote : — ^<  It  is  said  that  Marshall  did,  on  a  time,  put  himself 
more  forward  than  was  meet  to  say  grace;  and,  while  he 
was  long  in  forming  his  chaps,  as  the  manner  was  among  the 
saints,  and  making  ugly  faces,  his  majesty  said  gr.'ice  him- 
self, and  was  fallen  to  his  meat,  and  had  eaten  up  some  pait 
of  his  dinner,  before  Marshall  had  ended  the  blessing ;  but 
Caryl  was  not  so  impudent."+ 

About  the  above  period,  Mr.  Marshall  and  Mr.  Nye  were^ 
by  order  of  the  parUament,  appointed  to  attend  the  commis- 
sioners to  Scotland,  whose  object  was  to  establish  an  agree- 
ment with  the  Scots.t  In  their  letter  to  the  assembly,  thej 
assure  their  brethren,  that  the  ministers  in  the  north  are 
wholly  on  the  side  of  the  parliament.  They  conclude  their 
cwUhig  letter,  as  Dr.  Grey  calls  it,  in  the  following  words : 
^<  We  scarce  ever  saw  so  much  of  Christ  for  us  as  thia 
day,  in  the  assembly's  carrying  of  this  business:  such 
weeping,  such  rejoicing,  such  resolution,  such  pathetical 
expressions,  as  we  confess  hath  much  refreshed  our  hearts, 
before  extremely  saddened  with  ill  news  from  our  dear  coun- 
try ;  and  hath  put  us  in  good  hope  that  this  nation  (which 
sets  about  this  business  as  becometh  the  work  of  God  and 
the  saving  of  the  kingdoms)  shall  be  the  means  of  lifting 
up  distressed  England  and  Ireland. "( 

In  the  year  1&7,  Mr.  Marshall  was  appointed,  together 

•  Dr.  Grey,  on  tbe  authority  of  «  An  Apolofry  for  the  Bishops/*  aayt^ 
that  Mr.  Marshall  having  once  petitioned  the  liinf^  for  a  deanery,  and  at 
Another  time  for  a  bishopric,  and  being  refiised,  his  maj^^sty  told  him  at 
Qolmby,  that  he  would  on  this  account  overthrow  all. — Grfjp^s  ExaiB* 
vol.  i.  p.  S92. 

f  Wood*8  Athene  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  975. 

±  Clarendon's  Hist.  vol.  ii.  p.  232. 

S  Grey'i  Bzamlnatioo,  vol.  ii.  p.  M. 


J50  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

with  Mr.  Vines,  Mn  Caryl,  and  Dr.  Seaman,  to  attend  the 
cximmissioners  at  the  treaty  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  when  he 
conducted  himself  with  great  ability  and  moderation.  The 
house  of  commons  having  nrfw  many  important  affairs  under 
consideration,  Mr.  Marshall  and  Mr.  Nye,  by  ofder  of  the 
house,  December  31,  1647,  were  desired  io  attend  the  neiet 
morning  to  pray  with  them,  that  they  might  enjoy  the 
direction  and  blessing  of  God  in  their  wei^ty  consulta* 
tions.*  In  the  year  1654,'  when  the  parliament  voted  a 
toleration  of  all  who  professed  to  hold  the  fundamentals  of 
Christianity,  Mr.  Marshall  was  appointed  one  of  the  com« 
mittee  of  learned  divines,  to  draw  up  a  catalogue  of  fun- 
damentals to  be  presented  to  the  house,  f  About  the  same 
time  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  tryers. 

A  writer  already  mentioned,  who  employs  thirty  quarto 

})ages  in  little  else  than  scurrility  and  abuse,  gives  the 
bllowing  account  of  him :  <^  Because  the  church  could  not 
be  destroyed  without  the  king,  who  was  more  firmly 
wedded  to  it  than  Mr.  Marshall  was  either  to  his  wife  or  his 
first  living ;  the  king,  and  all  who  adhered  to  him,  and  the 
church,  must  be  destroyed  together:  to  whose  ruin  Mr. 
Marshall  contributed  not  a  little.  His  thundering  in  all 
pulpits;  his  cursing  all  people  who  were  backward  in 
engaging  a^inst  him;  his  encouraging  all  those  whoie 
Tillany  made  them  forward  in  undertaking  that  great  -worky 
warranting  them  no  small  preferment  in  heaven  if  th^ 
would  lay  down  their  lives  tor  the  cause ;  his  menaces  B,nA 
private  incitatiotis,  becoming  drum-major  or  captain-general 
to  the  army,  praying  from  regiment  to  regiment  at  Edse-p 
hill.  His  religion  stood  most  in  cxternais:  in  a  Jewish 
observation  of  the  sabbath,  praying,  preaching,  fasts,  and 
thanksgivings.  Under  these  specious  sbews,'^  adds  the  un* 
worthy  biographer,  "  the  mystery  of  iniquity  lay  hid.^t 

Mr.  £cbard,  with  his  usual  candour,  d^iominates  him 
<<  a  famous  incendiary,  and  assistant  to  the  parliamentarians ; 
their  trumpeter  in  their  fasts,  their  confessor  in  their  sick- 
ness, their  counsellor  in  their  assemblies,  their  chaplain  in 
their  treaties,  their  champion  in  their  disputations;^'  and 
then  adds,  "  This  great  Shim^i,  being  taken  with  a  des- 
perate sickness,  departed  the  world  mad  and  raving /%  thaa 
which  there  never  was  a  more  unjust  aspersion.   Mr.  Baxter^ 

•  WhUlocke's  Mem.  p.  2«0,  287,  SS6. 

i  Sylvester's  Life  of  Baxter,  part  ii.  p.  107—199. 

%  Life  of  Marshall,  p.  13,  17. 

\  £chard'i  Hist,  of  £d|;.  toI.  ii.  p,  783. 


MARSHALL.  151 

who  knew  him  well,  calls  him  <<  a  sober  and  wofth j  man  ;**• 
and  used  to  observe,  on  account  of  his  great  moderatkmy 
that  if  all  the  bishops  had  been  of  the  same  spirit  as 
Archbishop  Usher,  the  independents  like  Mr.  Jeremiah 
Burroughs,  and  the  prebyterians  like  Mr.  Stephen  Marshall, 
the  divisions  of  the  church  would  soon  have  been  healed. 
He  was,  indeed,  taken  ill,  and  obliged  to  retire  into  the 
country  for  the  benefit  (tf  the  air,  when  the  Oxford  Mercnrr 
published  to  the  world  that  he  was  distracted,  and  in  hur 
rage  constantly  cried  out,  that  he  was  damned  for  adhering 
to  the  parliament  in  their  war  against  the  king.  But  ho 
lived  to  refute  the  unjust  calmnny,  and  published  a  treatise 
to  -prove  the  lawfulness  of  defensive  war,  in  certain  cases 
of  extremity.  Upon  his  retirement  from  the  city,  he  spent 
his  last  two  years  at  Ipswich.  His  last  words  when  upon 
his  death-bed,  according  to  Mr.  Petyt,  were,  King  Charletj 
Kins  Charles^  and  testified  much  horror  and  regret  for  the 
bloody  confiisions  he  had  promoted.f ,  This  reprcsentatioa 
appears  to  be  void  of  truth,  and  only  designed  to  reproach 
his  memory.  For  Mr.  Giles  Firmin,  who  knew  hun  in  litist, 
9nd  attended  him  in  death,  observes,  in  a  preface  to  one  of 
Mr.  Marshall's  posthumous  sermons,  ^^  That  he  left  behind 
him  few  preachers  like  himself;  that  he  was  a  christian  in 
practice  as  well  as  profession ;  that  he  lived  by  faith,  and  died 
by  faith,  and  was  an  example  to  the  believers,  in  word,  ill 
conversation,  in  charity,  in  faith,  and  in  purity.  And  when 
Jhe,  together  with  some  others,  conversed  with  him  about  his 
death,  he  replied,  ^  I  cannot  say,  as  one  did,  I  have  not  so 
lived  that  I  l^hould  now  be  afraid  to  die;  but  this  I  can  say, 
/  I  have  so  learned  Christy  that  I  am  not  afraid  to  die.' "(  He 
enjoyed  theTull  use  of  his  understanding  to  the  last ;  but,  for 
some  months  previous  to  his  death,  he  lost  his  appetite  and 
ihe  use  of  his  hands. 

He  was  justly  accounted  an  admired  preacher;^  but,  Ui 


«  Sylvester's  Life  of  Baxter,  part  ii.  p.  199. 
il-  Grey's  ExamiDation,  yol.  iv.  p.  146. 

fNeal's  Puritans,  vol.  W.  p.  19. 
Mr.  Marshall  was  certaioly  a  usefal  as  well  as  admired  preacher,  .•f 
which  the  foUovfing  instance  is  preserved  on  record : — Lady  Brown,  wife 
to  an  eminent  member  of  the  loof  parliament,  was  under  great  trouble 
about  the  salvation  of  her  soul.  For  some  time  she  refused  to  attend  upoo 
public  worship,  though  it  had  formerly  beeo  her  great  delight.  She  asked 
Fhat  she  should  do  there,  and  said  it  would  only  increase  ner  damnation  I 
In  thi«  state  of  mind  she  was  persuaded,  and  almost  forced  to  hear  Mr. 
Marshall;  when  the  sermon  was  so  exactly  suited  to  her  case,  and  so 
powerfully  applied  to  her  mind,  that  she  returned  home  in  transportt  of 
joy. — Caiamy's  Coniin.  yol.  i.  p.  467. 


Sa?  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

refute  this  account  of  his  character,  Dr.  Grey  quotes  sereral 
passives  from  his  sermons  preached  on  pubUc  occasions ; 
among  ivhicb  are  the  following :— '^  Beloved,  our  days  aie 
better  than  they  were  seven  years  ago ;  because  it  is  better 
to  me  the  Lord  executing  judgment,  than  to  see  men  woriL-^ 
ing  wickedness;  and  to  beh^d  people  lie  wallowing  in 
Iheir  blood,  rather  than  iq^iostatizing  from  God,  and  em* 
bracing  idolatry  and  superstition,  and  banishing  the  Lord 
Cfaorkt  from  taiongsl  men.— Carry  on  the  work  stiS.  Leave 
not  a  rag  thai  bdongs  to  popery.  Lay  not  a  bit  of  the 
liord's  buildii^  with  any  thing  -that  bdongs  unto  anti- 
christ's stttflf;  but  away  with  sdl  of  it,  root  and  branch, 
kead  and  tail ;  throw  it  out  of  the  kingdom. — I  could  easHf 
i^  hefoae  you  a  eatalogne  of  mercies.  You  have  receivOT 
many  peculiar  to  yout  own  persons,  to  your  souls  and  bodies, 
your  estates  and  families,  privative  mercies,  positive  mer« 
cies.  You  eat  mercies^  drink  mercies,  wear  mercy's  clothes, 
are  compassed  about  and  covered  with  mercies,  as  much' 
88  ever  the  earth  was  in  Noah's  flood. "«  These  sermons, 
ct  which  this  is  a  specimen,  so  abound  with  striking  cc»n« 
paris<ms,  and  contain  so  pointed  an  appeal  to  the  hearers^ 
that  though  they  are  not  suited  to  the  taste  of  modem  elo- 
quence, it  is  easy  to  conceive  how  they  might  gain  great 
admiration  in  those  times.  The  doctor's  refutation,  tlere^ 
fore,  refutes  itself. 
Another  author  endeavours  to  expose  Mr.  Marshall  to 

Jnblic  contempt,  on  account  of  his  sentiments  delivered  m 
is  sermons  before  the  parliament.  We  give  these  sent!**' 
ments  in  his  own  words,  as  transcribed  from  his  sermons  t 
<<  Christ,"  says  he,  ^^  breaks  and  moulds  commonwealths  al 
kis  pleasure.  He  hath  not  spoke  much  in  his  word  how 
long  they  simil  last,,  or  what  he  intends  to  do  with  them£ 
only  this,  that  all  kings  and  kingdoms  that  make  wav  against 
the  church,  shall  be  broken  in  pieces;  and  that,  in  the  end, 
all  the  kingdoms  of  the  world  sliall  be  the  kingdoms  of  our 
Lord  and  his  saints ;  and  they  shall  reign  over  them.  Did 
ever  any  parliament  in  England  lay  the  cause  of  Christ  and 
religion  to  heart  as  tliis  hatli  done  ?  Did  ever  tbit  city  of  . 
London,  the  rest  of  the  tribes,  and  the  godly  party  through* 
ont  the  land,  so  willingly  exhaust  themselves,  that  Christ 
.  might  be  set  up  ?  Let  all  England  cry  that  our  blood,  our 
poverty,  &c.  are  abundantly  repaid  in  this,  that  there  it 
such  a  concurrence  to  set  the  Lord  Christ  upon  his  thronei 

•  Grejf's  Examinatioo^  toI.  iii.  p.  183—185. 


MARSHALL.  tfit 

Id  be  Lord  and  Cbsid  over  this  oor  Isimel.''*  Tboeii 
more  to  the  same  purpose ;  but  this  oontains  a  sidtdad 
specimen. 

Newcouit  calls  him  <<  llie  Geoeva-BaU,  and  a  hctiam 
and  rebeUions  diirine;"t  and  Wood  styles  him  ^  a  notori* 
ous  independent,  and  the  aidiflamen  of  the  lebdlioas  roat.**^ 
The  fact  however  is,  he  never  was  an  independent,  but  lived 
and  died  an  avcrwed  presbyterian.  And  vrith  respect  to  his 
lebellion,  what  is  obrarved  above  will  afford  every  impartial 
leader  a  sufficient  refotation  of  the  charge.  Fnller  has 
classed  him  among  the  learned  writers  of  Emanud  coU^e  ^ 
and  gives  him  the  following  character :  ^  He  was  a  minister 
well  qualified  for  his  work ;  yet  so  supple,  that  he  did  not 
break  a  joint  in  all  the  alterations  of  the  times.  Althougk 
some  suspected  him  of  deserting  his  piesbyterian  principles; 
yet  upon  his  death-bed  he  gave  fidl  satis&ction  of  the  con* 
trary.'^ll  He  died  in  the  month  of  November,  1655,  when 
his  remains  were  interred  with  great  funeral  solemnity  in 
Westminster  abbey,  but  were  dug  up,  together  vrith  many 
others,  at  the  restoration.!  Mr.  Huj?h  Glover,  ejected  in 
1663,  was  his  successor  at  Finchingneld.**  Mr.  Marshall 
wrote  with  consideraible  ability  against  the  baptists,  and 
published  many  sermons  preached  before  the  parliament, 
the  titles  of  some  of  which  we  have  collected. 


His  Works. — 1.  A  Sermon  preached  before  the  Honoursble  Hovm 
ilf  Coinmoi]i3,  at  their  public  Fast,  Nov.  17, 1640—1641.-2.  A  Peace- 
Offering  to  God,  a  Sermon  to  the  Honourable  House  of  Commons,  at 
their  public  Thanksgiving,  Sept.  7, 1641— 1641.— 3.  Meroz  Cursed; 
or,  a  Sermon  to  the  Commons  at  their  late  solemn  Fast,  Feb.  23,  1641 
— 1641, — 4.  Reformation  and  Desolation;  or,  a  Sermon  tending  to 
the  Discovery  of  the  Symptoms  of  a  People  to  whom  God  will  by  f^ 
be  reconciled,  preached  before  the  Commons  at  their  late  public  Fajt, 
Dec.  22,  1641—1642.-^.  The  Song  of  Moses  the  Servant  of  God, 
and  the  Song  of  the  Lamb,  opened  in  a  Sermon  before  the  Commons 
at  their  late  solemn  Day  of  Thanksgiving,  June  15,  1643— -1643. — 
il.  A  Copy  of  a  Letter  vrritten  by  Mr.  Stephen  Marafaall  to  a  Friend 
of  h«s  in  the  City,  for  the  necessaiy  Vindication  of  himself  and  bis 
Midbtry,  against  the  altogether  groundless,  most  unjust,  and  ungodly 
Ajpenion  cast  upon  him  by  cerMn  Malignants  in  the  City,  1643.— 
7.  A* Sermon  of  the  Bi^tizing  of  Infants,  preached  in  Abbey-church, 

*  L'Estraoge's  Dissenten'  Sayingi,  part  ii.  p^40y  59. 
f  Newcourt's  Itepert.  Ecd.  vol.  it.  p.  26S. 

}  Wood's  Athens,  vol.  ii.  p.  ST5, 715.  ^  HUt.  of  Can.  p.  147. 

roller's  Worthies,  part  ii.  p.  52, 53.       1  Kenoet's  Chronicle^  p.  506. 
**  Fftlmcr's  Noocoo,  Men.  vol.  il.  p.  900. 


£34  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Wettminster,  at  tbe  Moniiog  lecture  appointed  by  the  Honourabte' 
House  of  CommuuB,  1644. — 8.  The  Churches  Lamentation  for  tbe 
€rood  Man's  Loss ;  delivered  in  a  Sermon  to  the  Right  Hononrable 
the  two  Houses  of  Parliament  and  the  Reverend  Assembly  of 
Dhrines,  at  tbe  Funeral  of  that  excellent  Man,  John  Pym,  esquire, 
«  late  Meml}er  of  the  Honourable  House  of  Commons,  1644. — 
9.  God's  Master-Piece,  a  Sermon  tending  to  manifest  God's  glorioot 
appearing  in  the  Building  up  of  Zion,  preached-  before  the  Right 
Honourable  the  House  of  Peers,  March  26,  1645—1645. — 10.  The 
Strong  Helper;  or,  the  Interest  and  Power  of  the  Prayers  of  the 
Destitute,  for  the  BnilcUng  up  of  Zion,  opened  in  a  Sermon  before  tbe 
Commons,  upon  the  solemn  Day  of  their  monthly  Fast,  April  90^ 
1645^1645. — II.  A  Sacred  Record  to  be  made  uf  God*s  Merciea  to 
Zion :  a  Thanksgiving  Sermon  preached  to  the  two  Houses  of  Par- 
liament, the  Lord  Mayor,  Court  of  Aldermen,  and  Common  Connoil 
of  the  City  of  London,  at  Chrisf  s  Church,  June  19,  1645—1645.— 
12.  A  Defence  of  Infant  Baptism :  In  Answer  to  two  TreatukeSy  and 
ao  Appendix,  lately  published  by  Mr.  Jo.  Tombes,  1646. 


Timothy  Armitage,  in  the  year  1647,  was  choaen 
pastor  of  the  first  independent  church  in  the  citj  of  Nor* 
wich.  So  early  as  the  year  1643,  many  pious  people  io^ 
Norwich  joined  Mr.  Bridge's  church  at  Yarmouth,  who 
afterwards  wished  to  have  the  seat  of  the  church  removed 
to  the  former  place ;  but  the  majority  of  members  residing 
at  Yarmouth,  the  proposal  was  declined.  Yet  it  was 
mutually  agreed  that  they  should  form  themselves  into  a 
separate  church.  This  was  done  June  10,  1644,  in  the 
presence  of  several  of  their  bn^thren  from  Yarmouth,  who 
signified  their  approbation  by  expressions  of  the  most  tender 
and  endeared  afiection.  Indeed,  many  of  the  members  of 
both  churches  had  been  companions  in  the  patience  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  in  a  foreign  land,  when  they  enjoyed  sweet 
communion  together  in  the  ordinances  of  the  gospel,  but 
returned  home  upon  the  commencement  of  the  civil  wars. 
The  church  at  Norwich  was  no  sooner  formed  than  namer« 
oils  additions  were  made  to  it.  Mr.  Armitag<^'a(%er  labouring 
several  years  with  ffreat  usefulness,  died  math  regretted  in' 
Decemh!er,  1655.  He  published  a  work  entitled,  "  Enoch's 
Walk  with  God."  Mr.  Thomas  Alkn;  the  silenced  non- 
conformist in  1662,  succeeded  him  in  the  pastoral  office.* 
There  were  at  this  early  period  no  less  than  fifteen  pongre- 
gational  churches  on  the  coast  of  Sufiblk  and  Norfcdk^  under 

•  Meen^  MS.  CoUec.  p.  116.         ^ 


ARMITAGE--G.  WORKMAN— T.  TOUNG.     flSfi 

f 

the  direction  and  enconragement  of  Mr.  Armitage  and 
Mr.  Bridge.* 


Giles  Workman,  A.M. — ^This  worthy  person  was  the 
ion  of  Mr.  Wiili^  Workman,  born  at  Newton  fia^path  in 
Gloucestershire^  in  the  year  1605,  and  educated  at  Magda- 
len-ball, Oxford,  where  he  took  his  decrees  in  arts.  After 
finishing  his  studies  at  the  university, lie  became  vicar  'ot 
Walfora  in  Herefordshire,  then  master  of  the  college  school 
in  Gloucester,  and  at  length,  by  the  favour  of  Matthew 
Hale,  esq.,  afterwards  lord  chief  justice,  he  became  rector 
of  Alderley  in  Grloucestershire^  Wood  says,  <^  he  was  a 
quiet  and  peaceable  puritan."f  He  was  brother  to  Mr. 
John  Workman,  another  puritan  divine,  and  a  great 
sufferer  under  the  oppressions  of  Archbishop  Laud.  Mr. 
Giles  Workman  died  in  1655,  aged  fifty  years ;  when  his 
remains  were  interred  in  Alderley  church.  He  published 
^<  A  modest  Examination  of  Laymen's  Preaching,  discovered 
to  ha  neither  warranted  by  the  Word  of  Grod,  nor  allowed 
by  the  Judgment  or  Practice  of  the  Churches  of  Christ  in 
New  England,"  1646.    He  also  published  several  sermons. 


Thomas  Young,  D.  D. — This  pious  and  learned  divine 
was  probably  educated  in  the  university  of  Cambridge. 
He  was  afterwards  preacher  to  the  Ejiglish  merchants  at 
Hamburgh ;  and,  upon  his  return  to  his  native  country,  he 
became  vicar  of  Stow-Market  in  Suffolk,  in  which  situation 
he  continued  almost  thirty  years.  He  was  a  person  of  great 
learning,  prudence,  and  piety,  and  discovered  great  fidelity 
and  ability  in  the  work  of  the  ministry. t  In  the  year  1643 
he  was  chosen  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  and  proved 
himself  a  distinguished  member  during  the  whole  session. 
Bdhg  called  to  the  metropolis,  he  was  chosen  pastor  at. 
Dukes-place  in  the  city.  In  1645  he  was  appointed  one 
of  the  committee  ctf  accommodation  ;S  ^nd  about  the  same 
time  was  chosen  master  of  Jesus  college,  Cambridge,  by 
the  Earl'  of  Manchester.  In  this  public  situation  he  dis- 
coFeied  his  gieat  abilities  and  usefulness,  till  he  was  turned 


«  Palmer's  Nonson.  Mem.Tol.  iii.  p.  11,  980. 
f  Wood's  AtbensB  Ozon.  vol.  ii.  p.  1S8. 
%  Clark's  Lives  annexed  to  Martyrologie,  p.  194. 
S  Papers  of  Accom.  p.  IS. 


$56  LIVES  OP  THE  PURITANS. 

01]^  in  1650,  for  refusing  the  engagement.*  Upon  this  he 
most  probably  reiired  to  Stow-Market,  where  he  afterwards 
died,  in  the  year  1655,  and  his  remains  were  interred  in  the 
church  under  a  marble  htone,  with  a  monumental  inscription. 
Mr.  Baker  says,  ^<  he  left  behind  him  the  character  of  a 
learned,  wise,  and  pious  man."t  Mr.  Leigh  styles  him  «  a 
leamed  divine,  very  well  versed  in  the  fathers,  and  author  of 
an  excellent  treatise,  entitled  "  Dies  Dominical  He  was 
also  one  of  the  authors  of  Smectymnuus.t 

John  Pbndarves,  A.  B. — This  person  was  bom  ia 
C<»niwaU,  in  the  year  1623,  and  educated  at  Exeter  ooU^^ 
Oxford.  In  the  year  1642,  when  the  nation  was  involved 
in  war,  he  left  the  university,  took  part  with  the  parliament, 
and,  says  the  Oxford  historian,  ^^  having  a  voluble  tongue 
for  canting,  went  up  and  down  preaching  in  houses,  bams, 
under  trees,  hedges,  and  elsewhere."  Though  this  is 
evidently  designed  to  blacken  his  memory,  his  oondoct 
herein  was  surely  as  commendable  as  that  of  many  of  tike 
episcopal  clergy,  who  stretched  all  their  power  to  obtain 
numerous  rich  livings,  but  did  not  preadi  at  all.  <<  Bnt,^' 
says  he,  ^^at  length  he  turned  anabaptist;  and  baying 
obtained  a  great  multitude  of  disciples,  made  himself  head 
of  them,  defied  all  authority,  contradicted  and  opposed  all 
orthodox  ministers,  challenged  them  to  prove  their  callingi 
and  spared  not  many  times  to  interrupt  them  in  their  pulpits^ 
and  to  urge  them  to  disputes.  After  several  chaUmgeSy 
Dr.  Mayne,  of  Christ's  Church,  undertook  to  be  his  respon* 
dent;  and,  according  to  appointment,  they  met  September 
11,  1652,  in  Watlington  church,  Oxfordshire,  when  an 
innumerable  company  of  people  assembled :  but  Peodanyi 
beinff  backed  by  a  great  party  of  anabaptists,  and  the^cnm 
of  the  people,  who  behaved  themselves  very  rudely,  the 
disputation  was  interrupted,  and  so  came  to  nothing."^  H« 
was  lecturer  at  Wanta^  in  Berkshire,  and  pastor  to  the 
baptist  church  at  Abingdon  in  the  same  county.  Cor 
author  acids,  that  ''  he  accounted  himself  a  tnie-bofil 
Englishman ;  but,  because  he  endeavoured  utterly  to  undo 
the  distressed  and  tottering  church  of  Ei^land,  he  irai 
undeserving  of  the  name.    And  as  he  did  these  things  fiff 

♦  Walker's  Attempt,  part  i.  p.  ll(i. 
+  Baker's  MS.  Collec.  vol.  vi.  p.  58w 
t  Leigh  on  Religion  aod  Learning,  p.  S69. 
S  Wood's  Athene  Ozoa.  ?ol.  ii.  p.  127. 


PENDARYES— J.  6IFF0RD.  £57 

no  other  purpose  than  to  obtain  wealth,  and  make  himielf 
famous  to  posterity ;  so  it  would  be  accounted  worthy,  if 
by  my  omission  oi  hinl  his  name  could  have  been  buried  in 
oblivion."  This  bitter  writer,  nevertheless,  allows  him  to 
liave  been  a  tolerable  disputant*  Mr.  Pendarves  died  in 
London,  in  the  beginning  of  September,  1656,  aged  thirty* 
four  years.  His  remains  are  said  to  have  been  carried  to 
Abingdon,  in. a  sugar-cask  filled  up  with  sand ;  whore  they 
were  interred,  with  sreat  funeral  solemnity,  in  t)ic  baptists* 
burying-ground.  He  was  a  fifth  monarchy  nian;t  and, 
being  famous  among  the  party,  his  interment  drew  tc^etber 
so  great  a  concourse  of  people,  that  the  government  took 
notice  of  it,  and  sent  Major-general  Bridges,  with  a  party 
of  soldiers,  to  attend  at  Abingdon  on  the  occasion.  The 
numerous  assemblage  of  people  spent  sevend  days  in  the 
religious  exercises  of  praying  and  preaching  which  was 
attended  with  some  rude  behaviour  and  confusion.; 

His  Works  — 1.  Arrows  against  Babylon ;  or,  Qaerirs  scr^  ing  to  a 
clear  Discovery  of  the  Mystery  of  Iniquity,  1656. — 2.  Endravonrs 
for  Reformation  of  Saints*  Apparel,  1656. — 3.  Queries  for  the  People 
called  Quakers,  1656.— 4-  Prefatory  Epistle  to  a  Book  entiUed« 
*  The  Prophets  Malachy  and  Isaiah  prophesying  to  the  Saints  and 
Professors  of  this  Generation,'  1656. — 5.  Sevend  Sermons,  1657. — 
And  various  other  small  articles. 


John  Gifford. — This  person  was  bom  in  the  county  of 
Kent ;  afterwards  he  became  a  major  in  the  king^s  army 
durinj^  the  civil  wars.  He  was  concerned  in  the  insurrectioa 
raiscdin  that  county ;  for  which  he  was  apprehended,  and^ 
together  with  eleven  others,  received  the  sentence  of  death. 
But,  the  night  before  he  was  to  suffer,  hb  sister  coming  to 
visit  him,  and  finding  the  centinels  who  kept  the  door  of 
the  prison  fast  asleep,  and  his  companions  in  a  state  of 
iatoxication,  she  urged  him  to  embrace  the  favourable 
opportunity  and  escape  for  his  life.      Having  made  his 

<  •  Wood's  Atheote,  ▼ol.  if.  p.  187. 

-¥  The  fifth  monarchy  men  arose  about  the  time  of  the  death  of  Charles  I. 

1  during  the  commonwealth.    They  expected  the  immediate  appearance 

Chriit  to  establish  on  earth  a  new  monarchy  or  kingdom,  and  to  com* 

B  hb  glorious  personal  reign  of  a  thousand  years.      As  there  are  four 

aaipmi  mentioned  in  ancient  history,  which  successively  gained  the 

kn  of  the  world,  so  these  men,  believing  that  tbitf  new  spiritual  kiag^ 

[Christ  was  to  be  theJi/)tA,  received  the  appellaUon  Qfjlftk  monmrckjf 

^  MS.  CoUcc.  p.  468. 

U  III.  s 


LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS.  * 

escape,  he  fled  into  the  fields  and  crept  into  a  ditcb,  where 
he  remained  about  three  days,  till  search  for  him  was  orer; 
and  then,  by  the  help  of  friends,  he  went  in  disguise  to 
London.  After  concealing  himself  for  some  time  in  the 
city,  and  at  various  places  in  the  country,  he  went  io  Bed- 
ford, where,  though  an  entire  stranger,  he  commenced  the 
practice  of  physic ;  but  still  remained  very  debauched  in 
his  life.  He  was  greatly  addicted  to  drunkenness,  swear- 
ing, gaming,  and  similar  immoral  practices  In  his  gaming 
he  usually  found  himself  a  loser,  which  made  him  sometimes 
disccmtented,  and  resolve  to  leave  off  the  practice ;  but'  his 
resolutions  were  soon  broken,  and  he  returned  to  his  old 
coursie.  One  night,  having  lost  fifteen  pounds,  he  became 
almost  outrageous,  attended  with  most  reproachful  thoughts 
of  God ;  tint  looking  into  one  of  Mr.  Bolton^s  books,  SQUie^ 
thing  laid  fast  hola  upon  his  conscience,  and  brought  binl 
for  Uie  first  time  io  a  deep  sense  of  his  sins.  Under  these 
painftil  convictions  he  laboured  for  about  a  month,  when 
God  by  his  word  so  discovered  to  him  the  forgiveness  of 
his  sins,  through  faith  in  Jesus  Christ,  that,  as  he  used  to 
say,  he  never  lost  sight  of  it  afterwards. 

Mr.  Gifford  having  thus  tasted  that  the  Lord  was  gracious, 
presently  sought  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  religious 
people  in  Bedford,  whom  he  had  before  grievously  perse- 
cuted, and  had  even  resolved  to  murder  the  minister  who 
had  occasionally  prcaghed  to  them.  Indeed,  he  imd  been  a 
man  of.so  profligate  and  base  a  character,  that  they  werefoi 
same  time  jealous  of  his  profession ;  but  he,  being  naturallj 
of  a  bold  spirit,  still  thrust  himself  among  them,  both  in 
theit  public  meetings  and  private  company.  Having  made 
SuflScient  trial,  they  embraced  him  as  a  disciple  and  a 
brother ;  and  after  some  time  he  began  to  preach  amoiu; 
them.  The  very  first  sermon  he  preached  was  ma£ 
instrumental  in  the  conversion  of  a  female,  whose  future  life 
hccsime  an  ornament  to  her  profession.  He  afterwards  col- 
lected the  most  pious  persons  in  the  congregation  together; 
and,  having  repeatedly  assembled  and  prayed  to  God  for 
his  direction  and  blessing,  they  formed  themselvea  into  a 
christian  church.  They  were  twelve  in  all,  incltidii^  Mr. 
Giflbrd,  and  all  ancient  and  grave  christians,  ana  well 
known  to  one  another.  Here  was  laid  the  foundation  of 
that  religious  society  of  which  the  celebitttod  Mr.  John 
Bunyan  was  afterwards  pastor,  and  which  exists  and 
flourishes  at  the  present  time.    It  was  fonned  upou  strict 


/ 

I 


CAPEL.  «9 

Gon^re^iohal  principles,  admitting  both  paedobaptists  and 
antipaedobaptis^,  and  still  continues  on  the  same  broad 
foundation. 

The  membere  of  this  infant  society,  after  giving  them*- 
,  selyes  to  the  Lord  and  to  one  another,  unanimously  chose 
Mr.  (jriffi)rd  to  the  office  of  pastor.  He  accepted  the  charge^ 
and  i^aye  himself  up  to  the  service  of  the  Lord  and  his 
people,  to  walk  with  them,  watch  over  them,  and  dispense 
among  them  the  Inysteries  of  the  kingdom.  This  was  about 
the  year  165L  The  principle  on  which  they  entered  into 
church  fellowship,  and  on  which  they  added  fresh  members^ 
waS)  '^  Faith  in  Christ  anc}  holiness  of  life,"  without  respect 
to  any  outward  circumstances  whatever.  <^  By  this  means,'' 
it  is  said,  ''  grace  and  faith  were  encouraged,  and  love  and 
amity  maintained ;  disputing  and  occasion  of  janglings, 
and  unprofitable  questions,  avoided ;  and  many  thiit  were 
weak  in  ikith  confirmed  in  the  blessings  of  eternal  11  fe.'^ 
Mr.  Gifford  died  September  1^1,  1656;  who,  on  his  deaths 
bed,  wrcke  a  most  excellent  letter  to  the  congregation, 
earnestl|r  persuading  them  to  continue  in  the  faithful 
maintenance  of  their  principles,  and  afiectionately  exhorting 
them  to  promote  peace,  holiness,  and  brotherly  love.* 


Richard  Capel,  A,  M. — This  worthy  divine  was  bom 
in  the  city  of  Gloucester,  in  1586,  and  descended  from  the 
ancient  family  of  that  name,  being  a  near  relation  to  Loid 
(}apel.  His  lather  was  an  alderman  of  the  city ;  one  whu 
greatly  promoted  the  cause  of  Christ  in  the  place;  and  was 
a  zealous  friend  to  the  suffering  nonconfornii^^ts.  His  soa 
was  educated  in  Magdalen  college,  Oxford,  where  he 
gained  a  considerable  reputation^  and  was  chosen  /ellow  of 
ike  house.  He  had  many  learned  pupils,  who  became 
&mous  in  their  day ;  among  whom  were  Dr.  Frewen,  after- 
wards archbidiop  of  York,  and  the  celebrated  Mr.  William 
Femble.  Mr.  Capel,  being  desirous  of  greater  usefulness  to 
souls,  ,iemoved  from  the  univensity  and  entered  upon  the 
ministerial  work,  first  at  Bstington,  then  at  Pitcfacomb  in 
bis  own  county*  He  did  not  enter  into  the  sacred  office  for 
apiece  of  bread,  but  for  the  advancement  of  the  Redeemer's 
kingdom  and  the  salvation  of  men.  Therefor.^  he  had  no  ' 
sooner  entered  fupon  the  ^ork^  than  he  gave  himself  wholly 
to  reading,  to  exhortation,  to  doctrine ;  and  his  profiting 

•  Meen*s  MS.  CeUec.  p.  SISH^H,  SS5;    M  trangcribod  frcua   the 
•rif^al  chufch-book  at  Bedford. 


«»  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

intolerable  and  abominable ;  yet  he  could  Uttre  been  satisfied 
ivitli  moderate  episcopacy.  He  held  a  profession  of  faith 
and  repc^niand^,  and  a  subjection  to  the  ordinances  of  Christy 
to  be  the  rule  of  admission  to  church  fellowship;  but  ad* 
mitted  to  baptism  the  children  of  those  who  had  been 
baptized,  withgut  requiring  the  parents  to  own  any  covenant 
or  being  in  church  felhm^hip.  He,  as  well  as  his  colleague, 
considered  the  subbath  as  beginning  on  the  Saturday 
evening. 

Mr.  Pfoyesj'at  the  close  of  life,  endured  a  long  and  tedious 
affliction,  which  he  bore  with  christian  patience  and  holy 
cheerfulness.  He  died  triumphing  ih  the  Loid,  October 
8S,  1656,  aged  forty-eight  years.  He  possessed  a  quick 
invention,  a  sound  judgment,  a  strong  memory,  and  was  a 
good  linguist,  an  able  disputant,  an  excellent  counsellor,  and 
one  of  the  greatest  men  of  tluB  age.*  He  was  much  bdp^f^d 
by  his  people,  and  his  memory  is  there  respected  at  the 
present  day.  He  published  a  piece  entitled,  ^'  Moaes  and 
Aaron,  or  the  Rights  of  Church  and  State  f  and  ^<  A  CbIb- 
chism,"  for  the  use  of  his  flock,  which,  to  the  honour  of  Ul; 
memory,  has  lately  been  reprinted.f 


Edward  Bright,  A.  M. — This  worthy  minist^of  Cbriit 
was  br>rn  at  Greenwich,  near  Iiondon,  and  educated  in  the 
university  of  Cambridge,  where  he  was  chosen  fellow  of  his 
college.}  AHerwards  he  became  vicar  of  Goudhunt  in 
Keijt,  where  he  fell  under  the  displeasure  of  ArcblHshop 
Laud.  In  the  year  1640  he  was  cited,  with  other  puriiwi 
ministers  in  Kent,  to  appear  before  his  lordship's  visiton  «t 
Feversham,  to  answer  for  not  reading  the  prayer  against  the 
Scots.  According  to  summons,  th<y  appeared  before  Sk 
Nathaniel  Brent,  the  archbishop's  vicar-general,  and  other 
officers :  ^"uen  Mr.  Bright  was  first  called,  and  being  asked 
whether  lie  had  read  the  prayer,  he  answered  in  the  negative. 
Upon  which  the  arclnkacon  immediately  suspend^  bim 
from  his  office  and  benefice,  without  the  least  admonttkm, 
or  even  giving  him  a  moment  of  time  for  consideration. 
This  rash  act  was  deemed,  even  by  the  favourites  of  JLaiid, 
to  be  neither  prudential  nor  canonical.^  It  does  not  appear 
how  long  the  good  man  continued  under  this  cruel  setttoaces 

*  • 

♦  Mather's  Hist  of  New  Eng.  b.  iii.  p.  145'-148. 

+  Mors"  aod  Parish's  Hist.  p.  43,  46,  41. 

i  Baker's  MS.  Conec.  vol.  ?i,  p.  81. 

S  Life  of  Mr.  Wikoo,  p.  15.    £dil.  ISTt. 


JBRIGHT— PECK.  263 

but  he  was  most  probably  released  upon  tbe  meeting  of  the 
long  parliament,  toward[i>  the  close  of  this  year. 

Mr.  Bright  was  afu-rwards  chosen  fellow  of  Emanuel 
college,  Cambridge;  bul  he  still  <.oniinued  in  his  beloved 
work  of  prciiching.  He  was  next  chosen  minister  of  Christ- 
church,  London  ;  but  he  did  not  long  survive  his  removal. 
Duritag  his  hst  sickness,  be  often  said,  ^'  1  thaiik  God  I  came 
not  to  London  for  money.  I  brought  a  good  conscience 
.from  Cambridge,  and  I  thai»k  God  I  have  not  lived  to  spoil 
.it.''  He  died  in  the  month  of  December,  li)b6 ;  when  his 
funeral  sermon  was  prciiched  by  Mr.  Samuel  Jacomb,  and 
afterwards  published.  He  was  zealous,  courageous,  and 
conscieatious  in  tlie  suppoit  of  divine  truth ;  jet  of  great 
candour,  affection,  and  moderation.  He  was  a  man  of  great 
piety,  ffood  learning,  rxcclhnt  ministerial  abilities,  and 
admirable  industry.  Many  elegies  were  published  upon 
his  death.*  He  had  the  character  of  a  very  good  man,  and 
was  endowed  with  a  considerable  share  of  patience,  which 
indeed  he  very  much  needed,  having  the  affliction  of  a  very 
firoward  and  x^amorous  wife.  On  this  account,  many 
thought  it  a  ha{)piness  to  him  to  be  dull  of  hearing.  This 
WOTtiiy  servant  of  Christ  is,  by  mistake,  included  among  the 
ejected  ministers  atlcr  the  restoration.f 


Robert  Peck. — This  zealous  puritan  was  rector  oi 
jligfaam  in  Norfolk,  to  which  he  was  preferred  in  tlie  year 
iS06.  He  was  a  zealous  nonconformist  to  tiie  ceremonies 
^uul  corruptions  of  the  church,  for  which  be  was  severely 
persecuted  by  Bishop  Harsnet.  Having  catechized  his 
hmuly  and  sung  a  psalm  in  his  osfrn  house,  on  a  Lord's  day 
evening,  when  some  of  his  neighbours  attended,  his  lordship 
«njoin^  him,  and  all  who  were  present,  to  do  penance,  re- 
quiring them  to  say,  /  confess  my  errors,  'f  hose  who 
nfiieed  were  immediately  excommunicated,  and  required 
4a  tfm  heavy  costs.  All  this  appeared  under  the  bishop's 
own  hand.  For  this,  and  similar  instances  of  his  oppression 
'Md  omelty,  the  citizens  of  Norwich,  in  the  year  16!?3, 
jpiMftutodi  m  complaint  against  his  lordship  in  the  house  of 


.1^  the  bishop's  ^swer  to  this  complaint,  he  had  nothing 
"^^^tMjoX^Ax.  Peck's  doctrine  and  life,  only  his  non- 
0^;    He  pleaded,  in  his  own  defence,   <^Tbat 


Semon  fbr  Mr.  Bright. 
faafyPt  |fefli««oli  U.  p.  988. 


t64  LIV£S  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Mr.  Peck  had  been  sent  to  him  by  the  justices  of  the  peace, 
for  keeping  a  conventicle  at  night,  and  in  hi&  own  house; 
that  his  catechizing  was  only  an  excuse  to  draw  the  people 
together;  and  that  he  had  infected  the  parish  with  strange 
opinions :  as,  <  that  the  people  are  not  to  kneel  as  they 
enter  the  church ;  that  it  is  superstition  to  bow  at  the  name 
of  Jesus ;  and  that  the  church  is  no  more  sacred  than  anj 
other  building/"  His  grace  further  affirmed,  that  Mr. 
Feck  had  been  convicted  of  nonconformity,  and  of  keeping 
conventicles,  in  1615  and  1617;  and  that,  in  16!^,  he  was 
taken  in  his  own  house,  with  twenty-two  of  his  neiglibonts, 
at  a  conventicle.*  How  far  the  house  of  commons  acquiesced 
in  his  lordship's  defence,  or  whether  they  considered  it  a 
sufficient  justification  x>f  his  arbitrary  proceedings,  we 
.have  not  been  able  to  learn. 

Mr.  Peck  suffered  much  under  the  persecutions  of 
Bishop  Wren ;  when  he  was  driven  from  his  flock,  deprived 
of  his  benefice,  and  forced  to  seek  his  bread  in  a  foreign 
land.f  He  is  indeed  said  to  have  been  deprived  for  non" 
residence,  which  was  the  case  with  many  of  his  brethreiu 
JBy  the  terrific  threatenings  of  their  persecutors,  and  having 
no  better  prospect  than  that  of  excommunication,  impriscm- 
ment,  or  other  ecclesiastical  censure,  they  were  driven  frmn 
their  beloved  flocks,  or  they  retired  for  a  time  into  some 
private  situation,  in  hope  that  the  storm  might  soon  be  over; 
lor  which  they  were  cottured  as  nonresidents.  This  was 
DO  doubt  the  case  with  Mr.  Peck.  He  and  Mr.  Thomai 
Allen  are  said  to  have  had  so  much  influence  upon  their 
parishioners,  that,  after  the  deprivation  of  the  two  mimsteiK) 
none  of  them  would  pay  any  thing  to  those  who  served  their 
cures.  This  shews  how  greatly  they  were  beloved4  Hav- 
ing fled  to  New  England,  the  church  atHigham,  in  the  new 
colony,  rejoiced  for  a  season  in  his  light.  He  remained 
there  several  vears ;  till  afterwards  he  received  an  invitation 
from  his  old  niends  at  Higham,  in  his  native  country^  when 
he  returned  home,  laboured  am(M]g  them,  and  was  of  eminent 
service  to  the  church  of  Grod.§ 

The  following  account  is  given  of  Mr.  Peck  by  one  .of 
our  historians,  me  design  of  which  is  too  obvious :  '<  He 
was  a  man  of  a  very  violent  schismatical  spirit.    He  pulled 


•  MS.  Remarks,  p.  71S— 715.    . 

f  NalsoB'i  CoUec.  yoI.  ii.  p.  400, 401.— ^Rosbworth'i  Collec*  vol.  iU. 
p.  S53. 

Wren's  Parentalia,  p.  95. 

Mather's  Hist,  of  New  £o|f.  b.  iii.  p.  914. 


\ 


S.  GEREE.  965 

down  the  rails  in  (he  chancel'of  the  church  at  Higham,  and 
levelled  the  altar  and  the  whole  chancel  a  foot  below  the 
church,  as  it  remains  to  this  day ;  but,  being  prosecuted  for 
it  by  Bishop  Wren,  he  fled  to  New  England,  with  many  of 
his  parishioners,  who  sold  their  estates  for  half  their  value, 
and  conveyed  all  their  effects  to  the  new  plantation.  They 
elected  the  town  and  colony  of  Highani,  where  many  of 
their  posterity  still  remain.  He  promised  never  to  desert 
them ;  but,  hearing  that  the  bishops  were  deposed,  he  left 
them  to  shift  for  themselves,  and  came  back  to  England  in 
1646,  after  a  .banishment  of  ten  years.  He  resumed  his 
charge  at  Higham,  where  he  died  in  the  year  1656.  His 
funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  Mr.  Nathaniel  Joceline^ 
and  afterwards  published  ;"*  but  this  we  have  not  seen. 


Stephen  Geree,  A.  B. — This  person  was  elder  brother 
to  Mr.  John  Geree,  another  puritan  divine ;  was  bom  in 
Yorkshire,  in  the  year  1594,  and  educated  in  Magdalen- 
hall,  Oxford.     Having  finished  his  academical  pursuits  at 
the  university,  he  entered  upon  the  ministerial  work,  but 
laboured  most  probably  in  the  two-fold  capacity  of  minister 
and  schoolmaster.    On  the  approach  of  the  civil  wars,  he 
took  part  with  the  parliament,  became  minister  of  Wonncrsh, 
near  Guildford  in  Surrey ;  but  he  afterwards  removed  to 
Abinger  in  tlie  same  county.     Wood,  in  contempt,  styles 
him  ^<  a  zealous  brother  in  the  cause  that  was  driven  on  by 
the  saints."f    He  appears  to  have  been  living  in   1656, 
but  died  probably  soon  after  that  period.     He  published 
several  sermons,  one  of  which  is  entitled,  "  The  Ornament 
of  Women;  or,  a  Description  of  the  true  Excellency  of 
Women,  at  the  Funeral  of  Mrs.  Eliz.  Machel,  on  Prov. 
xxxi.  29, 30"— 1639.    He  also  published  «  The  Doctrine 
of  the  Antinomians  by  Evidence  of  God's  Truth  plainly 
Confuted,  in  an  Answer  to  divers  dangerous  Doctrines  in 
the  seven  first  Sermons  of  Dr.  Tob.  Crisp,"  1644 ;  and 
^^  The  Golden  Meane,  being  some  Considerations,  together 
with  some  Cases  of  Conscience,  resolved,  for  the  more 
frequent  Administration  of  the  Lord's  Supper,"  1656- 

'     *  Blomefield's  Hisl.  of  Norfolk,  toI.  I.  p.  6S8. 
^  Wood^  JUhenm  Oxon.  toI.  ii.  p.  138. 


•      « 


S66  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Edwaio  Corbet,  D.  D. — Thk  ivorAj  person  was  bom 
at  Pontesbury  in  Shropshire,  in  the  year  (60^,  descended 
from  the  ajicieiit  family  of  Corbels  in  thai  county,  and  edu- 
cated in«Merton  college,  Oxfoni,  where  he  was  chosen 
iisllow.     He  was  made  proctor  of  the  uniyersity;   but^ 
reusing  confoitoity  in  certain  points,  he  was  called  before 
the  vice*cbancelIor.    He  was  no  efiemy  to  the  church  of 
EnglamI,  but  could  not  with  a  good  conscience  obs^crve  all 
its  superstitious  ceremonies.    And  while  the  vice-chancellor 
laid  his  case  before  Archbishop  Laud,  chancellor  of  the 
iniiversity,  he  petitioned  his  lordship  for  relief;  but  it  was 
|i0t  li^y  he  could  obtain  the  least  redress.*    The  civil 
war  having  commenced,  and  Oxford  being  garrisoned  by 
the  l^ing^s  forces,  he  was  deprived  of  his  fellowship,  ara 
expelled  from  the  college,  for  refusing  to  espouse  the  royal 
cause.t    Archbishop  Laud,  being  afterwards  prisoner  in 
the  Tower,  refused  him  the  rectory  of  Cliatham  in  Kent, 
because  he  was  a  puritan;   and  when  he  was  appointal 
rector  of  that  place,  by. order  of  parliament,  his  lordship 
ttill  refused  his  allowance ;  but  his  refusal  was  to  no  pur- 
po6c4    He  was  witness  against  the  archbishop  at  bis  triidy 
and  deposed  '^  that,  in  the  year  1^38,  his  grace  visitiu 
Merton  colh^ge,  by  his  deputy,  Sir  John  Lamb,  one  artidfe 
propoiHkded  to  the  wardens  and  fellows  was,  ^  \¥heiher 
they  made  diue  reverence,  by  bowing  towards  the  idtar^ 
when  they  came  into  the  chapel /---That  he  and  Mr.  Cheynd 
were  cpjoiaid  by  the  visitors  and  comroisstoners  to  use  Ais 
ceranoBy ;  but  they  refused ;  for  which,  though  he  assigned 
iki&  reasons  for  vetoing,  he  was  particularly  threatened. — 
That,  after  this,  Dr.  Frewin,  the  vice-chancellor,  toU  him 
that  he  was  sent  to  him  by  the  archbishop,  i^uiring  him  to 
use  this  ceiieiiiony.<«<i~That  the  aichbishop  afterwards  sent 
injunctions  to  Merton  college,  requiring  them  io  bow  towards 
the  altar,  and  the  visitors  questioned  those  who  refused. — 
And  that  in  Magdalen  college  there  was  a  crucifix  placed 
over  the  communion  table,  and  pictures  in  the  windows; 
and  a  n^v  crucifix  was  set  up  in  Christ's  diurch,  none  c^ 
which  innovations  wme  ever  faemrd  of  before  the  time  dT 
this  aichbishop."^ 

Mr.  Corbet  was  chosen  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines, 
one  of  the  committee  tor  the  examination  and  ordinatioa  of 

*  Wharton's  Tronbles  of  Land,  vol.  ii.  p.  15J»,  156. 
f  Wood's  Athens  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  88. 
^  Pi^nne's  Breviate-of  Land,  p. 97,^8. 
^  Pr\nne's  Cant  Doome,  p.  71. 


CORBET.  267 

ViiBisten,  and  one  of  the  preachers  before  the  iMurliameiit. 
He- was  ^appointed  one  of  the  preachers  to  reodncife  the 
Oxford  scholars  to  the  parliament,  one  of  the  visitors  of 
th»t  uiiiverbity,  and  orator  and  canon  of  Christ's  Church,  in 
the  ro(MU  of  Dr.  Hammond.  It  is  observed,  ''  that,  though 
he  was  one  of  the  visitors,  he  seldom  or  lu^ver  sat  among 
thrm.  And  v«  hon  he  usually  {^reached  at  St.  Mary's  church, 
the  year  Ix'fon*  the  king  was  beheaded,  he  would,  in  his 
long  prayer  before  sermon,  desire  ^  that  (lod  would  open 
the  king^s  eyt's  to  lay  to  heart  all  the  blood  that  he  had 
q;)ilt.  And  that  he  would  prosper  the  parliament  and  their 
blessed  procciedings."  He  was  an  easy  maii,'Mt  is  added, 
<<  and  apt  to  be  guided  by  the  persuasions  of  otliers;  and, 
therefore,  by  Cheynel  and  Wilkinson,  two  violent  and 
impetuous  presbyterians,  he  was  put  into  the  roll  of  vhitora, 
nerely  to  make  a  nose  of  wax."*  However,  he  did  not 
continue  long  in  tliis  situation ;  but,  being  made  rector  of 
Great  Uasely  in  Oxfordshire,  he  nrmovod  to  the  chaige  of 
his  flock,  wiierc  he  continued  to  the  end  of  his  days.  He 
took  his  doctor's  degree  in  1648,  and  dic>d  in  London, 
in  January,  1657,  aged  fifty-five  years;  when  his  remains 
were  "conveyed  to  Great  Hasely,  and  interred  in  the  chancd 
cf  the  church.t  Ho  was  a  good  divine,  a  valuable  preacher, 
tad  a  person  remarkable  for  integrity.  His  wife  was 
dangfato:  of  Sir  Nathaniel  Brent,  and  grand-daughter  of  Dr. 
Rotert  Abbot,  bishop  of  Salisbury.^  '  She  was  a  lady  of 
most  exemplary  piety.  Iler  funeral  sermon  was  preached 
by  Dr.  Wilkinson,  and  afterwards  published,  with  some 
account  of  iter  excellent  diameter.^  Dr.  Corbet  appean 
to  have  been  author  of  ^'  The  Worldling's  Looking-glass; 
or,  the  Danger  of  losing  his  Soul  for  Gain,"  1630.  "  God'a 
Piovidence,  a  Sermon  before  the  House  of  Commons," 
1642.  And  most  prol)ably  some  others.  Some  of  Bishop 
Abbofs  manuscripts  iell  into  his  hands,  particularly  his 
Latin  Commentary  upon  the  whole  Epistle  to  the  Romans. 
This  learned  and  laborious  work,  in  four  volumes  folio. 
Dr.  Corbet  deported  in  the  BodUuan  library,  Oxford,  whcM 
it  still  remains.! 

.   *  Grey'i  EEiiaiiiHition  of  Neat,  vol.  ii.  p.  900. 
f  Wood's  Athenae  Oxon.  voU  ii.  p.  749. 

?Bio|c.  Brilnn.  Tol.  I.  p.  93.    Edit.  1778. 
RcBMet  Obfookle,  p.  16.— Clark's  Uwes  annexed  to  Martyrolog'^f , 
y.  414.  I  Biog.  Britao.  ibid.  p.  S4. 


f6S  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

James  Cranpord,  A.  M. — This  excellent  muiister 
the  son  of  Mr.  James  Cranford,  many  years  minister  and 
master  of  the  free*8chool  in  Coventry.  He  was  born  in  that 
city  in  the  year  160!^,  and  educated  in  Baliol  college,  Oxford, 
where  he  took  his  degrees.  Upon  his  leaving  the  university, 
he  became  minister  in  Northamptonshire,  then  removed  to 
London,  and  became  rector  of  St.  Christopher  le  StockSi 
near  the  old  Exchange.  This  was  in  the  year  1642.  The 
following  year  he  was  appointed,  by  order  of  parliament^ 
to  be  one  of  the  licensers  of  the  press  for  works  m  divinity. 
In  the  year  1644,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  Lcmdon 
ministers  to  ordain  suitable  young  men  to  the  christian 
ministry.  And  in  1645,  he  was  brought  into  trouble  for 
speaking  against  several  members  of  the  house  of  conunons. 
He  was  charged  with  saying,  tliat  they  had  carried  on  a 
correspondence  with  the  royalists,  and  were  false  to  the 
parliament ;  for  which  he  was  committed  to  prison ;  where 
ne  continued  about  five  weeks,  when  the  house  of  commons 

Srocceded  to  an  examination  of  his  case,  and  passed  upon 
im  the  following  sentence : — ^^  That  the  words  spoken  bj 
Mr.  Cranford  against  some  members  of  the  house  of  com* 
raons,  and  of  the  committee  of  both  kingdoms,  thai  tkejf 
kept  intelligence  xsnth  the  king's  party ^  and  were  fabe  U> 
the  parliament^  were  false  and  scandalous. — That  Bfr» 
Cranford,  at  a  full  exchange  In  London,  and  at  West* 
minster,  shall  confess  the  wrong  he  hath  done  them  in*  so 
scandalizing  them. — ^Tbat  he  shall  pay  five  hundred  pounds 
to  each  of  those  four  members  for  damages. — ^And  that  ho 
shall  be  committed  to  the  Tower  during  the  pleasure  (rf*  the 
house.^'^*  Whether  this  heavy  sentence  was  legal  or  ill^al, 
we  will  not  pretend  to  determine. 

Thongh  Afr.  Cranford  thus  felt  the  vengeance  oi  his 
cuperiors,  he  does  not  appear  to  have  been  a  man  of  a  turt 
bulent  spirit;  and  though  he  mieht  be  provoked  to  use  the 
above  unjustifiable  expressions,  he  was  a  man  who  bore  an 
excellent  character,  and  was  highly  esteemed  among  his 
brethren.  Wood  denominates  him  an  '^  exact  linguist,  wdl 
acquainted  with  the  fathers,  schoolmen,  and  modem  divines} 
a  zealous  presbyterian,  and  a  laborious  preacher."f  Fuller 
adds,  ^^  that  he  was  a  famous  disputant,  orthodox  in  judg« 
mcnt,  and  a  person  of  great  humility,  charity,  moderation, 
a(id  kindness  towards  all  men.'';t    Uq  died  April  27, 1657} 

m 

•  Whitlocke'i  Mem.  p.  144,  145. 

f  Wood*i  Athenas  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  1S3. 

i  Fuller's  Worthies,  part  iti.  p.  118, 


CRANFORDl-BLAKK.  9G> 

aged  fifly-fiye  years;  when  his  remains  were  interred  in 
St.  Christopher's  church. 

•His  Works. — I.  The  Tears  of  Ireland,  wherein  is  represented  a  lift 
of  the  anhcard-of  Cruelties  of  the  blood-thirsty  Jesuits  and  the  Popish 
Faction,  1642. — 2.  An  Exposition  oh  the  Prophesies  of  Daniel, 
1644. — 3.  Haeresco-Machia;  or,  the  Mischief  which  Heresies  do,  and 
the  Means  to  prevent  them,  1646. — 4.  A  Confutation  of  the  Anabap* 
tists. — He  wrote  also  numerous  Prefaces  to  other  men's  works. 


Thomas  Blake,  A.  M. — ^Tbis  pious  servant  of  ChrisI 
was  bom  in  the  county  cf  Stafford,  in  the  year  1597,  and 
educated  in  Christ's  Church,  Oxford.  Haying  finished  his 
studies  at  the  university,  he  entered  upon  the  ministerial 
work,  and  obtained  some  preferment  in  the  church.  He 
became  a  faithful  steward  of  the  manifold  mysteries  of 
God.  He  was  zealous  in  the  work  of  the  Lord,  and  his 
labours  were  made  eminently  useful.  He  was  the  faithful 
and  laborious  pastor  of  St.  Alkmond's  church,  Shrewsbury, 
but  it  is  doubtful  whether  this  was  the  first  place  of  his  neL^ 
Ueoient.  When  the  parliament  prevailed,  and  episcopacy 
was  abolished,  Mr.  Blake  took  the  covenant ;  but  was  after- 
wards turned  out  for  refusing  the  engagement.*  In  the  year 
1647,  he  accepted  an  invitation  to  Tamworth  in  hb  native 
county,  where  he  continued  in  the  ministerial  work  all  the 
lest  of  his  days.  Here  he  was  appointed  one  of  the 
assistant  commissioners  of  Staffordshire,  for  ejectii^  ignorant 
and  scandalous  ministers  and  schoolmasters.  He  died  at 
Tamworth,  aged  sixty  years,  and  his  remains  were  interred 
in  his  own  church,  June  11,  1657.t  He  was  a  man  of 
great  piety,  good  learning,  and  a  constant  and  excdlent 
preacher. 

Mr.  Anthony  Burgess,  afterwards  ejected  in  166?,t  who 
preached  Mr.  Blake's  funeral  sermon,  ^tves  the  foUowing 
commendations  .of  hb  character: — He  was  a  man  of 
inany  excellent  qualifications.  He  possessed  good  natural 
talents,  much  improved  by  diligent  application,  and  sancti* 
fied  by  the  grace  of  Grod.  The  most  eminent  feature  in  hit 
character  was  his  great  piety,  for  which  he  was  highly 
esteemed.    And  as  he  was  a  man  of  conrideiable  learning, 

*  Calamy'i  Accoaot,  yoI.  ii.  p.  184. 

-^  Wo6d*8  Athens  Ozod.  yoI.  ii.  p.  ISS. 

t  Palmerli  Jf  oncon.  Hem.  yoI.  ili.  p.  950. 


f70  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

and  ihat  learning  being  directed  to  proper  objects,  he  wat 
enabled  to  do  more  work  in  the  vineyard  of  Christ  thaa 
many  of  his  brethren.  •  He  did  not  overlook  the  younger 
part  of  his  flock.  Being  well  persuaded  of  the  importahce 
of  early  religious  instruction,  he  discovered  great  diligence 
in  catechizing  the  youth  of  his  congregation.  He  possessed 
a  peculiar  tenderness  of  spirit,  which  fitted  him  in  a  more 
eminent  degree  for  this  part  of  his  work.  As  a  true 
chepherd  over  the  flock  of  Christ,  he  sought  not  theirs^  but 
them :  not  any  worldly  advantage,  but  the  salvation  of  tlieir 
souls.  He  was  a  wise  and  prudent  counsellor.  Persons 
voder  trouble  of  soul  sought  his  advice,  and  he  gave  it  with 
great  alrility  and  readiness.  But,  while  he  administcrecl 
consolation  to  others,  God  sometimes  left  him  to  walk  ii^ 
npiritual  darkness;  yet,  at  length,  he  dispelled  those 
uoomy  fears,  and  caused  him  to  rejoice  in  his  salvatiooi 
IJpoa  his  death-bed  he  found  the  comfort  of  the  doctrine  ht 
had  preached.  He  had  not  the  least  doubt  of  the  truth 
of  it ;  and  he  left  the  world  in  full  assurance  of  eteioal 
life.* 

Mr.  Samuel  Shaw,  afterwards  silenced  at  the  restonttioUff 
who  delivered  Mr.  Blake's  funeral  oration,  addressed  the 
people  as  follows :-— ^^  While  he  lived,  it  was  as  impossibly 
lor  him  not  to  love  you,  as  it  is  for  you  ix>  make  aim  mji 
adequate  return  of  love :  and  his  care  was  answerable  to  his 
love.  His  writings  were  not  read  without  satisfaction ;  and 
his  sermons  were  nevef  heard  without  approbation,  aj]4 
seldom  without  following  advantage.  His  awful  giB'Thtj^ 
ancl  commanding  presence  could  not  be  considered  without 
reverence,  nor  his  conversation  without  imitation.  To  se^ 
him  live  was  a  provocation  to  holy  life:  ta  see  him  ^ 
might  have  made  us  weary  of  life.  When  God  restrained 
hiia  from  this  place,  he  made  his  chamber  his  church,  and 
his  bed  biiipulpit;  in  which  I  heard  him  offer  «p  ma^jr 
prayers  to  Uod  for  you.  His  death  made  him  nundful  of 
you^  who  have  been  too  unmindful  of  his  life.  I  did  not 
>  see  that  aay  thing  made  him  so  backward  to  resign  uj^  his 
soal  to  God  as  his  unparalleled  cave  for  you.  nis  deatk 
seemed  litfle  to  him  in  comparison  of  your  happiness.  { 
sat  by  himi  and  I  only,  when,  with  a  Jfiood  of  tears,  ba 
pfayed :  Lord,  charge  not  me  with  the  ignorance  of  tkis 

• 

•  Faneral  SermoD  for  Mr.  Blak«.    ' 

f  Palm«r's  Noncon.  Mem.  Y9l.  li.  p.  404» 


JANBWAlr.  171 

people.  His  wisdom,  justioe,  and  tenderness^  were  such 
predomininit  graces,  that  it  is  as  much  mj  inability  to 
describe  them  as  it  is  my  utihappinesB  not  to  imitaie 

them."* 

His  Works.— 1.  Birth's  Privilege ;  or,  tbe  Right  of  Infants  to 
Baptismc,  1644. — 2.  Infonts  Baptisine  freed  from  Antichristiaiiisinek 
In  a  full  Repulse  given  to  Mr.  Ch.  Blackwood,  in  his  Assault  of  that 
Part  of  Clirist's  Possession  which  he  holds  in  his  Heritage  of  Infantsl 
entitled,  by  *  The  Storming  of  Antichrist,'  ie46.--3.  A  Moderate 
Answer  to  the  two  Questions,  I. -Whether  there  be  sufficient  6ffMui4 
from  Scripture  to  warrant  the  Conscience  of  a  ChristiaB  to  present  hit 
Infants  to  the  Sacrament  of  Baptism  ? — 2,  Whether  it  be  not  sinfi4 
for  a  Christian  to  receive  the  Sacrament  in  a  mixt  Assembly?  1645.—- 
4.  An  Answer  toMr.Tombes  his  Lctter.in  Vindication  of  the  ^irth- 
privilege  of  Believers  and  their  Issnc,  1646.^ — 6.  Vincficiie  FeederiS^ 
A  Treatise  of  the  Covenant  of  God  with  Mankind^  1093.-^.  Itttet 
Baptisme  m'aintained  in  its  Latitude,  1653. — 7.  The  Cofeaant  Sealed i 
or,  a  Treatise  of  the  Sacrament  of  both  Covenants,  1666. — 8.  Posti- 
script  to  the  Rev.  and  licarned  Mr.  Rich.  Baxter,  1655. — 0.  Mr* 
Job.  Humphrey's  Second  Tindication  of  a  Disciplinary,  Ahti-erastSHn, 
Orthodox,  Free  Admission  to  the  Lord*s  Supper,  taken  into  Com 
sideration,  1656. — 10.  Answer  to  Mr.  B.  Cox  about  Free  Admimiott 
to  the  Sacrament — 11.  Living  Truths  in  Dying  Times. — 12.  Several 
Sermons. 


John  Janeway. — Tliis  extraordinary  person  was  the 
son  of  Mr.  William  Janeway,  and  born  at  Lilley  in  Hert- 
fordshire, October  S7,  1633.  He  was  educated  first  at 
P^uFs  school;  London,  under  the  care  of  the  excellent 
Mr.  Lanffley,  where  he  made  great  progress  in  Latin, 
Greek,  Hebrew,  matliematics,  and  astronomy.  Ailer* 
wards,  he  was  sent  to  Eton  college,  where  the  eyes  of  many 
were  upon  him,  as  the  glory  of  the  school  and  the  wonder 
of  the  age:  and  at  the  period  of  seventeen  he  onter(*d 
King's  college,  Cambridge,  wh«i  the  electors  contended  for 
the  patronage  of  so  admirable  a  youth.  He  afterwards 
became  fellow  of  the  college. 

In  addition  to  his  great  learning,  he  was  endowed  with 
inany  excellent  ornaments  of  nttturc.  His  deportment  was 
candid  ^nd  agreeable,  courteous  and  obliging.  Though  he 
tvas  exceedingly  admired  and  caressed,  he  did  not  discover 
the  least  vanity  or  pride.  His  learning  was  mixed  with 
much  modesty  and  prudence;  and  he  had  great  command 
of  his  passions,  by  which  he  was  preserved  irom  the  follies 
and  vices  of  youth.    But,  hitherto,  J^  was  wholly  uncon- 

•  Faaeral  Oration  for  Mr.  Blake. 


S7S  LIVES  OF  TUE  PURITANS. 

• 

cenied  about  his  best  interests.  He  did  not  trouble  him- 
self about  religion  9  or  the  salyatioH  of  his  souL  But  Grod, 
who  had  chosen  him  to  shine  as  the  sun  ii^  ^  firmament  of 
glory  for  ever,  was  pleased,  at  the  age  c£  eighteen,  to- 
enlighten  his  mind  by  the  power  of  his  grace,  convincioff 
him  of  sin,  and  his  need  of  a  Saviour.  Mr.  Baxter^ 
^<  Saints'  Everlasting  Rest'"  was  principally  the  instrument ' 
of  promoting  his  conversion  to  God.  The  important 
change  soon  became  manifest  to  all.  His  time  and  his 
talents  were  now  so  much  employed  in  the  pursuit  of  future 
happiness,  that  he  found  little  leisure,  and  less  delight,  in 
the  contemplation  of  the  moon  and  stars.  He  now  tasted 
the  sweetness  of  studying  the  mind  of  Grod  in  his  word; 
and  was  most  concerned  to  please  and  to  enjoy  him  for 
ever.  He  pitied  those  who  were  curious  in  their  inquiries 
about  almost  every  thing  except  the  knowledge  of  them*, 
selves  and  Jesus  Christ.  ^^  What  things  were  once  gain  to 
him,  he  now  counted  loss  for  Christ.  Vea,  doubtless,  he 
counted  all  things  but  loss  for  the  excellency  of  the  know- 
ledge of  Christ  Jesus;  and  did  count  them  but  dung,  that 
he  might  win  Chri^."  Though  he  did  not  look  upon 
human  learning  as  useless,  but  exceedingly  profitable  when 
suitably  employed ;  yet,  when  fixed  on  any  thing  short  of 
Christ,  and  not  employed  to  his  glory,  he  considered  it  as  a 
sword  in  the  hand  of  a  madman. 

In  this  state  of  mind,  Mr.  Janeway  began  to  think  bow 
he  could  best  improve  his  present  attainments^  and  direct 
all  his  future  studies  in  the  most  proper  channel.  He  was 
particularly  concerned  to  express  his  love  and  thankfulness 
to  God,  who  had  called  him  out  of  darkness  into  his  marvd^. 
lous  light.  He,  therefore,  addressed  many  letters  to  his 
jelations  and  friends,  in  which  he  wrote  so  judiciously  and 
profitably  upon  divine  subjects,  that  they  were  more  like 
the  productions  of  old  age  than  a  person  of  his  years.  He . 
could  not  help  announcing  to  others  what  he  had  seen,  aod 
heard,  and  felt.  To  plead  the  cause  of  God,  to  exalt  his 
dear  Redeemer,  and  to  brin^  sinners  to  Christ,  was  the  only 
object  he  had  in  view.  But  his  uncommon  gravity,  his 
striking  majesty,  his  pathetical  expressions,  his  vehement 
expostulations,  and  his  close  applications,  can  be  seen  only, 
in  his  own  words. 

Before  he  was  arrived  at  the  age  of  nineteen,  writing  io 
his  father,  who  was  then  in  great  distress  of  mind,  he  thin 
addressed  him : — ^'  The  causes  of  your  desponding  and 
melancholy  thoughts,  give  me  leave,  with  submission,,  to 


JANEWAY.  879 

^es8.  The  first,  I  think,  is  yoar  reflecting  upon  jroor 
entering  into  the  mitiistry  iirithout  that  reverence,  care,  and 
holy  zeal  for  God,  loVe  to  Christ,  and  compassion  to  souh^ 
which  is  required  of  every  one  who  undertakes  that  holy 
office.  It  may  be  there  was  a  respect  to  your  living  in  the ' 
world,  rather  than.yoiir  living  to  God.  Be  it  thus,  be  it 
iiot  so  bad,  or  be  it  worse,  the  reiQiedy  is  the  same.  These 
liave  in  them  a  wounding  power,  which  will  be  felt  to  be 
grievous,  when  felt  as  they  are  m  theitiselves.  But  con- 
tinual sorrow  and  sad  thoughts  kisep  the  wound  open  too 
long,  and  are  not  available  to  produce  a  cure.  Wounds, 
indeed,  must  first  be  opened,  that  they  may  be  cleansed. 
They  must  be  opened,  that  their  filth  may  be  discovered,  in 
order  to  their  being  purged  and  healed.  But  no  longer  than 
till  the  Balm  of  Gilead  is  am)lied,  that  they  may  be  healed. 
When  Christ  is  made  use  ofaright,  he  leaveth  joy  and  com- 
fort ;  yet  a  constant  humiliihr  of  spirit  is  no  way  incon- 
sistent with  this  peace  with  God. 

**  A  second  cause  of  your  heaviness  may  be,  a  sense  of  the 
«tate  of  the  people  committed  to  your  care.  And,  indeed, 
who  can  help  mourning  over  people  in  such  a  condition  ? 
Objects  of  pity  they  are,  especially  because  they  pity  not 
themselves.  I  have  often  wrestled  with  God,  to  direct  you 
in  the  path  of  duty  concerning  them,  which,  I  a^  per- 
suaded, is  your  request  also,  ffow,  after  seriously  examin- 
ing yourself,  what  your  conscience  doth  conclude  to  be 
your  duty,  do  it;  and  be  sure  yon  do  it:  you  'are  then  to 
rest  upon  God  for  his  effectual  working.  And  this  is  no 
more  the  cause  of  heaviness  to  you,  ihari  the  opposition 
which  the  apostles  found  was  to  them,  who,  notwithstand- 
ing, rejoiced  in  tribulations. 

"  You  may  have  some  thoughts  and  cares  concerning 
yoMT  family  when  you  are  gone.  Let  faith  and  former 
experience  teach  you  to  drive  away  all  such  thoughts. 
Your  constitutiou  and  solitary  habits  may  also  be  some 
cause  of.  melancholy.  But  there  is  a  duty  which,  if  pro- 
perly observed,  would  dispel  all.  This  is  heavenly  medi- 
tation, and  the  contemplation  of  those  thin^  to  which  the 
christian  religion  t,ends.  If  we  walk  close  with  God  in  this 
duty,  only  one  hour  in  the  day,  oh,  what  influence  would 
it  have  on  the  whole  day ;  and,  it  duly  performed,  upon  the 
whole  life !  I  knew  the  nature  and  usefulness  of  this  duty 
in  some  measure  before,  but  had  it  more  deeply  impressed 
upon  me  by  Mr.  Baxter's  "  Saints'  Ev^crlasting  Rest ;"  for 

▼OL.  III.  T 


S74  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

m 
I 

which  I  have  cause  for  ever  to  bkss  God.  As  for  your 
dear  wife,  I  fear  the  cares  and  troubles  of  the  world  take  off 
her  mind  too  much  from  walking  closely  with  God,  aod 
from  earnest  endeavours  after  higher  degrees  of  grace^ 
I  commend  God  unto  her,  and  this  excellent  duty  of  medi- 
tation to  all.  It  is  a  bitter  sweet ;  bitter  to  corrupt  nature, 
but  sweet  to  the  regenerate  part.  I  entreat  her  and  your- 
self; yea,  I  charge  it  upon  you,  with  humility  and  tender- 
ness, that  God  have  at  least  half  an  hour  in  a  day  allovrad 
him  for  this  exercise.  Ob,  this  most  precious  soul-reviv- 
ing, soul-ravisbing,  soul-perfecting  duty !  Take  this  from 
Jrour  dear  friend,  as  spoken  witli  reverence,  fiEiithfuIness,  add 
ove. 

<'  One  more  direction  let  me  give.  See  that  none  in  your 
fimiily  satisfy  themselves  in  family  prayer,  without  draw- 
ing near  to  God  twice  a  day  in  secret.  Here  secrrt  vrants 
may  be  laid  open.  Here  great  mercies  may  be  begged 
with  great  earnestness.  Here  the  wanderings  and  cotaSeis 
in  family  duty  may  be  repented  of  and  amended.  This  is 
the  way  to  get  sincerity,  seriousness,  and  cheerfulness  in 
religion.  Thus  the  joy  of  the  Lord  will  be  your  strength. 
Let  those  who  know  their  duty  do  it.  If  any  think  it  is 
imnecessary,  let  them  fear  lest  they  lose  the  most  excellent 
help  to  a  holy,  useful,  and  joyful  life. 

<<  Take  some  of  these  directions  from  sincere  affection ; 
some  from  my  own  experience ;  and  all  from  a  compassion- 
ate desire  for  your  joy  and  comfort.  The  Lord  teadi  yoa 
in  this  and  in  the  r^.  I  entreat  you,  never  rest  till  you 
have  attained  to  true  spiritual  joy  and  peace  in  the  Lord. 
The  God  of  peace  afford  you  his  direction,  with  the  fore- 
tastes of  his  comforts  in  this  life,  and  the  perfection  of  than, 
in  the  enjoyment  of  his  excellency  and  holiness,  through 
Jesus  Christ." 

^  Having  arrived  at  the  age  of  twenty,  he  became  fellow  of 
his  college.  He  wrote  many  pathetical  letters  to  his  brotheiB, 
followed  by  his  prayers  and  tears  for  a  blessing.  He'oflea 
Itddressed  them  individually,  in  private  conversation,  when 
he  earnestly  recommended  Christ,  and  affectionately  uiged 
them  to  seek  an  interest  in  him.  And  these  his  labours  wei^ 
not  in  vain.  He  was  supposed  to  have  been  the  spiritual 
fiither  of  his  own  natural  father,  and  several  of  his  broth«!S, 
who  will  have  cause  to  bless  God,  to  eternity,  that  they 
ever  received  his  instructions.  He  spoke  to  all  his  brethren 
in  the  language  of  the  apostle :  Brethren^  my  hearfs  demc 


JANE  WAY.  S76 

and  prayer  to  God  for  i/ou  all  isj  that  you  may  be  ^aved. 
QChis  witl  best  appear  in  his  own  words,  in  a  tetter  addressed 
to  them. 

.  "  Distance  of  place,"  says  he,  "  cannot  at  all  lessen- that 
natural  bond  whereby  we  are  one  blood;  neither  ought  it 
to  lessen  our  love.  Nay,  where  true  love  is,  it  cannot. 
Respecting  my  love  towards  you,  I  can  only  say,  that 
I  feel  it  better  than  I  can  express  it.  But  love  felt  and  not 
^xpres^ed  is  little  wortb.  1  desire,  therefore,  to  maket  my 
love  manifest  in  the  best  way  I  can.  Let  us  look  on  one 
another,  not  as  brethren  only,  but  as  members  of  the  same 
boHy,  of  which  Christ  is  the  head.  Happy  day  will  that 
be,  when  the  Lord  will  discover  this  union !  Let  us,  there- 
fore, breathe  and  hunger  after  this,  that  so  we  may  all  meet 
in  Christ.  If  we  be  in  Christ,  and.  Christ  in  us,  we  shall  b^ 
one  in  each  other. 

^^  You  cannot  complain  of  the  want  of  instruction.  God 
hath  not  been  to  us  as  the  dry  and  barren  wilderness.  Ypa 
have  had  line  upon  line,  and  precept  upon  precept.  He  hath 
planted  you  by  the  rivers  of  waters.  It  is  indeed  the  Lord 
alone  who  maketh  fruitful ;  yet  we  are  not  to  stand  still  and 
do  nothing.  There  is  a  crown  worth,  seeking  to  obtain. 
Seek  then  by  earnest  and  constant  prayer.  Keep  your 
iiouls  in  a  praying  frame.  This  is  a  great  and  neces^uy 
4^^y  5  y^^  ^  ^^^y  great  privilege.  If  you  can  say  nothuif^ 
come  and  lay  yourselves  in  humility  before  the  Lord. 
Through  mercy  I  have  experienced  what  I  say ;  and  you 
may  belieye  me  when  I  say,  that  there  is  more  sweetness  to 
be  got  in  one  glimpse  of  God's  love,  than  in  all  that  the 
world  can  afford.  Oh,  do  but  try !  Qh,  taste  and  see  how 
good  the  Lord  is ! 

'^  Beg  of  God  to  make  you.  sensible  of  your  lost  and 
undone  state  by  nature,  and  oi  the  excellency  and  necessity 
of  Christ.  Say  unto  God,  ^Let  me  be, any  thing  in  the 
world  if  I  may  be  enabled  to  value  Christ,  and  be  persuaded 
to  accept  of  him  as  he  is  tendered  in  the  gospel.  Oh  that 
I  may  be  delivered  from  the  wrath  to  come !  Oh,  a  blessing 
fo^  me,  even  lor  me !'  and  resolve  not  to  give  it  up  till  the 
liord  hath  in  $ome  measure  satisfied  you.    Oh !  my  bowels 

J  earn  towards  you.  My  heart  works.  Oh  that  you  did 
at  know  with  what  afiections  I  now  write  to  you,  and 
what  prayers  and  tears  have  been  mingled  with  these  lines ! 
The  £ord  set  these  things  home,  and  give  you  a  heart  to 
mpply  them  to  yourself. 

^<  Give  me  leave  to  deal  plainly  with  you,^  and  comt 


I 


fTfl  LIVES  OF  THE  PtJRITANS. 

cioier  to  you.  I  love  vour  souls  so  well,  that  I  cannot  bear 
the  thoughts  of  their  being  lost.  Know  this,  thai  there  ift 
such  a  thing  as  the  new  birth ;  and  except  a  man  be  borti 
agam^  he  cannot  enter  into  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  This 
new  birth  hath  its  foundation  laid  in  a  sense  of  sin,  and  in 
a  godly  sorrow  for  it,  and  a  .heart  set  against  it.  Without 
this,  there  can  be  no  salvation.  Look  well  to  yourselvess 
You  will  see  that  you  are  in  hcH'l^  mouth,  without  this  first 
step;  and  nothing  but  free  grace  and  pure  mercy  is  be* 
tween  you  and  a  state  of  damnation.  The  Lord  deliver  ui 
from  a  secure  and  a  careless  lieart.  Here  you  see  a  natural 
man's  condition.  How  dare  you  then  lie  doii^n  in  security  i 
Oh,  look  to  Grod  for  your  soul's  sake  i  Without  rppentaticCi 
there  is  no  remission  of  sin ;  and  repentance  itself  will  lose 
its  labour  if  it  be  not  of  the  right  kind.  Prayers,  and  tears, 
and  groans,  will  not  do  without  Christ.  Most  persons,  T^heir 
they  are  made  in  some  measure  sensible  of  their  sins,  and 
are  under  fears  of  helL  run  to  duty  and  reform  some  things^ 
and  thus  the  wound  is.  nealed,  by  which  thousands  fall  short 
of  heaven.  For  if  we  be  not  brought  off  from  trusting  in 
oufselves,  and  flrom  our  oitn  righteousness,  as  well  as  oar 
sins,  we  are  never  likely  to  be  saved.  We  must  see  oiir 
abfeolut^  need  of  Christ;  give  up  ourselves  unto  hini;  and 
cbuntdll  things  but  dross  and  dung  in  comparison  of  hiA  ri^- 
teousness.    l^k  therefore  for  God's  inercv  in  Christ  alone. 

**  The  terms  of  tlie  eospel  are,Rcpent  and  believe.  GiUcious 
tertns !  Mercy  for  fetching !  Mercy  for  receiving !  tia 
you  dpsire  the  grace  and  mercy  of  God  ?  I  know  you  do ; 
and  even  this  desire  is  the  gift  of  Grod.  Hunger  afler 
Christ.  Let  your  desires  put  you  upon  endeavours.  The 
work  itself  is  sweet.  Yea,  mourning  and  repentance  them*, 
selves  have  more  sweetness  In  them  than  all  the  comforts  of 
this  world.  Upon  repentance  and  believing  comes  ju8ti£l«> 
cation ;  and  after  ^^ards  sanctification  by  the  spirit  dwelliiig 
ill  us.  By  this  we  become  the  children  of  Grod ;  are  made 
partakers  of  the  divine  nature ;  and  lead  new  lives.  It  b' 
unworthy  of  a  christian  to  have  such  a  narrow  spirit  as  not 
to  act  for  Christ  with  all  his  heart,  soul,  and  strengtti.  86 
not  a^hatned  of  Christ ;  nor  afraid  of  the  frowtis  of  the 
witkad.  Be  sure  to  keep  a  conscience  void  of  ofienc^;  aiid 
yield  by  no  means  to  dny  known  sin.  Be  much  ih  secHtt 
j)rayer  and  in  reading  the  scriptures.  My  git^itest  d^sitt 
IS,  that  God  would  work  his  own  work  in  you.'* 

Such  was  the  spirit  of  his  letters  addressed  to  his  brethren* 
l&t  observed  this  method  with  every  other  means  of  thhtrnc- 


JANEWAT.  917 

tioD.  He  dflcn  yisited  tbem  for  this  poipofie  ajone ;  wbea 
he  most  faithfuUy  addressed  each  according  to  his  necessity. 
On  one  of  these  visits,  observing  that  one  of  his  brothers 
«Iept  at  family  prayer,  he  embraced  an  early  opportunity  of 
shewing  him  the  magnitude  of  his  sin,  and  the  just  desert 
of  such  contempt  of  God.  The  Lord  was  pleasc'd  to 
apply  his  instructions  as  a  dagger  to  his  heart ;  and,  though 
he  was  only  about  eleven  years  of  age,  it  was  supposed  to 
be  the  means  of  his  souUs  conyersimi  to  God.  The  change 
wrought  in  his  young  brother  gave  him  great  comfort  apd 
encouragement.  Having  occasion  to  write  to  hini  soon 
after,  he  reminded  him  of  wuat  the  Lord  had  done  for  his 
«oul,  and  urged  him  never  to  rest  till  he  enjoyed  good 
evidence  of  the  change.  '^  I  hope,"  said  he,  ^'  that  God 
hath  a  good  work  lo  do  in  you,  for  you,  and  by  jfou; 
yea,  I  hope  he  hath  alr^y  begun  the  work.  BuL'  oh ! 
iaJLe  not  up  with  some  beginnings,  &int  desires,  pr  lazy 
fteekings.  Oh,  remember  your  former  years!  One  may 
weep  a  little  for  si^,  ^nd  yet  go  to  bell  for  sin.  Many  whot, 
under  some  such  Wi9rk,  shake  off  the  sense  cf  sin^  murder 
their  convictions  ^nd  return  to  folly.  Oh,  take  heed! 
If  any  draw  back,  the  Lord  will  take  no  pleasure  in  th^m. 
But  I  hope  better  things  of  you." 

His  great  Ipve  and  compassion  for  souls  will  appear  from 
the  following  address  to  one  of  his  near  relations.  Having 
shewn  how  much  it  is  beneath  the  christian  to  have  bis  heart 
anidously  set  upon  any  thing  in  this  world,  he  adds,  <<  Oh, 
what  folly  is  it  to  trifle  in  the  things  of  God !  But  I  hope 
.b^ter  things  of  you.  Did  I  not  hope^  why  should  j[ 
inoum  in  secr^et  for  you,  as  one  cast  out  among  the  dcsad  ? 
Oh !  what  shall  I  do  for  you,  besides  pouring  out  my  soul 
like  water?  and  give  my  God  no  rest  till  he  graciously  visit 
you  with  jbis. salvation?  till  he  cast  ypu  down  and  raise  you 
up  ?  till  he  wound  you  and  heal  you  again  ?" 

AfiC*  Janeway  was  mi^ty  in  prayer,  and  his  soul  was 
&egu^Iy  so  transported  in  the  duty,  that  he  almost  forgot 
whether  he  was  i^  the  body  or  .out  of  the  body.  His  con- 
verse with  God  was  so  familiar,  and  attended  with  such 
4ivine  cousolatipn  to  his  youl,  that,  wJien  he  engaged  in  this 
duty,  he  otien  iibund  the  greatest  difficulty  to  leave  it  off. 
lie  could,  by  |»appy  expedenoe,  testify,  that  ^pisdom*s  wms 
are  ways  of  pleasantness^  and  aU  her  pmjths  are  peace.  In 
Jijis  appipaches  to  Qpd,  like  Jacob,  be  wre^l^  with  the 
Loird,  and  was  cpirer  iMiwilHiirg  ito  ri^  from  off  his  knees 
'ii^Aw^>tus  Fall's  bl^      He  conii^^  with  God  a9 


878  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS- 

a  man  with  hift  friend ;  and  on  all  occasions  of  importance 
sought  his  direction  and  his  blessing.  His  p-ay(  rs  were  no 
vain  oblations;  bur  were  often  reinRrkably  henn<  and  an- 
swered. We  shall  give  the  following  instance  as  worthy 
of  being  prescrv  'd. 

His  fatlie-,  being  deeply  exercised  with  affliction,  and 
under  painful  apprehensions  about  the  safety  of  his  state^ 
he  said  to  his  son,  *^  Oh,  son,  this  passing  into  eternity  is  a 
great  thing  i  This  dying  is  a  solemn  l)nsmess,  and  enough 
to  make  any  one's  heart  ache,  who  hath  not  his  pardon 
sealed,  and  his  evidences  clear  for  heaven.  I  am  under  no 
small  fears  as  to  my  own  state  for  another  world.  Oh  that 
God  would  clear  liis  love !  Oh  that  I  could  clieeriiilly  say 
I  can  die,  and  am  able  upon  good  grounds  to  look  deatq 
in  the  face,  and  venture  upon  eternity  with  well-groundod 
peace  and  comtbrt !"  Mr.  Janeway,  s(*eing  his  dear  father 
so  deeply  afflicted  with  despondency,  presently  retired  for 
the  purpose  of  wrestling  with  God  in  prayer.  He  most 
devoutly  prayed,  that  God  would  lift  up  the  light  of  his 
countenance  upon  him,  and  fill  his  soul  with  joy  and  peace 
in  believing ;  that  so  he  might  leave  the  world  with  joy* 
Arising  from  his  knees,  and  coming  to  his  father,  he  asked 
him  how  he  did,  but  received  no  immediate  answer.  His 
father  continued  some  time  unable  to  speak,  but  K^ejpi 
exceedingly.  After  recovering  himself,  he  burst  forth  into 
these  expressions :  <^  Oh,  son !  Now  he  is  come !  Now  he 
is  come !  Now  he  is  come !  I  bless  God,  I  can  die«  The 
Spirit  of  God  hath  witnessed  with  my  spirit  that  I  am  a  child 
of  God.  Now  I  can  look  up  to  Grod  as  my  Father,  and  to 
Christ  as  my  Redeemer.  I  can  now  sav.  This  is  my  FHettd: 
this  is  my  Aefoved.  My  heart  is  full,  it  is  brim-full.  I  can 
hold  no  more.  I  now  know  what  that  means.  The  peace  of 
God  which  passeth  understanding.  That  fit  of  weeping 
which  you  saw  me  in  was  a  fit  of  overpowering  love  aiuL 
joy.  It  was  so  great,  that  I  could  not  contain  myself,  nor 
can  I  express  what  glorious  discoveries  God  hath  made  to 
me.  Had  that  joy  been  greater,  I  Question  whether  it  would 
not  have  separated  my  soul  and  body.  Bless  the  L^,  O  my 
soul,  and  all  that  is  within  me  bless  his  holy  name ;  who 
hath  pardoned  all  my  sins,  and  sealed,  that  pairdon.  Oh  ! 
now  I  can  die.  1  bless  God,  1  can  die.  I  desire  to  depart 
and  to  be  with  Christ." 

The  sou  was  partaker  of  his  father's  blessing  on  two 
accounts.  First,  that  his  jbther  was  so  clearly  satisfied 
about  the  safety  of  his  state.    And,  secondly,  that  this  was 


JANEWAY.  S7^ 

w  eyident  and  immediate  an  answer  to  his  prayer.  Young 
Janewaj,  therefore,  broke  forth  in  strains  of  the  highest 
joy  and  praise,  saying,  <<  Oh  blessed,  and  for  ever 
blessed,  be  God  for  his  infinite  grace !  Oh,  who  wouM  not 
pray  unto  God.  Verily,  he  is  a  Grod  hearing  prayer,  and 
that  our  souls  know  right  well/'  He  then  told  his  fother 
how  much  he  had  been  affected  with  his  despondency ;  that 
he  had  just  been  praying  with  all  earnestness  for  his  soul ; 
and  how  wonderfully  the  Lord  had  answered  his  prayer. 
Upon  this,  his  father  felt  his  joys  still  increased,  and  ex- 
claimed, saying,  Now  let  thy  servant  depart  in  peace^  far 
mine  eyes  have  seen  thy  sahation.  When  I  walk  through 
the  valley  of  the  shadow  of  death^  I  wUlfear  no  evil.  On ! 
how  lovely  is  the  sight  of  a  smiling  Jesus,  when  one  is  dying ! 
How  refreshing  is  it,  when  heart,  and  flesh,  and  all  things 
iail,  to  have  God  for  the  strength  of  our  heart,  and  our 
portion  for  ever !"  He  then  de{^ed  to  be  numbered  wiUi 
the  blessed.* 

Upon  the  death  of  his  fiither,  Mr.  Janeway  endeavoured 
to  fill  up  that  relation,  in  the  tender  and  affectionate  care 
of  his  mother,  sisters,  and  brethren.  His  excellent  ex« 
anmle,  prudent  instructions,  and  holy  practice,  had  the 
desu-ed  effect.  Those  who  were  older  than  himself,  as  well 
B8  the  younger  branches,  loved  and  revered  him. 

Having  returned,  after  some  time,  to  King's  coU^e,  he 
there  continued  till  he  was  invited  to  become  domestic 
tutor  in  the  family  of  Dr.  Cox.  Here  he  did  not  disappoint 
the  e^^pectations  of  his  employer.  His  deportment  was  so 
sweet  and  obliging,  and  ms  conversation  so  spiritual  and 
holy,  that  he  gained  the  esteem  and  admiration  of  all.  But^ 
on  account  of  his  ill  health,  he  was  obliged  to  relinquidi 
the  situation,  to  try  a  change  of  air,  and  reside  with  his 
mother.  Here  he  continued  m  a  weak  and  languishing  con* 
dition,  in  the  prospect  of  death,  but  not  afraid  to  die.  He 
was  even  ashamed  of  desiring  life,  and  said,  ^^  Is  there  any 
thing  here  more  to  be  desired  than  the  enjoyment  of  Christ  ? 
Cam  I  expect  any  thing  here  below  comparable  to  that 
Uessed  vision  ?  Oh  that  crown,  that  rest  which  remaincth 
for  the  people  of  God !  And,  blessed  be  God,  I  can  say  it 
is  mine.  1  know  thai  when  the  eftrihly  house  of  this  taber* 
nacle  is  dissohedj  I  have  a  buUding  of  God,  an  house  nU 

•  Mr.  WiUiam  Janeway,  the  fkther  of  Mr.  John  Janeway,  wai  mloifCfT  of 
LiUey  in  Hertfordshire,  then  of  Harpenden,  and  afterward!  of  Kelsall  in 
the  same  county.  At  hii  death,  he  left  a  widow  and  cltffB  chUdrts, 
tef eral  of  whom  bc«aaio  worthy  miniiten  of  Chriit. 


taO  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

made.wUh  hands;  and  therefore  I  desire  not  to  be  uncloihedy 
but  to  be  clothed  upon  mth  Christ.  To  me  io  liv^  u 
Christy  and  to  die  is  gatn.  Through  mercy  I  can  now  speak 
in  the  language  of  the  apostle :  1  have  fought  a  goodfighii 
henceforth  there  is  laid  up  for  me  the  crown  of  righttf 
ousness.^^ 

Perceiving  one  of  his  relations  much  troubled  at  the 

I)rospect  of  his  dt^ath^  he  charged  him  not  to  p^ay  tor  hb 
ife,  unless  it  should  be  more  for  the  glory  oi  Grod.  ^^  i  wisb 
you/'  said  be,  ^^  to  keep  your  mind  submissive  to  the  will  of 
God. concerning  me.  The  Lord  draw  you  nearer  to  him^df, 
that  .you  may  walk  with  .him;  and  if'i  go  to  hhu  befoie 
youy  I  hope  you  will  follow."  Afterwards,  ihe  Lqrd  was 
pleased  so  far  to  restore  him,  that  his  friends  were  in  hopes 
of  his  perfect  recovery.  And  while  God  thus  remembered 
him,  he  did  pot  forget  God.  His  words  to  an  intimate 
friend  discover  his  deep  sense  of  the  love  of  God.  I}e  ^^id^ 
^^  God  holds  mine  eyes  most  upon  his  gooilness^  his  unnKenT 
surable  goodness;  and  upon  the  promises. which  are  most 
sure  and.  firm  in  Christ.  His  lov^  to  us  is  greater,  mpM 
sure,  more  full,  than  ours  to  ourselves.  For  when  we  Wvod 
ourselves  so  as  to  </e5/ro^  ourselves,  he  loved  us  so  at,  to 
save  us." 

Mr.  Janeway,  writing  to  a  friend  under  perplexing  icais 
about  the  state  of  his.  soul,  thus  addressed  him :  ^  Oh !  sttod 
still  and  wonder.  Behold  and  admire  his  love !  Conskior 
what  thou  canst  discover  in  this  precious  Jesus.  Ker^  19  • 
sea;  cast  thyself  into  it,  and  thou  shalt  be  compassed 
with  the  height,  and  depth,  and  breadth,  and  length  of 
love,  and  be  filled  with  all  the  fullness  of  God.  Is  not  this 
enough  ?  Wouldst  Jhou  have  more?  Fling  away  aU  exv 
cepting  God.  For  God  is  a  sufficient  portion^  and  tte 
only  proper  portion  of  the  soul.  Hast  thou  not.  ta^ed^ 
hast  thou  not  known,  that  his  love  is  better  than  wine  ?  .H« 
is  altogether  lovely.  And  while  I  write,  my  heart  doth 
bum.  My  soul  is  on  fire.  I  am  sick  of  love.  But  noW| 
methinks,  I  see  you  aln)ost  drowned  in  tears,  because,  jom 
fed -not  such  workings  of  love  towards  God.  Weep  on 
still ;  for  love,  as  well  as  grief,  hath  tears.  And  tears  iof 
love,  as  well  as  others,  shall  be  kept  in  God's  bottle..  Kimr 
that  they  are  no  other  than  the  streams  of  Chriirt's  lov9 
flowing  to  thee,  and  from  thee  to  him.  Christ  is  Aus 
delighted  in  beholding  bis  beauties  in  those  whom  ht 
loves.^'     •    ' 

Mr.  Janeway,'  however,  was  not  always  on  the  UfOiiJiitr 


JANEWAT.  881 

f 

He  had  his  cloudy  days,  as  well  as  others.  His  sweets 
wer^  sometimes  tmrned  into  bitters.  He  was  painfully 
assaulted  by  Satan's  temptation^.  The  enemy  was  permitt^ 
to  come  upon  him  as  a^  armed  man*  As,  in  die  case  of  the 
apostle,  lest  he  should  be  exalted  aboye  nieasure,  tlie  enemy 
was  suffered  \o  buffet  him;  and  it  would  have  made  % 
christian's  heart  ache  to  have  heard  how  this  gracious  mao 
was  exercised  with  Satan's  dreadful  temptations.  But  he 
WHS  well  armed  for  the  painful  conflict.  Having  on  the 
shield  of  faith,  wherewith  to  quench  the  fiery  darts  of  the 
wicked  one,  he  came  off  a  complete  conqueror.  In  the 
trying  cont^,  he  sent  up  strong  cries  and  tears  to  the  Lord 
for  fresh  supplies  of  grace. 

*  This  holy  man  was  much  afraid  of  spiritual  declension^ 
both  in  him^lf  and  others.  He  eyer  laboured  to  maintain 
a  tender  conscience ;  and  took  notice  of  the  smallest  depar<p 
tures  of  his  soul  irom  God,  as  well  as  God's  withdrawing^ 
from  him.  His  great  concern  was  to  build  sure,  by  being 
looted  and  grounded  in  the  faith*  He  also  exercised  a 
similar  godly  jealousy  over  his  intimate  frieods  and  relationiu 
To  one  of  his  brothers  he  wrote  thus :  ^<  You  live  in  a  place^** 
said  he,  ^<  where  strict  and  close  walking  with  God  hatH 
few  or  no  examples.  God's  own  children  are  too  apt  to 
forget  their  first  love.  Our  hearts  are  prone  to.be  carelessi 
and  to  neglect  our  watch.  When  conscience  is  put  off 
with  some  poor  excuse,  religion  withers;  he  who  oncf 
seemed  a  zealot^  becomes  a  Laodicean;  and  he  who  once 
appeared  an  eminent  saint,  may  afterwwls  come  to  nothing. 
It  is  too  common,  to  have  a  name  to  be  alioe^  and  yet  to  be 
dead.  Bead  this  and  tremble,  lest  it  should  be  your  case; 
When  we  are  indolent  and  asleep,  our  adversary  is  most 
awake.  I  consider  your  age;  I  knoyr  >vhere  you  dwell;  I 
am  no  stranger  to  your  temptations ;  therefore  I  cannot  help 
being  afraid  of  you,  and  jealous  over  you.  Let  me  remind 
you  of  what  you  know  already.  Remember  what  meltings 
of  soul  you  once  had ;  how  solicitously  you  once  inquired 
after  Christ ;  and  how  earnestly  you  seemed  to  ask  the  way 
to  Zion,  with  your  face  thitherward.  Oh,  take  heed  of 
losing  those  impressions !  Be  not  satisfied  with  a  slight  work. 
True  conversion  is  a  gtoat  thing,  and  very  different  from 
whi^t  most  persons  taSe  it  to  be.  TherdTore  rest  not  ip 
meie  convic^ons,  much  lec^s  in  a  lifeless  md  formal  pro- 
fession. 

^  There  is  such  a  thing  as  being  ^kwH  ^  christian  ji  as 
back  unh  pcrdiiiani  as  being  not  far  from  the 


f82  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

kingdom  of  heaven^  and  falling  short  at  last.  Beware,  lesC 
thou  lose  the  reward.  The  promise  is  made  to  him  thai 
holdeth  fast,  holdeth  oiit  to  the  end,  and  overcometb* 
Labour  to  forget  the  things  which  are  behind,  and  reacS 
unto  the  things  which  are  before.  He  who  b  contented 
with  just  enough  grace  to  escape  hell  and  get  to  heaven, 
and  desires  no  more,  maj  be  sure  he  hath  none  at  all,  and 
M  far  from  the  kinj?dom  of  God.  Labour  to  enjoy  con* 
Terse  with  God.  Strive  to  do  every  thing  as  in  his  pre- 
tence, and  for  his  glory.  Act  as  in  the  sight  of  the  grave 
and  eternity.  Let  us  awake  and  fall  to  work  in  good 
earnest.  Heaven  and  hell  are  before  us.  Why  do  we 
sleep  ?  Dulness  in  the  service  of  God  is  very  uncomfortablei 
and  at  best  will  cost  us  dear ;  but  to  be  contented  in  such 
a  frame  is  the  certain  sign  of  a  hypocrite.  Oh,  how  will 
such  tremble  when  God  shall  call  them  to  give  an  account 
of  their  stewnrdship,  and  tell  them  they  may  be  no  longer 
stewards!  Oh,  live  more  upon  the  invisible  realities  of 
heaven,  and  let  a  sense  of  their  excellencies  put  life  into 
your  performances !  For  your  preciseness  and  singularity 
you  must  be  content  to  be  laughed  at.  A  christians 
walking  is  not  with  men,  but  with  God.  'He  hath  great 
cause  to  suspect  his  love  to  God,  who  does  not  delight  more 
in  conversing  with  God  and  being  conformed  to  him,  than  ill 
conversing  with  men  and  beuig  conformed  to  the  worid. 
How  can  the  love  of  God  dwell  in  that  man  who  liveth 
without  God  in  the  world  ?'* 

This  shews  how  anxious  he  was  himself  to  be  undeceived, 
and  to  undeceive  otiiers.  Here  we  see  his  delight,  his 
treasure,  his  life,  his  all.  The  great  love  he  had  to  Christ 
and  the  souls  of  men  made  him  desirous  to  spend  and  be 
spent  in  the  work  of  the  ministry.  Accordingly,  at  the  age  of 
twenty-two  years,  he  entered  upon  the  sacred  office  under 
ft  deep  impression  of  its  importance  and  the  worth  <tf 
souls.  Yet  alas !  he  never  preached  more  than  two  sermons  ; 
which,  it  is  said,  he  delivered  with  such  cleiameBS  and 
freedom,  such  tenderness  and  compassion,  such  power  and 
majesty,  as  greatly  amazed  those  who  heard  him.  He 
understood  the  glorious  mysteries  of  the  gospel,  and  what 
he  delivered  was  the  language  and  experience  ot  his  own 
heart.  His  two  sermons  were  from  Job  xx«  21*  <'  Aequaml 
now  thyself  with  him^  and  he  at  peace  r  thereby  gooa  sk&U 
come  unto  thee^ 

*'   During  the  closing  scene  of  life  Mr.  Janeway  seemed 
wh(dly  employed  in  the  contemplation  of  Christ,  teaTm> 


JANEWAY.  S8S 

and  eternity.  He  lived  as  a  stranger  in  the  world,  and  in 
the  constant  prospect  of  a  better  state.  Like  the  -worthy 
patriarch,  '^  he  looked  for  a  city  which  hath  foundations 
whose  bnilder  and  maker  is  God."  His  meditations,  his 
discourse,  his  whole  deportment,  all  made  it  appear  that 
he  was  fast  ripening  for  glory.  He  was  never  satisfied 
unless  he  was  employed  in  those  pursuits  which  brought 
him  nearer  to  God  and  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  Hereby 
his  faith  was  increased  to  full  assurance.  The  Lord  often 
called  him  up  to  the  mount  and  let  him  see  his  glory.  He 
often  feasted  upon  the  fat  things  of  God^s  house,  and  enjoyed 
many  foretastes  of  future  blessedness.  From  hu  own  happy 
experience,  he  could  say  to  others,  ^^  Oh,  taste  and  see  that 
the  liord  b  good!  Come  unto  me,  and  I  will  declare  unto 
you  what  he  hath  done  for  mv  soul.'* 

In  the  midst  of  all  needful  worldly  comfbrts  he  longed 
for  death ;  and  his  thoughts  of  the  day  of  judgment  ffreatljr 
sweetened  all  his  ^oyments.  He  said,  '^  What  if  the  day 
of  judgment  were  to  come  even  this  hour  ?  I  shoidd  be 
glad  with  all  my  heart  I  should  hear  such  thunderings, 
and  behold  such  lightninfi;s  as  Israel  did  at  the  mount; 
and  I  am  persuaded  mv  heart  would  leap  for  joy.  But 
this  I  am  confident  of^  that  the  meditation  of  that  day 
hath  even  ravished  my  soul;  and  the  thoughts  of  its 
certainty  and  nearness  is  more  refreshing  to  me  than  all  the 
comforts  of  the  world.  Surely  nothing  can  more  revive 
my  spirit  than  to  behold  the  blessed  Jesus,  who  is  the  life 
and  joy  of  my  soul.''  It  required  no  small  degree  of 
patience  and  seif^enial  to  be  kept  so  long  from  him  whom 
bis  soul  loved. 

Mr.  Janeway  at  length  found  himself  in  a  deep  consump* 
tion,  but  was  not  afraid.  The  spitting  of  blood  did  not  in 
the  least  intimidate  him,  who  enjoy ra  an  interest  in  the 
blood  of  Christ.  During  the  progress  of  his  complaint,  he 
was  seized  with  dimness  in  his  eyes,  which  ended  in  the 
total  loss  of  his  si^ht.  Being  in  expectation  of  his  departure, 
lie  called  his  mower,  and  said,  <^  Dear  mother,  I  am  dying ; 
but  I  beseech  you  be  not  troubled.  Through  mercy  I  am 
cpiite  above  the  fear  of  death.  It  is  no  great  matter.  I 
have  nothing  that  troubles  me,  excepting  the  apprehensioif 
of  your  grief.  I  am  going  to  Him  whom  I  love  above 
life."'  From  this  faintmg  fit  the  Lord  was  pleased  to 
revive  him ;  and  for  severd  weeks  his  soul  was  so  devoutly 
employed  in  the  contemplation  of  Christ  and  heaven,  that 
he  ahnost  fbrgoi  lus  pains  and  sickness.    His  fisuth,  his 


t8i  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Jove,  and  his  joys  exceedinfflv  abounded.  He  freqaentlj 
fxcUimed,  ^^Oh  that  I  could  let  you  know  what  I  feel! 
Oh  that  I  could  shew  you  what  1  now  see  i  Oh  that  I 
could  expiess  a  thousandth  part  of  that  sweetness  which 
I  row  nnd  in  Christ!  You  would  then  all  think  it 
worth  your  while  to  make  religion  your  chief  business. 
Oby  ray  dear  friends,  you  little  think  what  Christ  ib  worth 
upon  a  death-bed !  I  would  not  for  a  world,  nay, 
for  a  million  of  worlds,  be  now  without  a  Christ  apd  a 
pardon^  .  I  would  nut  tor  a  world  live  any  longer;  and 
the  very  thought  of  the  possibility  of  a  recovery  makes  m^ 
tremble.*' 

When  it  was  said  that  the  Lord  might  again  raise  him 
up  to  healih  and  stn^nglh,  so  as  to  live  many  years,  he  said, 
*^  And  do  you  think  to  please  me  with  that  ?  No,  friend, 
you  are  mistaken,  if  you  think  that  life,  and  health,  and  ibt 
world  are  pleasing  to  me.  TJie  world  hntli  Quite  lost  its 
cxceilrncy.  Oh,  how  poor  and  contemptible  is  it  in  all  it|( 
glory,  wh(*n  compared  with  the  glory  of  that  world  which  I 
now  live  in  sight  of!  And  as  for  life,  Christ  is  my  life.  1 
tell  vou,  it  would  please  me  incomparably  more  if  yoa 
should  say  to  me,  ^  You  cannot  possibly  hold  out  long, 
fiefore  to-morrow  you  will  be  in  eternity.'  I  tell  you  1  do 
so  long  to  be  with  Christ,  that  I  could  be  content  to  be  citf 
in  pieces,  and  to  be  put  to  the  most  exquisite  torments,  so  | 
might  but  die  and  be  with  Christ.  Oh,  how  sweet  is 
J<?sus !  Come,  Lord  Jc  siis,  come  quickly.  Death,  do  thy 
worst.  Deatli  hath  last  its  terrors.  Through  grace,  I  can 
s^y,  death  is  nothing  io  nic.  I  can  as  easily  die  as  shut  my 
fyes.     I  long  to  be  w  ith  Christ.     I  long  to  die." 

To  hjs  mother  he  said,  ^^  Dear  mother,  I  as  earnestly 
beseech  you  as  ever  I  desired  any  thing  for  you  in  my  JLif^ 
that  you  would  cheerfully  give  nic  up  to  Christ,  I  beseech 
you  do  not  hinder  me  now  I  am  going  to  glory.  I  am 
Afraid  of  your  prayers,  lest  they  shoultl  pull  one  wtiy  and 
n^ine  another."  Then,  turning  to  his  brothers,  he  thu» 
'  addressed  them :  ''  I  charge  you  all  do  not  pray  for  mj 
life.  You  wrong  me  if  you  do.  Oh  the  glory,  the  uar* 
speakable  glory  that  I  now  behold  !  My  heart  is  full,  mj 
heart  is  full!  Clu-ist  smiles,  and  I  am  constniued  to  smile. 
Cjm  you  find  in  your  bea*  ts  to  stop  mc,  now  1  am  going  tQ 
the  cojnplete  .and  eternal  enjoyment  of  Christ?  WciMld 
you  keep  me  from  my  crowu  ?  The  arms  of  n^jr  bkssc;^ 
8aviour  arx)  opi^ii  to  embrace  me.  The  ansdls  Sit^Jpd  mulj 
tp  c^ry  jny  spul  into  his  bo^ow,    Oht  4^4  yoii  ]bi4  s09 


JANEWaY.  185 

Irhat  I  see,  yoU  it^ould  all  cry  out  with  me^  t)ear  Lord,  how 
longF  Come,  Lord  Jesus,  corae  quicklj.  Ob,  why  aM 
liis  chariot  wheels  so  slow  in  coming !"       r 

A  itilnister  haying  spoken  to  him  of  the  rlories  6f  he&ven. 
he  ibid,  ^  Sir,  I  feel  somethilig  of  it.  My  heart  is  as  fiill 
as  it  cati  hold  in  this  lower  state.  I  can  bold  no  more. 
Oh^  that  I  coald  but  let  you  know  what  I  feel  I  Who  am 
I,  Lord ;  who  am  I^  that  tbou  sbouldst  be  mindful  of  me  ? 
Why  me.  Lord,  why  me!  and  pass  by  thousands  to  look 
upoh  such  a  wretch  as  I !  Oh,  what  shall  I  say  unto  thee, 
ihbti  tyfcseryer  of  men !  Oh,  why  me,  Lord,  why  me !  Oh, 
blessed,  and  for  ever  blessed  be  free  ^race!  How  is  it. 
Lord,  that  thou  shouldst  manifest  thyscu  unto  me,  and  not 
uriib  Others  ?  Even  sOy  Father^  because  it  seemed  good  in 
ikjf  ifghi.  Thou  wUt  have  mercy,  because  thoU  wilt  hav^ 
mefcy.  And  if  th6u  wilt  look  upon  such  a  poor  worm,  who 
dsA  hinder  ?  Who  would  not  lov^  thee,  oh  blessed  Father } 
Oh,  how.  sweet  and  gracious  hast  thou  been  to  me !  Oh, 
ibA  he  should  have  me  in  his  thoughts  of  love,  before  the 
fctattdations  of  the  world !" 

Thus  he  continued  admiring  and  adoring  the  sovereignty 
of  divine  grace.  As  he  experienced  the  intermissions  of 
tritlttiphatit  joy,  he  thus  cried :  ^'  Hold  out,  faith  and 
^ietice,  yet  a  little  while,  and  your  work  is  done.  What 
B  the  imitter,  oh !  my  soul  ?  What !  wilt  thou,  canst  thou 
thus  unworthily  slight  this  astonishing  condescension  of 
God  ?  Doth  it  seem  a  small  matter,  that  the  great  Jeliovah 
should  deal  thus  familiarly  with  a  worm  ?  And  wilt  thou 
pass  this  over  as  a  common  mercy  ?  What  meanokt  thou, 
oh  my  soul,  that  thou  dost  not  constantly  adore  and  praise 
this  unspeakable  love !  Doth  God  deal  graciously  and 
familiarly  with  man,  and  are  his  love  and  praise  too  eood 
for  him  ?  Why  art  thou  not,  oh  my  soul !  swallowed  up 
^ery  moment  with  his  free,  unparalleled,  and  everlasting 
love  ?  Stand  astonished  ye  heavens,  and  wonder  ye  angels, 
at  this  infinite  grace!  Was  ever  any  one  under  heaven 
more  beholden  to  this  grace  than  I  ?  Oh,  help!  me  to  praise 
the  Lord,  for  his  mercy  endureth  for  ever !" 

One  of  his  brothers  having  prayed  with  him,  his  joys 
became  unutterable ;  and  "  i  believe,"  says  our  author, 
**lhat  if  exceeds  the  highest  strains  of  rhetoric  to  set  forth 
to  the  life  what  this  heavenly  ra^n  delivered."  He  broke 
out  in  such  words  as  these :  ^^  Oh,  he  is  come!  he  is  come ! 
Otu  how  sweet,  how  glorious,  is  the  blessed  Jesus ! .  How 
.diml  I  ^>eak  the  thousandth  part  of  his  praises !    Oh,  for 


886  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

words  to  flpt  forth  a  little  of  that  excellency !  But  it  is  in« 
exprt^ssible.  Ob,  how  excellent  and  glorious  is  the  precious 
Jesus !  He  is  altogether  lovely.  Oh,  my  friends,  stand 
and  wonder !  Come,  look  upon  a  dyinj^  man  apd  woodor. 
Was  there  ever  greater  kindness  ?  Were  there  eyer  more 
sensible  manifestations  of  rich  grace  ?  Oh,  why  m^  Lord? 
why  me?  Surely  this  is  akin  to  heaven.  And  it  I  weie 
never  to  enjov  move  than  this,  it  is  more  than  a  suffici^t 
recompence  for  all  the  torments  that  men  and  devils  could 
inflict.  If  this  be  dying,  it  b  sweet.  This  bed  is  soft 
Christ's  arms,  and  smiles,  and  love,  surely  would  turn  hdi 
into  heaven.  Oh  that  you  did  but  see  and  ieel  what  I  do! 
Behold  a  dying  man,  more  cheerful  than  you  ever  saw  a 
man  in  health  and  in  the  midst  of  his  swe^est  woridiy 
enjoyments !  Oh,  sii  s,  worldly  pleasures  are  poor,  pitilul^ 
sorry  things,  when  compared  with  this  giory  now  in  my  soul. 
Why  should  any  of  you  be  so  sad,  when  I  am  so  glad  ? 
This  is  the  hour  that  I  have  waited  for." 

Mr.  Janeway  took  his  leave  of  his  friends  every  evenings 
hoping  that  he  should  see  them  no  more  till  the  morning  of 
the  resurrection.  He  exhorted  them  to  make  sure  of  a 
comfortable  meeting  in  a  better  world.  He  entreated  tfaoae 
about  him  to  assist  him  in  praises.  ^^  Oh,"  said  h^  <<  he^ 
me  to  praise  God !  Henceforth,  to  eternity,  I  have  nothii^ 
else  to  do  but  to  love  and  praise  the  Lord.  I  have  my 
soul's  desires  on  earth.  I  cannot  tell  what  to  pray  for 
which  is  not  already  given  me.  The  wants  capaUe  of 
being  supplied  in  this  world  are  supplic  d.  I  want  only  one 
thing,  iiud  that  is  a  speedy  lift  to  heaven.  I  expect  no 
more  here.  I  desire  no  more.  1  can  bear  no  more.  Oh^ 
praise!  praise!  praise!  that  boundless  love,  which  hath 
wonderfully  looked  upon  my  soul,  and  hath  done  more  for 
me  than  for  thousands  of  his  children.  ^  Bless  the  Lord,  O 
my  soul ;  and  all  that  is  within  me,  bless  his  holy  name !'  O 
my  friends,  help  me,  help  me,  to  admire  and  praise  him, 
who  hath  done  such  astonishing  wonders  for  my  soul !  Ht 
hath  pardoned  all  my  sins,  and  hath  filled  me  with  hk 
goodn(^.  He  hath  given  me  grace  and  glory,  and  no  good 
thing  hath  he  withhoiden  from  me.  All  ye  mighty  angds, 
help  me  to  praise  God.  Let  every  thing  that  hfUh  being 
help  me  to  praise  him.  Praise  is  my  work  now,  and  wm 
be  my  work  for  ever.    Hallelujah,  hallelujah,  hallelujah!'* 

During  his  sickness  he  found  the  word  of  God  sweet  to 
his  soul,  especially  the  fourteenth,  fifteenth,  sixteenth,  and 
seyenteenth  chapters  of  John's  gospel,  and  the  fifty-fourtli 


JANEWAY.  S8f 

of  baiah.  He  Qften,  with  abundant  joy,  repeated  those 
lilMds:  fFUh  great  mercies  will  I  gather  thee.  A  short  time 
before  his  death,  he  said,  ^  I  have  ahnost  done  conversing 
with  mortals.  I  shall  presently  behold  Christ  himself,  who 
lored  me  and  washed  me  in  his  blood.  In  a  few  hours  I 
dttll  be  in  eternity,  singing  the  song  of  Moses  and  the  Lamb. 
I  shall  presently  stand  upon  mount  Sion,  with  an  innumerable 
eompam/  of  angels,  and  the  spirits  of  just  men  madeperfedj 
ibnTJesus  the  mediator  of  the  new  arcenant.  I  shall  near 
the  Yoice  of  much  people,  and  be  one  amongst  them,  saying, 
MalUbyah!  salvation  j  glory y  and  honour,  and  power  be  unto 
the  LoHD  otrr  God  !  Vet  a  little  while,  ana  I  shall  sing 
unto  the  Lamb,  Worthy  art  thou  to  receive  praise,  who  hast 
redeemed  us  to  God  by  thy  bloody  out  of  every  kindred^  and 
Umfpie^  and  people,  and  nation,  and  hast  made  us  kings  and 
pnests  unto  Uod,  and  we  shall  reign  with  thee  for  ever  and 
eoer.    And  who  can  help  rejoicing  in  all  this  ? 

The  day  before  his  departure,  his  brother  James  having 
beed  praying  for  him,  he  said,  ^'  I  thank  thee,  dear  brother, 
for  thy  love.  I  know  thou  lovest  me  dearly ;  but  Christ  loves 
me  ten  thousand  times  more.  Dear  brother,  come  and  kiss 
melbefore  I  die.''  Havuig  kissed  his  cold  dying  lips,  he 
said,  ^<  I  shall  go  before  thee  to  glory,  and  I  hope  thou  wilt 
follow  after.''  A  few  hours  before  bis  happy  exit,  he  called 
together  his  mother,  and  sisters,  and  brethren,  to  give  them 
one  more  solemn  warning,  and  pray  for  them  before  he 
departed. 

His  affectionate  mother  being  first  called,  he  thanked  lier 
for  her  tender  love  to  him ;  and  desired  that  she  might  see 
Christ  formed  in  the  hearts  of  all  her  children,  aud  meet 
them  all  with  joy  in  the  day  of  judgment. 

He  prayed  that  his  elder  brother  might  be  wholly  taken 
up  with  Christ  and  love  to  souls,  and  be  more  holy  in  his 
life,  successful  in  his  ministry,  and  finish  his  course  with  joy. 

For  his  brother  Andrew,  living  in  London,  he  prayed  tliat 
God  would  deliver  him  from  the  sins  of  the  city,  make  him 
a  feOow-citizen  of  the  saints,  and  of  the  household  of  God. 
<<  O  that  he  may  be,"  said  he,  '^  as  his  name  is,  a  strong  man^ 
Imd  that  1  may  meet  him  with  joy." 

To  James  he  said  :  ''  Brother  James,  I  hope  God  hath 
ffiven  thee  a  goodly  heritage.  The  lines  have  fallen  to  thee 
in  pleasant  places.  The  Lord  is  thy  portion.  Hold  on, 
dear  brother ;  Christ  and  heaven  are  worth  striving  for. 
Hie  Lord  give  thee  abundance  of  his  grace." 


iSS  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

To  his  brofther  Abraham,  he  said :  ^'  The  blessiDg  of  the 
God  of  Abi  aham  rest  upon  thee.  The  Lord  make  thee  die 
foher  of  many  spiritual  children/' 

To  his  brother  Joseph  he  said :  "  Let  him  bless  diee,  O 
Joseph,  1/i'ho  blessed  him  that  was  separated  from  bis 
brethren.  My  heart  hath  been  working  towards  thee,  poor 
Joseph ;  and  I  am  not  without  hopes  that  the  arms  of  the 
Almighty  will  embrace  thee.  The  God  of  thy  father  bless 
Aeer 

To  his  sister  Mary  he  siud :  "  Poor  sister  Mary,  Ay  body 
is  weak,  and  thy  days  will  be  filled  with  bitterness.  The  Lord 
sweeten  all  with  his  grace  and  peace,  and  give  thee  health  of 
Son!.     Be  patient;  make  sure  of  Christ ;  and  all  is  weU." 

To  Sarah  he  said :  **  Sister  Sarah,  thy  body  is  strong  and 
healthful.  O  that  thy  soul  may  be  so  too !  JThe  Lord  make 
thee  a  pattern  of  modesty,  humility,  and  holiness.'' 

To  his  brother  Jacob  he  said :  ^'  The  Lprd  m&ke  thee  an 
Israelite  indeed,  in  whom  there  is  no  guile.  O  that  diou 
mayest  learn  to  wrestle  with  God,  and  not  go  without  a 
blessing  !'* 

And  of  his  youngest  brother  Benjamin,  then  an  infan1|  he 
said :  '^  Poor  little  Benjamin !  O  that  the  Father  of  the 
fatherless  would  take  care  of  thee ;  and  that  thou  who  hast 
never  seen  thy  father  on  earth,  may  see  him  with  joy  in 
heaven.    Tlie  Lord  be  thy  father  and  thy  portion." 

He  then  said  to  tliem  all :  '^  O  that  none  of  us  may  be 
found  among  the  unconverted  in  the  day  of  judgment !  O 
that  we  may  all  appear,  with  our  honoured  father  and  dear 
mother,  before  Christ  with  joy;  and  that  they  may  say, 
*  Lord,  here  are  we,  and  the  children  whom  thou  hast  given 
us  P  O  that  we  nray  live  to  God  here,  and  live  with  God 
hereafter.  And  now,  my  dear  mother,  brethren,  and  sisterSy 
fiirewell.  I  leave  you  a  short  time.  /  commend  you  to  Crod, 
and  to  the  word  of  his  ^race,  which  is  able  to  biiild  you  up,  and 
to  give  you  an  inheritance  amon^  them  which  are  sanctified. 
And  now,  dear  Lord,  my  work  is  done.  /  have  foueit  a 
goodjight,  I  have  finished  my  course,  I  have  kept  ihe  faith; 
nencgorth  there  is  laid  up  for  me  the  crown  of  rishteou$nes$* 
Come,  Lord  Jesus,  cane  quickly ;''  and  he  presently  departed. 
He  died  in  the  month  of  June,  l657y  in  the  twenty-fourdi 
year  of  his  s^e ;  when  his  remains  were  interred  in  Kelshall 
church,  where  his  father  had  been  minister. 

The  foregoing  account  of  this  extraordinary  young  mui 
was  originally  published  with  the  recommendatory  testimonial 


LAN6LET.  fSB 

«f  fourenment  presbytemn  ministers,  giring  dieir  attestatioD 
%9  die  tnilii  of  die  narrative.*  A  late  popular  writer  observes, 
dia^  if  ever  mortal  lived  the  life  of  an  angel  while  upon  the 
cndi,  Mr.  Janeway  seems  to  have  been  the  man.  And  he 
adds,  ^  that  his  death-bed  scene,  above  all  others  I  have 
cMier  read  or  seen,  appears  to  have  had  in  it  die  lamst  share 
of  divine  communications/'f  Wood  denominates  Mr.  Jane- 
wsjr  a  zealous  presbyterian.^  His  three  brothers,  William, 
James,  and  Abraham,  were   all  ejected  nonconformists  in 


John  Lanolet,  A.  M. — ^This  celebrated  scholar  was 
bom  near  Banbury  in  Oxfordshire,  and  educated  in  Mag- 
dbleii4iaU,  OxCcH-d.  Afterwards  he  was  prebendary  of 
Gloucester,  where  he  was  master  of  the  college  school 
about  twenty  years;  and,  in  the  year  1640,  he  succeeded 
Or.  Ghll  as  chief  master  of  St.  Paufs  school,  London.  In 
bodi  these  situations  many  persons  were  trained  up  under  his 
tnidon,  who  became  eminently  distinguished  characters  in 
duirch  and  state.  Among  the  number  of  his  learned  pupik 
was  Mr.  Richard  Cumberland,  afterwards  bishop  of  Peter- 
bolough.ll  He  was  a  judicious  divine,  a  universal  scholar, 
and  so  celebrated  an  antiquarian,  that  his  delight  in,  and  ac* 
quaintance  with,  antiquities  deserves  the  highest  commendatidn 
mat  can  be  given.f  He  was  highly  esieeined  by  men  cele- 
brated for  literature,  but  little  regarded  by  the  clergy,  because 
he  was  a  puritan,  and  a  witness  against  Archbishop  Laud  at 
histrial.** 

Mr.  Langley  was  indeed  called  as  witness  against  the 
archbishop;  when  he  deposed,  that,  in  the  year  I6I6,  his 
lordship,  then  dean  of  Gloucester,  came  down  to  the  cathe* 
dral  of  that  place,  intending  to  turn  the  communion-table  into 
an  altar,  aud  to  place  it  altar-wise  at  the  east  end  of  the  choir^ 
removing  it  from  its  former  situation  in  the  midst  of  the 
church.  Dr.  Smith,  bishop  of  Gloucester,  opposed  the 
innovation,  and  warmly  protested  to  the  dean  and  the  pre- 
bends, that  if  the  communion-table  sliould  be  removed,  or 

•  Jaaewa^F'i  Life  of  Mr.  John  Janeway.    Edit.  1673.— Clark*t  UfCf, 
ls«v»l.p.60— 81. 
f  BfanpMB^s  Plea  for  Relij^ion,  p.  306,  310.    Edit.  1810. 

{AtJleD«  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  3S5. 
Fdaer't  Noncon.  Mem.  vol.  ii.  p.  306.  iii.  311, 315. 
BISf.  BriCM.  vol.  iv.  p.  658.     Edit.  1778. 
Bsyaoldt*!  Fan.  Srr.  for  Mr.  Langley. 
**  W«oi1i  AtbeiUD  OxoD.  vol.  ii.  p.  135. 

,      TOL.III.  U 


190  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

any  oinh  'uuHmifiM  hixw^t  kito  the  ctdiedi«l,M  DMnLani 
tken  intended,  he  wo«U  never  come  witkin  die  wails  of  Ae 
cethedral  any  more.  But  Che  deap  wm  ao  vieleut,  tfaa^  m 
direct  opposition  to  the  order  and  sqppointment  of  tfie  biilKip, 
he  cawed  the  Lord's  table  to  be  removed  aad  placed  akp- 
wise,  ixND  nordi  to  south,  at  the  east  end  of  the  dieir,  wilb 
po|Msh  furniture  upon  il,  boding  towards  it  Unisdf^  ani 
commending  the  varioos  officers  of  the  church  to  d»  ihe 
same.  He  further  deposed,  Chat  the  biAop  was  wo  wtmdk 
offended  at  these  innovations,  that  he,  according  to  hie  pro» 
testation,  came  no  more  into  the  cathedral  to  the  day  of  his 
death.  This  is  the  substance  of  M'hat  Mr.  Lai^Iey  testified, 
which  was  further  confirmed  by  odier  evidenoe.* 

ICr.  JUangley^  being  a  most  celdirated  scholar,  wia  cheesa 
one  of  the  licensers  of  the  press  far  the  fhilosopUoal  and- 
historical  depaitnient.t  A  nMnister  of  his  nune,  b«t,  aoecidU 
ing  to  Wood,  a  <Kfferant  person,  was  chosen  one  of  Iht^ 
assembly  of  divines4  He  died  at  his  honae  adjoiniag  Paufs 
school;  September  13,  1657.  I>r.  Edward  Reynolds^ 
wards  bishop  of  Norwich,  preached  his  iunenl 
nrhich  was  afterwards  pubUsfaed.  Fidier  caUs  Mr.  f  anghy 
'^  the  «bte  and  raligions  schoolmaster.'*  Ardideacoo  EcbaHl 
dcnoounates  him  **  an  exoetteot  theologist  of  the  pwaCan 
Utomp,  a  great  lingiHst  and  historian,  ami  a  nice  wmi  exact 
9ntiq«iary ;  for  ^ich  he  was  hiahly  esteemed  by  the  Anaoas 
Sel^n  aad  other  learned  men.  $  Mr.  Strype  aays,  '^  ha 
was  «  general  scholar,  and  a  great  antiqmay,  espeodU^  m 
matters  relating  to  bis  own  conatiy,  ihe  stories  ami  curiostties 
of  which  be,  during  his  travels,  made  a  considerable  coUee* 
Isea,''  His^awM  presence  nod  speeeh  produced  imcomason 
relict  and  fesff  among  his  sdiolars^  and  such  was  Ur 
b^aviottr  towards  them,  that  they  both  feared  and  ioVed  hsm^ 
His  remains  were  interred,  with  great  fimeral  solemmly,  wr 
Mercer's  chapel,  Oieapside;  when  all  his  sch<4ars  nttayded^ 
And,  as  he  died  a  single  man,  they  walked  before  ifae  coipse, 
baring  white  gloves,  and  beuig  hung  with  verses  insteari  of 
escutCTeons,  from  the  school  through  Cheapside  to  Maeoar^ 
f^pd.  He  was  so  much  in  favour  with  the  worsfa^fM 
company  of  mercers,  that  th^y  Accented  his  commeodatinn 
,ef  a  successor .fl      Mr.  Langley  was  author  of   ^  Totias^ 

•  Prynne's  Cant.  Doope,  p.  7S— 78. 

t  Neari  Pnritaoi,  to].  Hi.  p.  46.       t  Wood*B  AtlMBVp  voL  ii«#r'l8k 

S  Ecbard't  Hist,  of  £ag.  vol.  ii.  p.  811. 

I  KDigbf  8  Life  of  Colet,  p.  319,  880.    £dil.  ITMi 


JUMoricis  fldumbnido  in  mum  Scfaolae  Pauliuee,"  1644— 
'*  Ab  introdikietiqB  ip  Gnmv^* — ^Anfl  90jaa/&  other  jMeces* 


J^HN  O^MBi^pDENy  A.  M.-^This  person  was  bom  i^ 
Hampshire^  in  tbe  year  1^^,  and  educated  first  at  Broad- 
gate-hally  then  in  Christ's  church,  Oxford,  where  he  tpo)c 
his  degrees  jm  arts.  In  1632  he  was  admitted  to  the  reading 
pf  the  set^enees.  After  ccMnpleting  his  studies  at  the  luuh 
verskj,  he  preached  for  several  years^.at  Loi^worth  in  Bei^- 
shire.  Wlusn  the  civil  wars  brote  out,  he  espoused  the  qaus^ 
of  the  parliament,  became  chaplain  to  Robert^  earl  pjf 
jLeicester,  a^  tfteryfords,  for  Bo^le  time,  rector  of  CrPyt- 
chMTGhin  Glam^ganshire.  In  thi?  situation  he  died  abojf^ 
the  month  of  October,  1657,  aged  fifty-nine  yej^s.  Hur 
jfeitaaim  were  interred  m  the  chancel  of  the  church  at  that 
itoce^ 


His  Works. — 1.  A  Sermon  on  Gen.  vi.  5 — 7,,  16^.-2.  A  Sermon 
on  Gen.  xxii.  1,  2.,  1027.—^.  God's  great  Mercy  to  Mankind  in 
Jesus  Christ,  a  Seraion  at  PauFs  CTross,  on  Isa.  liii.  6.,  1628. — 4.  Two 


S^rinons  before  Ihie  Univendty  of  Oxford,  1057.— 5.  Ckritt  tempted, 
IIm  Devil  oonqoered :  or,  a  Atxti  Exposition  on  a  Part  of  the  Fonith 
of  St  Matthew's  Gospel,  1667.--6.  A  Sermon  on  A^ts^ 


Joi^N  Frost,  B.  D. — ^This  pious  minister  was  so^  oiP 
Mr.  John  Frost,  the  ancient  and  pious  minister  of  Fajcen- 
ham  in  Suffolk.  During  his  childhood  and  youth,  he  disr 
covered  a  sweet  and  amiable  disposition,  and  ^was  ever 
harmless  and  affectionate  in  Jiis  behaviour.  He  received  his 
acbool  learning  first  at  Thetford,  then  at  Bury  St.  Edmund'i^ 
where  he  made  Mncommon  proficiency,  especially  in  Greek 
and  X^atiu.  But  that  which  added  the  greatest  lustre  to  nis 
diameter  was  his  early  piety,  and  a  zealous  attachment  to 
the  word  of  God.  Even  in  the  days  of  his  youth  he  diligently 
•easched  thi^  scriptures,  copstantly  attended  upon  the  word 

g cached,  and  spent  much  time  in  the  duty  of  private  prayer. 
6  WHS  desirous,  firom  a  child,  to  b(e  employed  in  the  work  of 
line  ministry;  therefore,  he  earnestly  and  constantly  praye4 
that  God  would  fit  him  for  that  important  work. 

At  the  age  g^  sixteen  he  eqtered  St.  John's  college.  Cam* 
faridge^  wh^e  he  continued  thirt^n  y^ars,  and  was  choseq 

«  ^Woed'i  Atkeas  0«oa.  vol.  li.  p.  ISI. 


818  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

fellow  of  tbe  house.  During  this  period,  he  made  tmnmg 
progress  in  all  kinds  of  useful  learning ;  but,  having  die  chris- 
tian ministry  constantly  in  view,  he  directed  his  studies  chiefly 
to  those  branches  of  literature  which  were  likely  to  be  most 
serviceable  in  that  holy  office.  At  the  university,  on  account  of 
the  acuteness  of  his  mind,  the  mildness  of  his  behaviour,  his 
intense  application  to  study,  and  his  great  proficiency  in  use- 
ful knowledge,  he  was  greatly  beloved  by  men  of  leaming  and 
piety.  He  entered  upon  his  ministerial  work  during  his 
abode  at  Cambridge;  and  afterwards  became  pastor  at 
St.  01ave*s,  Hart-street,  London ;  where  he  remained  to  die 
day  of  his  death. 

In  this  situation  he  continued  many  years,  and  gained  a 
distinguished  reputation.  As  he  lived  highly  respected,  so 
he  died  gready  lamented.  And  having  lived  a  most  pious 
life,  he  died  a  most  peaceable  and  happy  death.  During  his 
last  sickness,  he  discovered  a  becommg  submission  to  the 
will  of  God,  being  willing  to  die,  if  his  heavenly  Father  had 
so  determined ;  or  willing  to  live,  if  most  for  the  glory  of  God 
and  the  advantage  of  his  church.  When  he  was  asked  how 
he  did,  he  replied,  **  Full  of  peace  and  sweet  submission  to 
God  my  Saviour,  and  in  dependence  upon  him.*'  The  pangs 
of  death  evidendy  approacnmg,  he  called  his  family  tocedier 
and  ei^ged  in  prayer,  for  the  last  time,  with  much  liveliness 
and  affection.  And  having  received  something  to  drink,  his 
affectionate  wife  reclining  upon  his  bosom,  he  exclaimed, 
"  We  have  overcome,  we  have  overcome  !**  and  si>oke  no 
more,  but  resigned  his  pious  soul  to  God,  and  immediafdy 
entered  upon  die  joy  of  his  Lord,  November  2,  1657. 

Mr.  Crofton,  who  preached  and  published  Mr.  Frostfs 
fimeral  sermon,  gives  the  following  account  of  his  exceDent 
qualifications: — **  He  was  sound  in  the  f^uth,  well  studied  in 
polemical  divinity,  and  able  to  defend  die  trudi,  holding  last 
the  doctrines  of  the  gospel,  and  establishing  the  minds  of  his 
people  in  the  faidi,  especially  against  the  fancies  of  annim- 
anism  and  popery.  He  was  singularly  excellent  in  practical 
divinity,  pressing  die  observance  of  duties,  rebuking  sin  with 
wisdom  and  afiection,  and  prudendy  directing  persons  into  all 
necessary  christian  conversation,  as  becometh  the  professioo 
of  the  gospel.  He  was  a  thorough  puritan  in  principle  and 
practice,  but  h^^y  esteemed  the  unity  and  peace  of  the 
church.  He  studiously  laboured  to  promote  concord  amooff 
die  episeopal  and  presbyterian  divines.  He  was  ever  sok^ 
citous  to  perform  all  the  duties  of  his  office,  by  preaching, 
administenug  the  sacraments,  catechiziiq^  the  youth,  and 


EVANS. 

▼isi&ig  the  sick.    He  wu  zealous  amd  fervent, 

and  i^ise,  and  always  deeply  affected  widi  the  worfi  «f 

souls. 

**  His  excellent  ministerial  endowments  were  manifest  Id 
all.  What  he  delivered  to  die  people  was  first  deeply  im- 
printed on  his  memory  by  an  easy  method,  and  deepfy 
engraven  on  his  own  heart  by  serious  meJBtition.  He  ex* 
pressed  himself  with  great  power  and  plainness,  and  enforced 
^the  great  truths  of  die  gospel  widi  strong  arguments  and 
padietical  affections.  In  his  daily  conv^sation  he  was  cour- 
teous and  affable  to  all  men,  wfaedier  his  superiors,  inferiors, 
or  equals.  He  was  meelL  and  ^rave,  hdy  and  exemplary,  as 
was  obvious  to  all  who  knew  him.''*  He  was  the  author  of 
**  Select  Sermons,''  1657. 


f^  Hugh  Evans  was  bom  in  Radnorshire,  bat  removed  in 
his  youth  to  the  city  of  Worcester,  where  he  lived  some  years. 
About  the  commencement  of  the  civil  wars,  he  left  thi^  city 
fiid  went  to  reside  at  Coventry.  There  he  fomid  a  society 
q{  biqptists,  vriien  he  soon  embraced  their  sentiments,  and 
was  admitted  a  member  of  their  church.  This  was  about 
the  year  1643.  He  approved  himself  a  very  pious,  senribie, 
and  hopefiil  young  man.  His  brethren  socm  perceived  that 
he  was  endowed  vrith  prcmiising  gifts  for  the  ministry,  and 
encouraged  him  to  cultivate  and  exercise  them;  which  he 
did  to  ^eir  abundant  satisfiiction.  He  now  bq;an  to  pity 
die  state  of  his  native  country;  and,  considering  its  deplor- 
able condition  as  overspread  whfa  gross  darkness,  and  desti- 
tute of  the  means  of  knowledge  and  salvation, he  felta  strong 
de^re  to  devote  himself  to  die  laudable,  but  arduous  wori^  of 
enlightening  and  converting  his  countrymen.  Tho-e  were 
then  not  above  one  or  two  gathered  churches  in  all  W^ales, 
and  very  few  preachers  of  die  eospel.  His  friends  approved 
and  countenanced  his  benevolent  inclination,  but  judged  it 
advisable  that  he  should  first  have  some  ftirtfaer  literary 
advantage  and  instruction.  Accordingly,  he  was  placed  for 
some  dme  under  the  care  and  tuition  of  Mr.  Jeremiah  Ives, 
a  baptist  minister  of  considerable  respectability.  Having  con- 
tinued widi  Mr.  Ives,  and  eii|oyed  the  benefit  of  his  instruc- 
tions for  a  consideraUe  time,  he,  according  to  hb  or^^inal 
intention,  returned  mto  Wales.  This,  it  appears,  was  about 
the  year  1647« 

•  Croftoa't  Faneral  Senaon  and  Life  •f  Mr.  Fr«8tv 


tM  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Mr.  Evans  entered  (ipon  the  ministerial  work  aa  one  fl 
siUe.  of  its  importance,  and  deeply  impressed  with  the  worth 
of  souls.  It  soon  appeared  that  his  labours  were  both  accept* 
ah  'e  and  usefiil.  The  good  people  among  whom  he  preached 
warm)  J  solicited  and  pressed  him  to  continue  with  theiii,  which 
he  did  to  the  end  of  his  dsiys.  Though,  at  the  commencement 
of  his  nunistry,  he  does  not  appear  to  have  been  above  thir^- 
years  of  age,  he  vras  tinwearied  in  all  his  labonra  to  proiBote 
dieir  best  interests,  and  to  extend  the  boundaries  of  the 
Redeemer's  kmgdom.  He  presently  succeeded  in  gatlierilfg 
a  respectable  congregation,  which,  as  our  author  obaefves^ 
has  continued  by  a  succession  of  new  members  down  to  the 
present  time.  After  having  spent  about  ten  years,  widk 
exemplary  diligence,  unwearied  perseverance,  dnd  eminent 
success  in  promoting  the  gospel  among  his  countrymen,  he 
finished  his  course  in  the  prime  of  life,  and  in  the  heightof 
his  usefulness,  to  the  unspeakable  regret  of  his  mun^rHl 
fiiends,  by  whom  he  was  exceedingly  respected  and  bdoveAi 
His  ministry  was  chiefly  exercised  in  Radnorshire  and  Breclu 
nockshire.  Dr.  Walker  enumerates  him  among  the  pc^Mlltt 
itinerants  of  Wales,  and  charges  him  with  having. recetfrod  * 
salary  for  itinerant  preaching  in  both  those  counties.^  If  ka 
did  so,  it  only  proves  his  great  activity  and  uncommon  labouttk 
When  one  man  does  the  work  of  two,  it  is  fit  he  shpuld  H^ 
ceive  double  wages.  There  is  reason  to  think,  says  oair' 
author,  that  he  was  for  some  time  the  only  baptist  mimstelr 
in  Wales.  Some  of  the  other  preachers,  and  Mr.  Vavasdl* 
Powell  among  the  rest,  were  probably  baptized  by  him^ 
His  people,  it  is  added^  were  all  baptists,  and  do  not  appear 
to  have  admitted  mixt  communion,  though  some  of  the  Be^b« 
bouring  churched  did ;  nor  did  they  practise  singing  in  their 
public  worship,  except,  perhaps,  at  the  Lord's  tBme,  The 
church  afterwards  increased,  and  spread  into  several  branches  { 
and  now  forms  three  or  four  distinct  and  respectable  chmt^hes^ 
assembling  in  the  counties  of  Radnor,  Brecon>  and  MonI* 
gomery. 

Mr.  Evans  had,  doubtless,  many  enemies ;  buthb  pri^pd' 
opponents  are  said  to  have  been  the  Quakers;  who  vnu» 
lently  opposed  him  from  the  press,  as  well  as  otherwise, 
conceiving  a  very  strong  and  unreasonable  antSpathy  agamst 
him.  A  hook  was  published  against  hiin,  about  die  time  (^ 
his  death,  by  one  John  Moon,  who  called  Mr.  Evans  **  tk6 
blind  Welsh  priest  of  Radnorshire/'  and  attempted^  V^ 

-•  WaUer's  Attempt,  part  i.  p.  169. 


O.  SEDGWICK.  195 

•  I 

iUiberalljE,  to  aspenb  and  vilify  his  cfatncter  and  menoiy. 
His  two  friends,  Mr.  John  Price  and  Mr.  William  Bownd^ 
answered  die  Quaker,  and  successfully  vindieated  their  de- 
ceased brother;  and,  from  their  own  intimate  knowledge 
of  him,  expressed  the  liighest  opinion  of  his  integrity  and 
piety,  as  well  as  the  truest  respect  and  veneration  for  his 
memoiy.  The  amiableness  and  respectability  of  his  charac- 
ter may  be  safely  inferred  from  the  strong  attachment  of  his 
pious  and  numerous  friends.  He  died  about  the  year  1857^ 
wid  probably  not  more  diain  forty  years  of  age..  But  he  lived 
long  afterwards  in  the  affectionate  recollection  of  those  who 
had  attended  on  his  faithful  and  edifrinir  ministry*^  Mr. 
Heinry  Gregory,  who  had  been  a  member  of  Mr.  Ehrans's 
church,  was  his  successor  in  the  pastoral  office.t 


Obadiah  Sedowiok,  B.  D.-<-This  excellent  person 
\I9«B  brother  to  Mr.  John  Sec^wick,  anodier  puritan  divine, 
bom  at  Mariborough  in  Wiltshire,  in  die  year  lOOO,  and 
educated  first  at  t^ueen's  college,  then  in  Magdaleohhall, 
Oxford.  Having  finished' his  academical  studies,  he  entered 
^M)n  the  ministerial  exercise,  and  became  chaplain  to  Lord 
Horatio  Vere,  whom  he  accompanied  to  die  Low  Countries. 
*Aft]er  his  return,  he  went  again  to  Oxford,  and,  in  the  year 
16^,  was  admitted  to  the  reading  of  die  sentences.  He  was 
tutor  to  Matthew  Hale,  afterMfards  die  celebrated  lord  chief 
jii8tice.t  LfCaving  the  umversity  a  second  time,  he  became 
preacher  at  St.  Mildred's,  Bread-street,  London;  but  was 
^ven  from  the  place  by  die  intolerance  of  the  pr^ates. 
He  became  vicar  of  Coggeshall  in  Essex,  in  the  year  16S9»S 
"where  he  continued  two  or  three  years.  Upon  the  com- 
mencement' of  the  wars,  he  returned  to  die  city  and  to  his 
ministry  at  St.  Mildred's,  and  was  often  called  to  preach 
before  the  parliament  In  die  year  1642,  he  became  chap« 
lain  to  Colonel  HoUis's  regiment  in  the  parliament's  army. 
The  year  following,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  licensers  of 
the  press,  and  chosen  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  and  he^ 
constantly  attended.n  Wood  observes,  but  certainly  with  no 
good  design,  '<  that  while  he  preached  at  Mildred's,  which 
was  only  to  exasperate  the  people  to  rebel  and  conf6und 
episcopacy,  it  was  usual  with  hkn,  especially  in  hot  weather^ 

«  Theolog.  Bib.  Maf .  vol.  ▼.  p.  4SO—42t.  f  Ibid.  ? ol.  ? f.  p.  6» 


?  Clark's  Lives,  last  voU  part  ii.  p.  186. 
Newcoart*s  Repert.  Eccl.  ▼ol.  ii.  p.  100. 
I  Neal's  Paritaos,  vol.  it.  p.  65av  iU«  46,  M. 


296  LIVES  OF  THE  PURItANS. 

to  onbottoii  his  doublet  in  the  pulpit,  that  his  breath  iiiq;ht 
be  longer,  and  his  voice  more  audible,  to  rail  against  the 
king's  party,  and  those  about  the  king's  person,  whom  he 
called  popish  counsellors.  This  he  did  in  an  especial  manner 
in  September,  1644,  when  he,  with  great  concernmeDt,  tcdd 
the  people,  several  times,  that  God  was  angry  with  the.  army 
for  not  cutting  off  delinquents."*  Dr.  Grey,  with  a  similar 
design,  denonnnates  him  '^  a  preacher  of  treason,  rebellion, 
and  nonsense ;"  for  the  proof  of  which,  he  alleges  the  follow- 
ing passages  from  Mr.  Sedgwick's  sermons  preached  befote 
tlie  parliament : — **  The  field  which  I  am  at  this  time  to  work 
upon,  and  eo  over,  you  see  is  large.     There  is  much  mora 

f  round  in  it  tliaii  1  can  conveiiiently  break  up  and  sow. 
shall  therefore,  by  God's  assistance,  who  is  the  only  breaker 
of  hearts, 'Iset  upon  the  work,  and  may  he  in  tender  mercy  so 
accompany,  and  water,  and  prosper  his  truths  at  this  day,  thai 
all  our  fsdlow  ground  may  be  broken  up,  and  then  be  so  gra- 
ciously sown  in  righteousness,  that  we  and  all  the  land  may 
shordy  reap  in  mercy. — Sirs,  you  must  break  up  diis  grcHUN^ 
or  it  will  break  up  our  land.  There  is  not  such  a  God- 
provoking  sin,  a  God^removing  sin,  a  church-dissQlving^.S 
kingdom-breaking  sin,  as  idolatry.  Down  with  it,  down  with 
it,  even  to  the  ground.  Superstition  is  but  a  bawd  to  gross 
idolatry .-^Be  as  earnest  and  as  active  as  you  possibly  can  tp 
send  labourers  into  the  field ;  I  mean  to  plant  the  land  with  a 
heart-breaking  ministiy. — God  hath  been  the  salvation  of  die 
parliament,  and  in  the  parliament,  and  for  the  parliament 
Salvation  at  Edge-hill;  salvation  at  Reading  and  Causon; 
salvation  at  Gloucester ;  salvation  at  Newbury ;  salvation  in 
Cheshire;  salvation  in  Pembrokeshire;  salvation  in  the 
north ;  salvation  from  several  treacheries ;  and  salvation  from 
open  hostilities.'*-!'  Such  are  the  formidable  proofs,  in  th^ 
opinion  of  the  learned  doctor,  that  he  was  a  preacher  of 
treason,  rebellion,  and  nonsense!  How  far  he  was  guilty, 
every  reader  will  easily  judge. 

In  tliC  year  1046,  Mr.  Sedgwick  became  preacher  at 
St.  Paul's,  Covent-garden ;  where  he  was  exceedingly  fol- 
lowed, and  was  mstiumental  in  the  conversion  of  many  souls* 
In  1653,  he  was,  by  the  pailiament,  appointed  one  of  the 
tri^ers ;  and  the  year  following  was  constituted  one  of  tlie 
assistant  commissioners  of  London  for  ejecting  ignorant  and 
scandalous  mmisters.     He  ws(s  very  zealous  to  carry  on,  as 


♦  Wood's  AthensB  Oxon.  Yol.  ii.  p.  139. 
i  Grejf'b  EzaminaiioD,  vol.  iii.  p.  804— J206. 


SANDBROOKE.  S97 

in  deriaon  it  is  called,  '^the  good  work -of  reformation  in 
church  and*8tate."  He  was  a  frequent  preacher  before  the 
parliament.  Sir  John  Birkenhead  casts  his  foul  aspersions 
upon  him  and  Mr.  Marshall,  saying,  **  it  is  pleasant  ,to  ob- 
serve how  finely  they  play  into  each  other's  hands.  Marshall 
procures  thanks  to  be  given  to  Sedgwick ;  and,  for  his  great 
pains,  Sedgwick  obtains  as  much  for  Marshall;  and  so  they 
pimp  for  one  another.  But,  to  their  great  comfort  be  it 
spoken,  their  whole  seven  years  sermons  at  Westminster  are  to 
be  sold  in  Fetter-lane  and  Pye-comer."*  Had  this  writer  known 
how  many  of  the  episcopsd  clergy  purchased  aqd  preached 
the  sermons  of  the  puritans,  he  might  have  greatly  extended 
his  foul  aspersions.  Mr.  Sedgwick  finding,  at  length,  that 
his  health  began  to  decline,  he  resigned  all  his  preterments 
and  retired  to  Marlborough,  his  native  place,  where  he  died 
in  the  month  of  January,  1658,  aged  fifty-seven  years,  and 
his  remains  were  interred  in  the  chancel  of  Ogbom  St.  A% 
drew,  near  Marlborough.f  He  was  a  learned  divine,  and  an 
orthodox  and  admired  preacher .t  In  his  ministry,  he  was 
succeeded  by  the  celebrated  Dr.  lliomas  Manton,  ejected  in 
1662.$ 

His  WoRKS.f-:l.  Several  Sermons  on  public  Occasions,  1639,  &e. 
--f42.  Parliamentary  Sermons,  1642,  &c. ;  among  which  were,  ^  Eng- 
land's Preservation,''  1642.—"  Haman's  Vani^,"  1643.— "  An  Ark 
against  a  Deluge:  or.  Safety  in  Dangerous  Times,**  1644.—^.  Mii»- 
tary  Discipline  for  the  Christian  Soldier,  1639.— 4.  Christ's  Council 
to  his  Languishing  Church  of  Sardis,  1640. — 6.  Speech  in  Guildhall, 
1043^—6.  The  best  and  worst  Malignant,  1648.-— 7.  The  doubting 
Christian  resolved,  1663. — 8.  The  humble  Sinner  resoWed;  or. 
Faith  in  the  Lord  .(esns  Christ  the  only  way  for  sensible  Sinners,  dis- 
covering the  Quality,  Objects,  and  Acts  of  Justifying  Faith  J|  1656. — 
Ol  The  Fountain  opened,  and  the  Water  of  Life  flowing,  1657. — 

10.  The  Shepherd  of  Israel ;  or,  an'Exposition  of  Psalm  xiuii.,  1658.— 

11.  Anatomy  of  Secret  Sins,  166a — 12.  I'he  Bowels  offender  Mercy 
Sealed  in  the  Everlasting  Covenant,  1660.— 13.  The  Parable  of  the 
Prodigal,  1660. — 14.  Synopsis  of  Christianity. — 15.  A  Catechism. 


William  Sandbkooke,  L.B. — ^This  pious  person  was 
educated  in  Gioucester-hall,  Oxford ;  and  in  1635  he  became 
rector  of  St.  Peter's  xihurch  in  that  city,  where  his  preaching 

•  GfSBger^  Bi«g.  Hist.  vol.  iii.  p.  48. 

f  Wood's  Atbey»  Oxod.  vol.  ii.  p.  139, 140. 


1  Neal's  PoriUns,  vol.  i?.  p.  184. 


Palmer's  Noocon.  Mem.  vol.  i.  p.  125, 426. 
j  The  MS.  of  this  excellent  work,  and  apparentl j  io  Mr.  Mgwickli 
•wtt  band,  is  in  the  posscsiion  of  the  author. 


1M  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS, 

was  much  followed  bj  the  religious  and  puritanical  adiolarSk 
Upon  die  commencement  of  the  civil  wari  he  espoosed  the 
cause  of  the  parliament^  left  the  university,  and  went  lo  sea 
as  chaplain  to  the  Earl  of  Warwick,  admiral  to  the  puita* 
Bient.  However,  in  1644,  being  tired  of  a  sea  emvlsfmeB^ 
he  became  die  officiating  minister  at  St.  Margarers-  dhiirch^ 
Rochester,  when  Mr.  Selvey,'  the  incumbent,  to  his-  great 
honour,  allowed  him  all  the  profit^  of  the  living.  Afterwnrds^ 
by  the  powers  which  dien  were,  he  was  appointed  one  &[ 
die  three  lecturers  at  the  cathedral  in  that  city,  ^  purpoeely^* 
sa^  our  author,  '^  to  preach  down  the  heresies  and  blasphe* 
ttnes  of  Richaitl  Coppin,  and  his  bigoted  foUowers***  He 
died  at  Rochester  in  ihe  month  of  March,  l658,  leaviif 
behind  him  the  character  of  a  godly  and.paiiiAd  preacher.* 
He  published  a  work  entided,  **  The  Chnrch  Ae  pn^et 
Subject  of  die  New  Covenant,''  1646 ;  and  ^  Several  Se»- 
mons,"  1657. 


John  Bevbrly  was  fellow  of  Trinity  college,  CanlMidlgis^ 
where  he  most  probably  received  his  education.  Towaras 
the  close  of  life  he  setded  at  Rowell  in' Northamptonshire; 
where,  by  his  pious  and  useful  labours,  he  gathered  a  chiirch 
accorcling  to  me  model  of  the  independents.  Having  beeo 
instrumental  in  the  conversion  of  about  diirty  peraonsy  he 
united  them  in.  church  fellowship,  upon  congregpitioDai  piift- 
ciples,  when  they  entered  into  a  covenant  to  vralk  with  each 
omer  in  the  order  of  the  gospel.  The  tenpr  of  their  covenaot 
was,  **  To  walk.together  with  God,  in  gospel  fdlA  and  ordlbSy 
■MMi  a  particular  church,  in  the  performance  of  all  duties 
towards  God^  towards  each  other,  and  towards  all  men^  in 
die  strengdi  of  the  spirit  of  Christ,  and  accordii^  to  his 
word.^'  They  chose  Mr.  Beverly  their  pastor,  two  elders, 
and  two  deacons..  This  was  in  the  year  1656*  Under 
Mr.  Beverly's  ministry,,  many  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 
town  were  awakened  and  received  into  the  church.  But 
bis  excellent  and  useful  labours  were  not  long  condmed 
among  them  after  the  above  period ;  for  he  died  in  tbe 
month  of  June,  1658.  After  his  death,  the  good  peopk  who 
composed  his  church  mosdy  attended  upon  the  ministry  of 
Mr.'  Thomas  Browning  of  Desbprongh.  Upon  bis  rioctioii, ' 
in  1662,  they  invited  him  to  the  office  of  pastor,  and  M  con- 
tinued vnth  them  to  the  day  of  his  death/   This  clmiich  B  ' 

■•  Wood'!  AthtenaB  Oxoo.  vol.  ii.  p.  149. 


SKTG»LY-^W.  CAKTBIL  AM 

Mi  m  tlOBtbtkcey  and  ib  rather  a  flouridiiiig  state,  under  the 
pastoral  care  of  Mr.  Jokft  Wood.  Mr.  Beveriy  was  author 
of  several  pieides  on  chunifa  goremmettt :  as>  **  The  Grnind 
*]Poiiit  of  Oiurch  Matters." — ^A  Trtet  against  Hombeck  d§ 
Jhdepmtum^y  in  Latin.-^^ADd  apieoe  agahist  fr/ee  Admia^ 
sidtt)  opposed' to  Ae  CoAtracUctioiiB  of  Timson,  publMied  m 


William*  Cartek  was  bom  in  ^e  year  1605|  voA  edo- 
^ted  inihe  university  of  Qambridge>  after  which  he  beeame 
a  very  popular  preacher  in  London.  In  die  year  1643,  he 
was  appointed  one  of  ^  licensers  of  the  press ;  and,  the 
tame  year>  was  chosen  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  upon 
which  he  constantly  attended.  After  some  time  he  joined 
liie  independents,  became  one  of  the  dissenting  brethren  in 
llle  assemblj^,  uid  discovered  his  ^reat  zeal,  teamir^  and 
ittoderatton  in  support  of  their  distinguishing  sentimente.f 
In  '  1654,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  tiyers  of  public 

Sreachers,  in  which  capacity  Dr.  Walker  has  endeavomed  to 
epreciate  his  memoiy,  widi  that  of  other  learned  divmes.t 
Be  had  frequent  ofiers  of  preferment,  but,  being  dissatisfied 
with  die  parochial  discipline  of  those  times,  he  refused  them 
all*  He  was,  neverdieless,  indefatigable  in  his  ministry, 
jMeachk^  twice  ^ry  Lord's  day  to  two  large  congregations 
m  the  i^ty^  besides  weekly  lectures  and  other  occasional  ser- 
vices. He  was  one  of  the  preachers  before  the  parliament. 
His  incessant  and  arduous  labours  wasted  his  strength,  and 

St  an  end  td  hift  life  about  the  month  of  June,  1658,  aged 
y-lfaree  years.  He  was  a  good  scholar,  an  admired 
jpfeacher,  Md  a  man  of  most  exemplary  piety..  His  relations 
irere  afterwards  great  sufferers  by  the  purchase  of  bishops* 
linds.f  He  was  author  .of  a  sermon  entitled, ''  Israel's  Peace 
vnl^  -God  Benjamin's  Overthrow ;  preached  before  the 
Honourable  House  of  Commons,  at  their  late  solemn  Fast, 
July  «7, 1642.'' 


:  Hsin'i  MS;  Collcc.  p.  4IS,  414.<-PklMf *»  N«neoB.  Mtai.  «ol.  ill. 

f*8l-rSS. 

f  l>l88entiiig  Brethren's  ReaMos,  p.  40 — . 

iWalkeT*^  Attempt,  part  i.  p.  174,  175. 
JHai^  FnritSBi,  tsl.  Ui.  p.  46. 


300  UVES  DF  THE  PURITANS. 

John  HARRi8y  D.  Dw— This  learned  person  was  the  sob 
of  Mr.  Richard  Harrisi  rector  of  Hardwick  in  Bucldngham-- 
shire;  bom  at  that  place  in  the  year  1588,  educated  in  gram- 
mar learning  at  Wickham  school,  near  Winchester,  and 
admitted  perpetual  fellow  of  New  College,  Oxford,  In 
the  year  1617  he  was  fmanimously  elected  one  of  the  proc- 
tors of  the  university ;  and  two  years  after  was  chosen  Greek 
professor,  both  of  which  offices  he  filled  with  great  honour. 
Afterwards,  he  was  prebendary  of  Winchester,  rector  of 
Meanstock  in  Hunpshire,  and,  in  the  year  1630,  h^  became 
'warden  of  Wickbam  college.  In  the  beginning  of  die  civil 
wars,  he  took  part  with  the  parliament,  and  was,  appointed 
one  of  the  assembly  of  divines ;  when  he  took  the  x^ovenant 
and  other  oaths,  and  kept  his  wardenship  to  the  day  of  lua 
death.  He  died  August  11,  1658,  aged  seventy  years,  and 
his  remi^ins  were  interred  in  the  chapel  belonging  to  Wickham 
college.  Dr.  Harris  was  so  adnurable  a  Grecian,  and  so 
eloquent  a  preacher,  that  Sir  Henry  Savile  used  to  call  him 
the  second  Cfarysostom.*  He  published  "  A  short  View  of 
the  life  of  Dr.  Arthur  Lake,  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,*  < 
1629*  Several  of  his  letters  to  the  celebrated  Dr.  Twisse 
were  also  published  by  Mr.  Henry  Jeanes,  in  1653.  One  <tf 
these  letters  was  '^  Of  God's  finite  and  infinite  Decrees;?- 
another,  "  Of  the  Object  of  Predestination."  It  does  not 
appear,  however,  that  he  was  any  relation  to  Dr.  Robert 
Harris,  another  puritan  divine  who  lived  at  the  same  time. 


Thomas  Goodwin. — ^Tliis  excellent  servant  of  Christ 
was  some  years  minister  at  South  Weisld  in  Essex,  where  be. 
was  much  beloved,  and  eminendy  useful.  He  was  a  divine 
of  puritan  principles,  and  deeply  concerned  for  the  purity  and 
spirituality  pf  christian  worship,  lliough  he  died  joui^,  he. 
was  a  person  of  great  learning,  exemplary  piety,  and  univer- 
sal reputation.  Mr.  Bownd,  who  preached  his  funend  ser- 
mon, gives  the  following  account  of  him :  **  He  was  an. 
eminent  light  and  pillar  in  the  church  where  he  lived.  He 
gave  evident  proof  that  he  was  one  in  Christ,  and  is  now 
blessed.  He  was  a  good  and  precious  man,  and  well  known 
to  be  a  minister  of  great  worth,  every  way  qualified  for  the 
work  to  which  he  was  called.  It  was  his  desire  firom  a  yoatk 
to  be  a  minister  of  the  gospel ;  and,  accordii^  to  that  desire^ 
the  Lord  in  due  time  called  him  to  his  service.   To  his  qndB- 

«  Wood's  Atbeoa  Oxoo.  vol.  U.  p.   144.— Ecbaid's   Hiit.  of  £^r- 
vol.  ii.  y.  S87. 


-    I 


J.  HAllRIS— GOODWIN*  SOI 

ficati^ns  for  the  sacred  office,  his  brethren  in  the  counter,  with 
many  others  in  more  distantplaces,  could  give  ample  testunonj. 
He  was  a  learned  and  a  godly  person,  and  it  is  difficult  to 
say  which  of  the  two  had  the  pre-eminence :  they  seemed  to 
keep  pace,  and  he  was  eminent  in  both.  He  was  a  great  pro- 
ficient in  the  study  of  divinity  and  in  a  knowledge  of  the  holy 
scriptures.  Like  Ezra,  he  was  a  ready  scribe  in  the  law  of 
the  Lord;  and,  like  ApoUos,  mighty  in  the  scriptures. 
Though  he  was  young,  his  attainments  were  very  great; 
God  gave  unto  him  abundantly  of  his  spirit.  In  prayer  he 
had  much  of  the  spirit  of  devotion,  and  was  filled  with  the 
breathings  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  In  preaching,  he  was  very 
pow;erful,  and  spoke  directly  to  the  hearts  of  his  hearers.  In 
his  hfe,  he  was  most  exemplary,  both  as  a  christian  and  a 
minister.  His  preaching  was  admired  by  the  godly  and  the 
learned,  yet  persons  of  the  meanest  capacity  could  under-* 
stand  him.  He  had  such  a  winning  method,  that  his  ser- 
mons  were  never  tedious,  but  the  attention  of  his  hearers 
seemed  to  be  chained  to  his  lips.  He  took  great  pains  in  his 
ministry,  and  was  frequendy  engiqged  in  preaching,  in  which 
he  took  great  delight.  The  love  of  Christ,  and  me  souls  of 
the  people,  made  frequent  preachii^  his  recreation  and  hi<t 
pleasure. 

This  faithful  Qiinister  of  Christ  was  very  jealous  in  pro- 
moting a  further  reformation  of  the  church.    The  zeal  of 
God's  house  did  even  eat  him  up.     In  the  cause  of  God  he 
manifested  undaunted  cours^e,  and  laboured  vigorously  to 
promote  the  Redeemer's  kingdom  and  glory,  whatever  oppo- 
sitions were  in  the  way.     One  might  stand  upon  his  grave 
and  say,  ^'  Here  lies  one  who  never  feared  the  face  of  any 
.man.'*    He  was  never  proudly  puffed  up  with  his  rare  endow- 
ments ;  but,  in  the  whole  of  his  conversation,  he  discovered  a 
happy  degree  of  humility  and  holiness*    He  lived  fi-ee  fi*om 
woiidly  incumbrances,  but  fiill  of  cares  for  God's  glory  and 
the  ssdvation  of  his  people.     He  was  deeply  concerned  for 
persons  in  sickness  and  death.-    He  used  to  tell  me,  says  oup 
audiCNT,  how  sadly  it  affected  his  heart  wheti  any  one  was  sick, 
or  taken  away  by  death,  and  he,  the  pastor,  have  no  know- 
ledge of  his  condition.    He  naturally  cared  for  the  souls  of 
the  people ;  and  he  sought  not  his  own  things,  but  the  tliinp 
of  Jesus  Christ.    He  was  a  minister  of  the  gospvl,  and  iia 
endeavoured  to  fulfil  his  ministry.     He  made  his  work  his 
business,  and  *^  studied  to  approve  himself  unto  God  a  work* 
man  that  needed  not  to  be  ashamed." 
As  tfiis  righteons  man  lived,  so  he  died|  and  bis  «im1  wm 


4M     .  LIVES  OF  THE  WKVtMiS. 

hmppy.  Duriiw^  the  sickneM  of  which  he  died,  I  vitiM 
him,  sftyi  Mr.  Bownd,  and  havkig  recoiiUBeBded  wbaufr 
lion  to  die  will  of  God  under  all  hia  di8p€»«atioii0,  lie  r^lidily 
concurred,  and  added,  *^  But  my  desire  is  to  teach  fuftbw^ 
and  not  only  to  submit,  which  an  ordinary  christian  nwiy.df^ 
but  to  raise  up  myself  (o  courage  and  cfaeerfuhiess  under  ibi 
rod.  Blessed  be  God,  that  hitherto  I  can  date  his  choic^ 
merciies  from  some  great  aiBiction.''  Having  exhorted  hte 
to  the  lively  exercise  of  faidi,  that  he  might  be  abl^  to  queadh 
the  fiery  do-ts  of  the  devil,  he  replied,  ^'  I  Wess  God,  iblt 
Satan  hatii,  as  yet,  got  no  ground  by  this  affliction/'  Coniiw 
to  him  on  anodier  occasion,  and  finding  him  gready  redmmf 
he  said,  ^^  Dear  fiiend,  two  days  since  I  overbed  the  ifXtpf 
speaking  to  my  wife,  as  if  he  £^ed  me ;  and  I  bless  GqA  )w1iO 
ao  ordered  it  diat  1  diould  h^u-  him.  For,  indeed,  till  4w% 
I  did  nojt  so  seriously  consider  of  death,  as  I  have  done  jjocf  • 
I  did  all  along  in  my  sickness  set  my  heart  to  labour  far  a 
sanct^ed  use  of  the  Lord's  hand;  but,  overfaearivg  ifaai^' 
I  diou^t  it  needful  to  look  most  carefully  into  my  famrt  aa 
to  evidences  for  eternity ;  and  truly,  upon  a  thoron^  iseanh 
of  my  heart,  I  bless  God,  I  find  good  old  evidences,  thwi^ 
I  be  but  a  young  man,  and  ibey  stick  very  close  to  me.  fijk§ 
friend,"  said  he,  "  one  thing  I  must  tell  you,  which  taiivhkf 
and  afflicts  my  spirit  very  much,  that  when  I  grew  teiy 
serious,  being  exercised  about  serious  work,  the  aeajrjcbing,4rf 
my  heart  for  eternity-evidences,  I  perceived  tiiis  seriouiwwrt 
of  mine  was  judged  by  some  to  be  melanchojly,  for  ftar  ct 
death.  Now  this,  indeed,  troubles  me  very  mucli^  that  aay 
riiould  take  .me  to  be  such  a  one  who  am  afraid  to  die.^ 

I  afterwards  called  upon  hiiEL,  says  his  pious  ibiogimplMri 
and  told  him  that  his  friends  were  about  to  meet  to^Mier 
to  offer  up  prayer  to  God  for  him ;  when,  after  pauaing  a 
little,  he  broke  out  in  most  affectionate  expressions  of  th^ 
sense  he  had  <^  his  people's  love  to  him,  and  how  greatthf  ha.  ^ 
loved  them,  saying,  ^^  Oh  my  poor  peo{)Ie !  Oh  the  souu  of 
my  poor  people !  How  dear,  now  precious  are  tfiey  to  ma  I 
Oh,  if  God  should  spare  me,  how  would  I  lay  out  mytalf 
for  them!"  He  then  vrished  me  tp  commend  him  to  hit 
people,  and  tell  them,  diat  which  be  desired  them  to  beg  of 
God  was  a  clearer  sense  of  his  love,  saying,  ''Not  'dint  I 
altogether  want  it;  for,  1  bless  God,  I  Iwve  it;"'  butooiM  say 
9Q  more. 

The  next  time  I  called  upon  him,  •continues  Air.  Bownd^  I 
heard  from  his  mouth  a  most  predious  and  powerfid  da* 
tMraa  aonceming  the  a^eetqeaa  mnd  fidness  of  Ghnit.  He 


X.  HARRIS.  SB$ 

tmalktmatuii  kebad  been  preacbkur  from  die  pidpit.  I 
«pU  :|»t  help  wondering  to  bear  bkf  deliror  a  duoouise  ao 
~  metnodicmly  quoting  the  scripturet,  aad  not  fiuling 
e,  almost  without  fiiulteiing.  He  very  nupresuvely 
those  worda^  **  AXL  things  are  yaarsj  whether  PaiH 
.Apollos,  or  Cephas,  or  the  world,  or  life,  or  deaths  or 
igs;**  whea  he  oould  proceed  no  further,  but  afterwaiAa 
zMed,  **  because  ye  are  Christ's."  He  afiberwards  said, 
'^  WeHy  it  is  a  sweet  thing  when  he  that  speaks  of  Christ 
hadi  Cbist  dwelling  in  Urn,  at  the  time  when  he  speaks  ;** 
m  gave  iq>  the  ^host.  He  died  in  die  prime  of  life, 
Ihe  midst  of  his  usefulness,  September  4, 16.58  ;*  but 
r  he  was  any  rdation  to  die  cdebrated  Dr.  Thomas 
in,  or  to  Mr.  John  Goodwin^  both  of  whom  lived  air 
fa  BsawlUBe,  we  have  not  been  abk  to  kam. 


BoBSBT  Hakris,  D.  D. — ^This  learned  divine  vras  bom 
it  Biiaad  Campden  m  Gloucestershire,  in  the  year  1578, 
aal  odncated  in  Magdalen  collie,  Oxf<mi,  where  he  became 
aa  CKcaUent  scholar,  and  a  famous  logician  and  disputant. 
Bf  &e  blessing  of  God  upon  his  studies,  and  the  pioutf 
ivImelaoDs  of  his  tutor,  he  was  brought  to  a  saving  know^ 
kd^e  of  the  gospel,  and  soon  after  became  a  celebrated 
puitUL  He  preached  his  first  sermon  at  Chipping  Campden 
m  his  native  county.  Such,  however,  is  said  to  have  been 
the  igaonuice  of  the  times,  that  when  he  came  to  the  church 
there  was  no  BiUe  to  be  found ;  and  it  was  with  much  diffi-* 
txdty  that  he  could  procure  one  to  carry  virith  him  into  the 
pnlpil.  Indeed,  the  vicar  of  the  parish  possessed  a  Bible, 
ta  whose  house  he  was  directed ;  but,  as  it  had  not  been  seen 
fior  many  months,  it  was  with  great  difficulty  it  could  be 
foinkL  Having  at  length  prociu-ed  the  sacred  volume,  he 
went  to  the  church  and  preached  an  admirable  sermon  from 
8m.  X.  Lf 
He  eKcettent  Mr.  Dod  being  silenced  for  nonconformity, 
d^qected  from  Hanwell  in  Oxfordshire,  Sir  Anthony  Cope 
*  Mr.  Harris  to  become  his  successor.  He,  accordingly, 
itmoved  to  Hanwell,  though  with  much  grief  and  fear.  I'he 
WOfle  would  own  no  man  as  their  pastor  except  him  who 
Bad  been  ejected.  It  was,  however,  agreed  upon  that  Mr. 
Harris  jhould  preach  so  long  as  there  was  any  hope  of 
MQirfldng  Mr.  Dod.  During  Uiis  unsettled  state  at  Hanwell, 

d'l  Funeral  Sermon  for  Mr.  Goodwin. 

,*j  filfcs  aaaezMl  to  liartjrolosle,  -p.  dU,  SU. 


3M  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Archbishop  Bancroft  presented  the  living  to  one  of  his 
chaplains,  on  pretence  of  a  lapse.  But  Sir  Anthony  Cope, 
then  sitting  in  parliament,  together  with  several  other  mem- 
bers of  the  house,  waited  upon  the  archbishop,  and  presented 
Mr.  Harris,  whom  his  grace,  after  a  long  contest,  reluctandj 
admitted.  Sir  Anthony  having  formerly  spoken  against  in- 
sufficient ministers,  not  without  some  reflection  upon  the 
intolerant  proceedings  of  the  archbisliops  and  bishops,  Ban- 
croft embraced  this  opportunity  of  shewing  his  resentment; 
and,  therefore,  referred  Mr.  Harris  to  be  stnctly  examined  by 
the  most  learned  of  his  chaplains.  ^Fhe  chaplain,  after  mifli- 
cient  examination,  returned  Mr.  Harris  moderately  hamei* 
This  proving  unsatisfactory  to  the  archbishop,  he  was  com- 
mitted to  the  examination  of  Bishop  Barlow,  a  person  ezacdy 
suited  to  Bancroft's  wishes.  The  bishop  was  a  person  irf 
great  wit  and  learning,  and  extremely  glad  of  the  opportunity. 
He  examined  Mr.  Harris  first  in  divinity,  then  in  other 
branches  of  learning,  particularly  the  Greek,  in  which  Us 
lordship  was  esteemed  a  celebrated  critic.  As  the  stoiy  ii 
related,  '^  they  Greeked  it  till  they  were  both  run  aground  lor 
want  of  words;  upon  which  they  burst  into  a  fit  of  laughter, 
and  so  gave  it  over."*  Barlow  returned  to  the  archfaislioB^ 
and,  delivering  a  most  fovomnble  testimony,  his  grace,  it  v 
said,  was  satisfied. 

Mr.  Harris  being  now  settled  at  Hanwell,  Mr.  Scudder  at 
Drayton,  and  Mr.  Whately  at  Banbury,  they  became  paiti- 
cidarly  intimate,  and  were  united  in  judgment  and  afiectioa. 
Mr.  Harris  married  Mr.  Whately 's  sister,  and  Mr.  Scudder 
his  wife's  sister.  These  divines  commonly  met  tosedier 
once  a  week,  to  translate  and  analyze  a  chapter  of  the  Bibk. 
Iliis  practice  was  productive  of  numerous  good  effects^  bf 
stirring  them  up  to  greater  diligence,  and  promoting  the* 
mutual  edification. 

.  Though  Mr.  Harris  was  thus  comfortably  settled,  he  wis 
called  to  endure  many  trials.  His  faith  and  patience  were 
much  exercised  by  his  wife's  long  and  painful  illness.  Thb 
a£Siction,  said  Mr.  Dod,  was  designed  to  season  him  and  fit 
him  for  tus  work.  '^  And  I  should  have  been  spoiled,''  ssjs 
Mr.  Harris,  ''  had  1  not  been  tlius  taken  down.  Youig 
ministers  know  not  on  what  ground  they  tread  till  God  make 
them  humble."  He,  nevertheless,  foimd  much  encourage* 
ment  in  hb  work.  His  people  began  to  relish  his  miaistiy, 
and  the  Lord  greatly  blessed  his  labours.    He  did  not  fised 

•  Clark's  Utei,  p.  818. 


R.  HARRIS.  90S 

Ihem  i^ith  airy  notions^  and  dry  speculations,  but  with  '^  the 
sincere  milk  of  the  word ;''  and  in  a  method  adapted  to  those 
of  the  meanest  capacity.  And  God  is  said  to  have  so  won- 
derfully blessed  his  endeavours,  that  there  was  not  one  prayer- 
le^s  family  in  Hanwell,  nor  one  person  who  refused  his 
examination  and  instruction  previous  to  receiving  the  Lord's 
supper. 

In  this  situation  he  continued  about  forty  years,  blessed  in 
himself,  and  made  a  blessing  to  his  people,  until  the  com* 
mencement  of  the  civil  wars.  Tlie  bloody  battle  of  Edge- 
hill,  only  a  few  miles  distant,  was  fought  October  23,  I6489 
being  the  Lord's  day ;  yet,  the  wind  bein^  contrary,  he  did 
not  hear  the  least  noise  of  it  till  tiie  public  exercises  of  the 
day  were  over ;  nor  could  he  believe  tlie  report  of  a  battle 
till  soldiers,  besmeared  with  blood,  came  to  make  it  known. 
From  this  time  his  troubles  increased.  Rude  soldiers  were 
quartered  upon  him,  some  calling  him  romtd-kead,  others 
tnalignant ;  but  he  continued  to  attend  upon  his  numerous 
duties  as  at  other  times.  One  company  that  was  quartered 
upon  him  was  so  outrageous  in  sweating,  that  he  could  not 
forbear  preaching  from  James  v.  12.  ^'  Above  all  things,  mj 
brediren,  swear  not  at  all."  This  so  offended  them,  that  they 
swore  they  would  shoot  him  if  he  preached  again  from  the 
same  text    Undismayed  by  their  tlireatenings,  he  ventured  to 

£  reach  from  the  same  words  the  following  sabbath ;  when,  as 
e  was  preaching,  he  observed  a  soldier  preparing  bis  fii^ock, 
as  if  he  meant  to  shoot;  but  Mr.  Harris  went  on  without 
fear,  and  finished  his  discourse  without  interruption.*  He. 
indeed,  endured  the  storm  till  he  had  suffered  very  material 
iigury,  and  was  at  length  drives  from  the  place. 

Ifr.  Harris,  being  forced  from  his  flock,  fled  to  London^ 
when  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  asseinbly  of  divines,  and 
preached  at  St.  Botolph's  church,  Bishopsgate.  He  wu 
one  of  the  preachers  before  the  parliament.  In 'the  year 
1646,  he  was'  appointed  one  of  the  six  preachers  to  the 
miversity  of  Oxford;  and,  the  year  following,  one  of  the 
visitoni.  Dr.  Walker,  with  his  usual  slander,  observes,  that 
when  the  visitors  proceeded  to  open  their  visitation,  they 
began,  as  they  did  all  their  odier  distinguished  wickedness. 
sod  accordu^  to  their  usual  hypocrisy,  with  prayen  ana 
a  sermon!  Tne  sermon  was  preached  by  Mr.  Hams.f  He, 
at  the  same  tkne,  took  his  doctor*s  degree,  was  made  piesi- 

s  CUurk'f  Livei,  p.  3tl.  t  Walker's  Attcnpl,  part  i.  p.  117. 

VOL.  IIT.  X 


a06  LIVES  OP  THE  PURITANS. 

ident  of  Trinity  college,  and  became  rector  of  GrarlingtoB, 
near  Oxford.  He  governed  his  college  with  great  prudence, 
gaining  the  affections  of  all  the  fellows  and  students^  who 
reverenced  him  as  a  Either. 

Dr.  Harris,  in  his  last  sickness,  being  desired  to  admit 
company,  i^aid,  f '  It  is  all  one  to  me  whether  I  am  left  alone 
or  have  my  friends  with  me.  My  work  is  now  to  arm  myself 
for  death,  which  now  assault  me,  and  apply  myself  to  that 
great  encounter."  Accordingly,  he  spent  all  his  time  in 
prayer,  meditation,  and  reading  the  scnptures ;  and  when  he 
became  unable  to  read  himself,  his  friends  read  to  him.  He 
said  to  them,  **  You  must  put  on  all  the  armour  of  God,  and 
then  go  forth  in  the  strength  of  the  Lord.  Stand  in  Ae 
fight,  and  the  issue  will  be  clorious :  only  for^t  not  to  call 
in  the  help  of  your  General.  Do  all  from  hun  and  under 
him."  Bems  asked  whence  he  derived  his  comfort,  he  said, 
"  From  Chnst  and  the  free  grace  of  God."  When  it  was 
signified  that  he  might  take  much  comfort  from  his  laboon 
and  tisefulness,  he  replied,  '^  All  is  nothing  without  a  Saviour. 
Without  him  my  best  works  would  condemn  me.  Oh!  I 
am  ashamed  of  them,  being  mixed  with  so  much -sin.  Oh!  I 
am  an  unprofitable  servant.  1  have  not  done  anything  for Crod 
as  I  ought.  Loss  of  time  sits  heavy  upon  my  spirit.  Woik, 
work  apace.  Be  assured  nothing  will  more  trouble  you,  when 
you  come  to  die,  tlian  that  you  have  done  no  more  for  Grbd, 
who  has  done  so  much  for  you."  He  said,  **  I  never  saw  Ac 
worth  of  Christ,  nor  tasted  the  sweetness  of  God's  love^  id 
so  great  a  measure  as  I  do  now."  When  his  friends  asked 
what  they  should  do  for  him,  he  replied, ''  You  must  not  only 
pray  for  me,  but  praise  God  f&r  his  unspeakable  mercy  to  me. 
O,  how  good  is  God !  Entertain  good  thoughts  of  hmi.  We 
cannot  think  too  well  of  him,  nor  too  ill  of  ourselves.  I  an 
now  going  home,  even  quite  spent.  I  am  on  the  shore,  bat 
leave  you  still  tossing  on  the  sea.  Oh !  it  is  a  good  time  to  die 
in."  Afterwards,  being  asked  how  he  did,  he  said,  ^'  In  no 
great  pain,  I -praise  God,  only  weary  of  my  useless  Bfe.  If 
God  hath  no  more  work  for  me  to  do,  I  would  be  glad  to  be 
in  heaven,  where  I  shall  serve  him  vnthout  distractions^  I 
pass  from  one  death  to  another ;  y^  I  fear  none.  I  pnuse 
God  that  I  can  IKe,  and  dare  die.  If  God  hadi  more  woriL 
for  me  to  do,  1  am  wflling  to  do  it,  though  my  infirm  body  be 
very  weary.''  He  professed  that  he  lived  and  cBed  in  tiiat  nidi 
which  he  preached,  and  found  its  unspeakable  comforts  now  in 
the  immediate  prospect  of  death.    He  closed  his  eyes  ia 


peace^  resigniDg  hit  soul  to  God,  December  11,  l658/iq[ed 
eighty  years.* 

Mr.  Clark  gives  the  following  account  /of  his  exeellent 
endowments: — He  was  a  hard  student,  endowed  witfi  great 
parts,  and  furnished  with  all  manner  of  learning  necessary  to 
a  divine.     He  was  a  pure  and  elegant  Latinist,  very  exact  in 
the  Hebrew,  and  much  admired  as  a  subtle,  clear,  and  ready 
disputant.     He  excelled  in  chronology,  church  history,  the 
councils,  case  divinity,  and  in  the  knowledge  of  the  fadiers. 
But  his  parts  were  best  seen  in  the  pulpit.     His  gifts  in 
■prayer  were  very  great;  his  affections  warm  and  fervent;  his 
petitions  weighty  and  substantial ;  and  his  language,  pertinent, 
unaffected,   and    without    tautology.      He    preached    with 
learned  plainness,   unfolding   the    great    mysteries    of  the 
gospel  to  persons  of  the  meanest  capacities.     He  used  to 
My,  '^  a  preacher  hath  three  books  to  study:    the  Bibkf 
himself y  and  his  p/iople"     He  observed,  that  the  humblest 
{Nreachers  converted  the  greatest  number  of  souls,  not  the 
most  learned  scholars  while  unbroken.     He  valued  no  man 
for  his  gifts,  but  for  his  humility  under  them.     Nor  did  he 
expect  much  from  any  man,  were  his  parts  ever  so  great,  till 
he  was  broken  by  temptations  and  afflictions.    He  was  a 
man>  who  ruled  "(^ell  his  own  house,  was  of  great  modera- 
tion about  church  discipline,  exceedingly  charitable  to  the 
poor,  and  eminently  distinguished  for  humility,  mortification, 
and  self-denial.     In  short,  he  was  richly  furnished  with  every 
necessary  qualification  to  render  him  a  complete  scholar, 
a  wise  governor,  a  profitable  preacher,  and  an  excellent 
christian.f 

Notwithstanding  this  account  from  the  impartial  pen  of 
one  who  must  have  been  well  acquainted  with  him,  Dr. 
Walker  has  stigmatized  him  as  *^  a  notorious  pluralist."  He 
rests  the  evidence  of  this  slanderous  accusation  upon  the 
authority  of  a  scurrilous  and  abusive  letter,  published  to 
expose  and  pour  contempt  upon  the  puritans.  The  doctor 
ilso  observes,  **  that  he  had  somewhere  read,  that  in  those 
times  Dr.  Harris's  picture  was  drawn  with  one  steeple  upon 
bis  head,  and  odiers  coming  out  of  his  pockets."  We  shall 
Hot  attempt  to  justify  pluralities.  They  are  undoubtedly 
indefensible.  Yet  the  satire  had  certainly  been  more  season- 
able, if  pluralities  did  no  where  exist  among  rigid  churchmen.^ 
Respecting  this  charge,  Dr.  Harris  himself  made  the  follow- 
ing open  and  generous  declaration :  ''  I  stood  clear,"  says 

•  Clark's  Lives,  p.  S25--S27,  +  Ibid,  p.  WY— 3S1. 

J  Walker*!  Attempt,  part  I.  p.  127. 


90B  LIVES  OF  T&B  PURITANS. 

he,  ^  in  my  own  conscicncey  and  in  the  consciettciBS  of  those 
who  best  knew  me.  I  was  far  from  allowing  nonresidence 
and  a  plurality  of  livings;  yet,  to  such  as  were  ignolvnt  of  all 
circumstancesy  there  was  some  appearance  of  evil."*  He 
undoubtedly  possessed  several  benefices;  but  whedier  he 
received  the  profits  of  them  all,  and  enjoyed  them  all  at  the 
same  time,  appears  extsemely  doubtfuL  Though  Dr.  Gr^ 
denominates  him  '*■  a  fanatical  hero^  and  a  professedl 
enemy  to  the  constitution,  both  in  church  and  state;''  yet 
he  in  part  acquits  him  of  the  vile  charge,  and  invalidatisa, 
in  a  great  measure^  the  authority  of  th6  above  scurrilous 
letler.t 

The  Oxford  historian  brings  accusations  against  Dr.  Harris, 
which,  if  true,  would  prove  him  to  have  been  one  of  tbe 
basest  of  men.  He  charges  him  with  having  taken-  for  his 
own  use  two  bi^  of  gold,containing  one  hundred  pouwk  eadb^ 
which  he  found  among  some  old  rubbish  in  Tnaity  rnlhir, 
soon  after  he  became  president.  He  also  affirms,  that  Br. 
Harris  told  several  most  glaringfalsehoods,  with  a  view  In 
secure  the  money  to  himself*.  Though  our  documents  wffl 
not  afford  us  materials  for  a  complete  refutation  of  the«e 
charges ;  yet  the  whole  of  what  is  asserted,  and  especiallyjlhe 
worst  part  of  it,  is  so  contrary  to  the  uniform  spirit  and 
deportment  of  this  learned  and  pious  divine,  that  the  account, 
appears  extremely  suspicious,  and  only  designed  to  reproach 
the  memory  of  the  puritans.} 

Dr.  Harris's  last  will  and  testament  contains  much  excel* 
lent  adiace  to  his  wife  and  numerous  children,  but  is  too 
long  for  our  insertion.^  His  works  came  forth  at  diflfieient 
times,  but  were  afterwards  collected  and  published  in  one 
volume  folio,  in  1654.  The  pious  Bishop  Wilkins  passes,  aa 
liigh  encomium  upon  his  sermons.||  It  doc^  not  appear 
whether  he  was  any  relation  to  Dr.  John.  Harris,  whose 
memoir  is  given  in  a  foregoing  article. 


Christopher  Feake  was  first  a  minister  in  the  esta* 
blished  church,  afterwards  he  joined  the  brethren  of  the 
separation,  espoused  the  sentiments  of  the  baptbts,  became  a 
fifth .  monarchy-^nan,  and  was  exceedingly  zealous  in  the. 
cause.    Edwards,  who  styles  him  a  great  sectary,  gives  die 

•  Clark*!  Lives,  p.  323. 

f  Greer's  Examination,  toI.  ii.  p.  898, 299. 

}  Wood's  AciieDaB  Oxod.  toI.  ii.  p.  748. 

Ir  Clark's  Uves,  p.  336—338.  f|  VfUlkisi  on  Preaching,  p.  8S,  89. 


FEAKE*  909 

following  curious  and  amusing  account  of  him :  **  This 
Master  Feake,  >¥ithin  this  twelvemonth,  was  preacher  in  Lon- 
don, and  hath  preached  many  strange  and  odd  things  at 
Peter's  in  Comhill,  besides  Wool-church,  and  other  places : 
as,  for  separation  from*  our  assemblies,  expressing  many 
heterodox  things  about  mixed  communion  at  theiLoitPs 
supper,  against  maintenance  of  ministers  by  uAes ;  and,  in 
sermons  and  prayers,  hath  had  many  flings  at  the  assembly ; 
butnow  is  preacher  in  the  town  of  Hertford,  and  in  AIL-saints, 
the  greatest  parish  and  church  of  that  town,  being  put  into  a 
sequestrated  living  by  the  power  of  some  of  the  independents. 
As  for  his  carriage  at  Hertford,  where  he  hath  preached  since 
last  January,  it  hath  been  as  follows :  His  preaching  and 
praying  shews  him  to  he  no  friend  to  the  assembly,  nor  to  the 
directory;  h^  hath  never  used  the  Lord's  prayer  since  he 
went  thither,  but  hath  preached  agunst  the  use  of  k  as  a 
l^rayer.  It  is  observed  of  him  by  understanding  men,  hia 
auditors,  that  they  never  heard  him  appoint  <h*  sing  a  paakn ; 
he  reads  but  one  chapter,  or  a  piece  of  a  chapter,  and  hath 
Hot  baptized  any  since  his  going.  One  of  the  committee,  a 
Jnslice  of  peace,  put  up  some  articles  against  him  at  die 
«88izes  at  Hertford,  to  both  judges  dien  on  the  bendi.  The 
"finit  was  this,  '  That  God  would  destroy  not  only  unlawful 
government,  but  lawful  government,  not  only  the  abuse,  bat 
the  use  of  it;  and  as  he  had  be^m  to  destroy  it  in  E^haid, 
«o  would  he,  by  raising  combustions  in  the  bowels  of  imuice 
and  Spain;  and  that  he  would  destroy  aristocracy  in  Holland^ 
for  toleratii^  arminianism/  When  he  denied  tibe  words,  one 
being  present  and  asked,  affirmed  him  to  have  preached  ^us ; 
and  there  are  found  four  oAers,  understandiiig  men  and  of 
igood  worth,  who  will  testify  the  same.  When  Master  Feake 
«iplained  himself  before  the  judges,  that  there  was  in 
monarchy  and  aristocracy  an  enmity  against  Christ,  which  he 
would  destroy ;  and  as  he  was  preaching,  some  turbnlent 
fellows  and  sectaries  clambered  up  by  the  bench,  and  cried 
oat,  '  My  lord,  my  lord,  Mr.  Pr.  doth  it  in  malice :  we  will 
maintain  our  ipinister  with  our  blood.'  Whereupon  the 
juitee  threw  away  the  paper,  and  said  he  would  hear  no  more 
of  It,  though  he  had  before  commanded  Master  Eldred  to> 
read  openly  all  those  heterodoxies.  The  Lord's  day  follow- 
ing Master  Feake  in  the  pulpit  endeavoured  to  answer  all 
die  articles  put  up  9gtm»t  him  to  the  judges,  in  m  great 
aaditory.''* 

«  EAmwH^  GMsrsoa,  part  iii.  p.  81, 147,  Ut. 


810  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Upon  the  sequestration  of  Mr.  )\^illiam  Jenkin  he  became 
minister  of  Christ's  churchy  London/  and  afterwards  one  of 
die  lecturers  at  Blackfriars;  but  was  most  violent  against 
Cromwell's  government.  He  is  denominated  a  bold  and 
crafty  orator,  of  high  reputation  among  the  anabaptists.  He 
preached  with  great  bitterness  against  the  civil  administration 
during  the  commonwealth,  but  especially  against  the  protec* 
tor,  calling  him  **  the  man  of  sin,  the  old  dragon,  and  the 
most  dissembling  and  perjured  villain  in  the  world;"  and 
desired,  that  if  any  of  his  friends  were  present,  they  would  go 
and  tell  him  what  he  said.t  The  protector,  therefore,  to 
support  his  own  authority,  ordered  hiufi  to  be  taken  into 
custody.  He  was  apprehended  in  the  year  iGoS,  when  he 
was  carried  before  Cromwell  and  the  council,  and  committed 
prisoner  to  Windsor-castle4  The  baptists,  disliking  the 
proceedings  of  goveiiiment,  protested  against  them  in  t 
work  entitled,/'  A  Declaration  of  several  of  the  Churclies  of 
Christ,  and  godly  people  in  and  about  the  city  of  LondoD, 
concemii^  the  kingly  interest  of  Christ,  and  the  present 
sufierings  of  his  cause  and  saints  in  England,''  1654.  Ib 
this  piece  they  declare,  *^  That  they  value  the  churches  of 
Christ,  which  are  the  lot  of  God's  inheritance,  a  thousand 
times  beyond  their  own  lives ;  that  it  is  their  duty  to  perse- 
vere therein  to  the  utmost  hazard  of  their  lives ;  that  the  Lord 
made  them  instruments  to  vex  all  in  his  sore  displeasure,  vi4io 
take  counsel  against  Christ,  whom  the  Lord  hath  anointed 
and  decreed  king;  and  that  they  were  not  merely  the 
servants  of  man ;  and  that  they  not  only  proclaimed  Jesm 
Christ  to  be  king,  but  that  they  would  submit  to,  him  alone 
upon  his  own  terms,  and  admit  him  only  to  the  exercise  of  his 
royal  authority,"  1  his  declaration  was  subscribed  by  a  gre^t- 
number  of  persons ;  ten  of  whom  are  said-  to  be  **  of  the 
church  that  walks  with  Mr.  Feake,  now  close  prisoner  for  this 
cause  of  Christ,  at  Windsor-castle."$  He  remained  under. 
confinemeht  several  years;  was  in  prison  in  1655;  but  enjoyed 
his  liberty  in  165 7  11  These  tribulations  did  not  cause  him 
to  desist  from  his  public  labours.  For  he  was  no  sooner 
released  from  prison  than  he  renewed  his  ministerial  exer^ 
cise,  and  was  preacher  in  the  city,  most  probably  at  various 
places,  in  the  year  1658  ;f  but  when  he.died  we  are  not  abU 


♦  Keonet's  Chronicle,  p.  793. 

+  Thurloe's  State  Papers,  vol.  i.  p.  621. 

±  Ibid.  vol.  ii.  p.  67.  ^  Declaration,  p.  9,  91. 

«  Thurloe's  State  Papers,  vol.  iii.  p.  485.  t.  756. 

IT  Ibid.  vol.  vii.  p.  57. 


PARTRIDGE— SYMPSON.  3H 

to  learn.   He  was  author  of  several  pieces,  the  tides  of  which 
have  not  come  to  our  knowledge. 


Ralph  Partridge  was  a  most  worthy  minister,  and  b> 
great  sufferer  from  the  persecuting  prelates.  He  was  hunted 
by  the  severity  of  the  bishops,  as  he  used  to  express  it,  '^  like 
a  partridge  upon  the  mountains,  till  at  last  he  was  resolved  tQ 

fet  out  of  their  reach,  and  took  flight  to  New  England.'^ 
Ipon  his  arrival,  he  settled  at  Duxbury  in  the  colony  of 
Plymouth,  and  was  held  in  very  high  repute  through  the 
country.  Tlie  synod  of  Cambridge^  in  1648,  made  choice  of 
him,  together  with  Mr.  Cotton  and  Mr.  Mather,  to  draw  up 
their  model  of  church  government.  He  was  a  person  of 
great  humility  and  self-denial,  and  always  content  with  the 
meanest  circumstances.  When  most  of  the  ministers  of 
Plymouth  colony  left  their  places,  on  account  of  their  want 
of  a  sufficient  maintenance,  this  good  man  continued  with  Ub 
people  to  the  last.*  He  lived  a  pious  and  unblamable  life, 
possessed  a  grave  and  solid  judgment,  was  famous  in  dispu- 
tation, and  much  honoured  and  beloved  by  all  who  knew  hun. 
This  excellent  servant  of  Christ  was  scarcely  ever  interrupted 
in  his  ministry  by  bodily  sickness,  during  the  period  of  forty 
years.    He  dhed  in  a  good  old  age,  in  the  year  l658.f 


.  Sydrach  Sympson,  B.  D. — This  meek  and  quiet  divme 
received  his  education  iu'  the  university  of  Cambridge,  and 
afterwards  became  a  celebrated  preacher  in  London.  He 
was  appointed  curate  and  lecturer  of  St.  Margaret's  church, 
fiah-street ;  but  his  preaching  soon  gave  offence  to  Arch<- 
bishop  Laud,  who,  in  his  metropolitical  visitation,  in  the  year 
1635,  convened  him  before  him,  with  several  other  divines, 
for  breach  of  canons.  Most  of  them  having  promised  sub- 
mission, they  were  di8missed.t  By  the  intemperate  super- 
stition and  bigotry  of  Laud,  and  the  violence  with  which  he 
exacted  conformity,  many  eminent  divines  were  driven  out  of 
the  kingdom.  Amoi^  these  were  Mr.  (afj^erwards  Dn) 
Thomas  Goodwin,  Mr.  Philip  Nye,  Mr.  Jeremiah  Bur- 
roughs, Mr.  William  Bridge,  and  Mr.  Sympson.  They  all 
retired  to  Holland,  and  were  afterwards  denominated  the  five 
pillars  of  the  independent  or  congregational  party ;  and,  in 

•  Mather's  Hist,  of  New  England,  b.  iii.  p.  99. 

f  Morton^  Memorial,  p.  153. 

t  Wharton's  Trouble!  of  Land,  to!,  i.  p.  A86.  ' 


1^1 


819  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

the  assembly  of  diviaes,  were  distinguished  by  the  name  of 
die  dmentuig  brethren.* 

Upon  Mr.  Sympson's  arrival  in  Holland,  he  went  to 
Botterdam ;  and  beholding  the  good  order  of  the  Engliidi 
church  at  that  place,  under  the  pastoral  care  of  Mr.  Bridse, 
he  desired  to  become  a  member ;  and,  upon  delivering  his 
confession  of  fedth,  was  received  into  their  communion. 
After  some  time,  Mr.  Sympson  discovered  certain  things  in 
the  church  which  he  did  not  well  approve ;  and  urged  die 
utility  of  prophesyingSy  that,  after  sermon  on  the  Lord's  day, 
the  people  might  express  their  doubts,  and  propose  questions 
to  the  ministers,  with  a  view  to  their  better  edihcation.  Tins, 
however,  with  some  other  things,  produced  a  misunderstand-  , 
ing  betwixt  Mr.  Bridge  and  Mr.  Sympson ;  which,  at  lengdi^ 
caused  the  latter  even  to  separate  himself  from  the  church, 
and  begin  a  new  interest.  This  new  society  had,  indeed,  a 
very  small  beginning,  but  afterwards,  through  die  blessing  of 
God,  it  became  very  considerable^  Mr.  Joseph  Symonds^ 
another  persecuted  puritan,  succeeded  him  in  the  office  of 
pastor  to  diis  church.| 

About  the  commencement  of  the  civil  war  Mr.  Sympson 
returned  to  England ;  and  in  the  year  1643  was  chosen  one 
of  the  assembly  of  divines,  and  he  constandy  attended  drain 
the  session.  In  all  their  debates  he  conducted  himself  wim 
great  temper  and  moderation.  He  was  one  of  the  five  divines 
who  published  and  presented  to  the  house  of  conunoDf,  in 
1643,  ^*  An  Apologetical  Narration  submitted  to  die  Honenw. 
able  Houses  of  Parliament,"  in  favour  of  the  independents. 
In  the  year  1645  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  committee  oT 
accommodation.^  In  the  year  1647  he  united  with  bb  dii* 
senting  brethren  in  presenting  their  reasons  to  the  houses  of 
parliament,  against  certain  p^rts  of  the  presbyterian  goven- 
ment.||  In  the  year  1650  he  was  appointed,  by  the  pnilift* 
mentary  visitors,  master  of  Pembroke-hall,  Cambric^,  in 
the  room  of  Mr.  Vines,  who  was  turned  out  for  refusing  the  . 
engagement.  In  1654  he  yms  chosen  a  member  of  the  com* 
mittee  for  drawing  up  a  catalogue  of  fundamentals,  to  be 
presented  to  the  parliament.  During  the  same  year  he  was 
constituted,  by  order  of  die  council,  one  of  the  commissioners 
for  the  approbation  of  public  preachers;  these  commissioners 
were  commonly  distinguished  by  the  name  of  fryers.    In 

•  Neal's  Puritans,  toI.  iii.  p.  917. 

f  £dward8*s  Aotapolo^a,  p.  142,  143. 

X  Bailie's  DissoasiTe,  p.  7T.  §  Papen  of  Accom.  p.  1S» 

I  Beasooi  of  Dissentins  Brtthreo,  p.  40>  13S,  198. 


STMPSON. 


313 


1655  he  was  appointed,  by  a  commission  from  the  protector 
Clromwelly  one  of  the  new  visitors  of  the  oniversity  of  Cam- 
bridge.* During  the  long  parliament  he  gathered  a  church 
and  congregation  in  London,  upon  the  plan  of  the  indepen-' 
dents^  which  assembled  in  Abchurch,  near  Cannon-street. 

Mr.  Sympson  was  a  divine  of  considerable  learning,  of 
great  piety  and  devotion,  and  a  celebrated  preacher.  Dr. 
Grey  calls  him  a  celebrated  preacher  of  rebellious  principles  ; 
which  is  plain,  says  he,  from  the  following  passage  in  one  of 
his  sermons:  ^'  Reformation  is  liable  to  inhuman  treacheries. 
Pharaoh's  dealing  was  very  treacherous.  He  bade  the 
people  go ;  gave  them  liberty  by  proclamation ;  and  when  he 
had  got  them  at  an  advantage,  he  brought  up  an  army  to  cut 
them  off.  The  reforming  of  the  church  will  meet  widi  such 
kind  of  enemies."!  If  the  learned  doctor  had  not  been  m  the 
constant  practice  of  ascribing  rebellion  to  the  puritan  divines, 
be  would  have  fotind  some  difficulty  in  discovering  rebellious 
principles  from  this  passage.  And  so  far  from  appearing  ^ 
plain  from  the  passlEige,  that  he  was  a  celebrated  preacher  of 
those  princi{Mes,  we  diink  it  would  puzzle  all  the  learning  of 
the  two  universities  of  Oxford  and*  Cambridge  to  make  the 
discovery.  Mr.  Edwards  censures  him  for  attempting  to' 
piopagate  his  own  sentiments  relative  to  church  discipline^ 
ub^ty  of  conscience,  and  universal  toleration.^  In  his  last 
sickness,  he  laboured  under  spiritual  darkness  and  some 
melancholy  apprehensions;  on  which  account  certain  of  his 
friemls  and  brethren  assembled  at  his  house  to  assist  him 
with  their  prayers.  When  they  took  their  leave  of  him,  he 
tfianked  them,  and  said,  he  was  now  satisfied  in  his  soul,  and 
lifting  up  his  hands  towards  heaven,  exclaimed,  ^^  He  b 
come,  he  is  come !"  and  died  the  same  evening.  This  was 
m  the  year  1658.$  Mr.  Sympson  published  several  sermons 
pveached  before  the  parliament,  one  of  which  is  entitled, 
^  Refpirmation's  Preservation,  opened  in  a  Sermon  preached 
at  Westminster  before  the  Honourable  House  of  Commons, 
at  the  late  solemn  Fast,  July  26,  1643.''  He  was  author 
of  some  other  pieces,  the  titles  of  which  have  not  reached 


•  Sylvester*!  lAt^  of  Baxter,  part  ii.  p.  197.— Neal*s  Pnritani,  Vol.  it. 
p.  S7, 183. 

f  Gre>*i  Examination,  toI.  i.  p.  188.        |  Antapologia,  p.  215,216* 
S  NeaPi  Paritans,  vol.  iv.  p.  207* 


314  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Robert  Dinglet^  A.  M.— This  mcms  minister  was  the 
son  of  Sir  Jolrn  Dingley,  by  a  sister  of  Dr.  Henry  Hammond ; 
Mras  bom  in  Surrey,  in  Uie  year  1619^  and  educ|ited  in  Mag- 
dalen college,  Oxford.  Having  finished  his  studies  at  ths 
imiversity,  he  took  orders,  and,  according  to  Wood,  became 
«<  a  strict  observer  of  church  ceremonies,  and  a  remarkable 
bower  to  the  altar  when  he  entered  the  church."  Upon  the 
commencement  of  the  wars,  he  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
parliament,  became  an  avowed  enemy  to  superstitious  cere- 
monies in  divine  worship,  and  a  zealous  puritan.  He  was 
made  rector  of  Brightstone  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  where  he  was 
much  followed  by  those  of  his  own  persuasion,  for  .his  excel- 
lent practical  preaching.  He  was  presented  to  this  benefice 
when  Colonel  Hammond,  his  kinsman,  was  governor  of  die 
island.  But  while  Mr.  Dingley  was  thus  caressed  and  fol« 
lowed  by  his  own  party,  he  was  hated  by  the  royalists,  oa 
account  of  his  activity  as  assistant  to  the  commissioners  of 
Hampshire,  for  ejecting  ignorant  and  scandalous  ministen 
and  schoolmasters.*  This  is  the  only  crime  alleged  against 
him,  for  which  he  was  even  hated  by  die  contrary  party.  He 
died  at  .Brightstone,  in  the  year  l659>  and  his  remains  werQ 
interred  in  the  chancel  of  hb  own  church.  Over  his  grave 
was  .the  following  monumental  inscription  erected  to  hii 
memory: 

Here 

lieth  the  body 

of  Mr.  Robert  Dingley, 

Minister  of  thiai place ; 

second  sen  of  Sir  John  Dingley,  Knighi, 

who  died  on  the  twelfth  day  of  January^ 

1669, 

in  the  fortieth  year 

of  his  age. 

1.5 

His  Works. — 1.  The  Spiritnal  Taste  described :  or,  a  Glimpse  of 
Christ  discovered,  1640. — ^2.  The  Disputation  of  Angels:  or,  ths 
Ang^cl  Guardian,  1654. — 3.  Messiah's  Spicndonr :  or,  the  |^liiiipso4 
Glory  of  a  Beauteous  Christian,  1654. — 4.  Divine  Optics:  or,  alVeft- 
tise  of  the  Eye,  discovering  the  Vices  and  Virtues  thereof,  1665.— 
5.  Philosophical,  1  historical,  and  Theological  Observations  ef 
Thunder,  with  a  more  general  view  uf  God's  wonderful  Woiki^ 
1658.—^  A  Sermon  on  Job  xxvL  14.,  1658. 


*  Wood's  Athene  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  p.  155. 


DINGLi^T— ARROWSMITH.  315 

John  Arrowsmith,  D.  D. — This  learned  divine  was 
born  at  Gateshead,  near  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  March  9Q, 
1602,  educated  in  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  and  after- 
wards chosen  fellow  of  Katharine-hall,  in  the  same  univer- 
sity. He  was  elected  one  of  the  university  preachers,  was 
beneficed  at  Lynn  in  Norfolk,  afterwards  preacher  at  St.  Mar- 
tin's, Ironmouger's-lane,  London^  and  chosen  one  of  the 
assembly  of  divines.*  He  constantly  attended  durii^  the 
session ;  he  united  with  several  of  his  brethren  in  drawing  up 
the  assembly's  catechism ;  and  was  one  of  the  divines  approved 
by  the  parliament  to  be  consulted  in  ecclesiastical  matters. 
April  1 1,  1644,  he  was  elected  master  of  St.  John's  college^ 
when  Dr.  Beale  was  ejected,  in  the  following  manner:— 
'^The  Right  Honourable  Edward  Earl  of  Manchester,  in 
pursuance  of  an  ordinance  of  parliament,  for  regulating  and 
reforming  the  university  of  Cambridge,  came  in  person  into 
the  chapel  of  St.  John's  college,  and,  by  the  authority  to  him 
committed,  did,  in  the  presence  of  all  the  fellows  then  resi- 
dent, declare  and  publish  Mr.  John  Arrowsmith  to  be  con- 
stituted master  of  the  said  college  in  room  of  Dr.  Beale,  late 
master  there,  but  now  justly  and  lawfully  ejected :  requiring 
him  the  said  John  Arrowsmith,  then  present,  to  take  upon 
him  the  said  place,  and  did  put  him  into  the  said  master's 
seat  or  stall,  within  the  sud  chapel :  and  did  likewise  straitly 
charge  all,  and  every  of  the  fellows,  &.c.  to  acknowledge  him 
to  be  actually  master  of  the  college,  and  sufficiently  autho- 
rized to  execute  the  said  office." 

Upon  his  admission,  he  was  required  to  make  and  subscribe 
a  solemn  declaration,  of  which  the  following  is  a  copy  :t 

**  I,  John  Arrowsmith,  being  called  and  constituted  by  the 
Right  Honourable  Edward  Earl  of  Manchester,  (who  is 
authorized  thereto  by  an  ordinance  of  parliament,)  to  be' 
master  of  St.  John's  college,  in  the  university  of  Cambridge, 
with  the  approbation  of  the  assembly  of  divines  now  sitting 
at  Westmmster,  do  solemnly  and  seriously  promise,  in  the 
presence  of  Almighty  God,  the  searcher  of  ail  hearts,  that, 
durii^  the  time  of  my  continuance  in  that  charge,  I  shall 
feithfully  labour  to  promote  piety  and  learning  in  myself,  the 
fellows,  scholars,  and  students,  that  do  or  shall  belong  to  the 
said  college,  agreeably  to  the  late  solemn  national  league  and 
covenant  by  me  sworn  and  subscribed,  with  respect  to  all 
the  good  and  wholesome  statutes  of  the  said  college,  and  of  the 
university,  correspondent  to  the  said  covenant;  and  by  all 

«  Baker'i  MS.  Collec.  vol.  i.  p.  865.  f  Ibid.  vol.  zii.  p.  169, 170. 


^  ^ 


316  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

means  to  procure  the  welfare  and  perfect  reformation  both 
of  that  college  and  university,  so  far  as  to  me  appertains. 

"John  Arhowsmith." 

During  the  above  year  he  was  one  of  the  committee  of 
learned  divines,  which  united  with  a  committee  of  the  lords 
and  commons,  to  treat  with  the  conunissioners  of  the  church 
of  Scotland,  concerning  an  agreement  in  matters  of  religion.* 
He  took  his  doctor's  degree  in  the  year  16479  ^^^  ^^^  chosen 
vice-chancellor  of  the  university  the  same  year.  In  the  year 
1651  he  was  elected  regius  professor  of  divinity,  upon  the 
death  of  Dr.  Collins,  who  had  filled  the  chair  marnr  years ; 
and  was  at  the  same  time  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Scrmer- 
sham.i  In  1633,  upon  the  death  of  Dr.  Hill,  he  was  chosen 
master  of  Trinity  college,  Cambridge,  when  he  was  succeeded 
at  St.  John's  by  Dr.  Tuckney ;  and,  m  1655,  he  resigned  his 
professorship,  in  which  office  he  was  succeeded  by  me  same 
person.^  He  was  appointed  one  of  the  tryers,  and  one  of  the 
preachers  before  the  parliament.  He  was  a  man  of  unexcep- 
tionable character,  and  of  great  learning  and  piety ;  an  acate 
disputant,  a  judicious  divine,  and  an  excellent  author,  u 
appears  from  the  learned  productions  of  his  pen, '  which 
gained  him  great  reputation.  He  died  in  February,  l6S9f 
aged  fifty-seven  years,  and  his  remains  w^re  interred  m 
*1  rinity  college  chapel,  the  24th  of  the  same  mondi.j 

Mr.  Neal  having  observed  that  the  leammg  and  J^ty  of 
our  divine  were  unexceptionable.  Dr.  Grey  adds,  "And had 
our  learned  historian  added,  that  he  was  an  eminent  preacher*, 
and  famed  for  his  flowers  of  rhetoric,  I  could  have  helped 
him  to  passages  in  support  of  such  an  assertion."  He  men 
enumerates  the  passages  as  follows: — '^  You  have  endea- 
voured," says  he,  ^'  to  fence  this  vineyard  vnth  a  settle(|  mili- 
tia,  to  gather  out  the  malignants  as  stones,  to  plant  it  widl 
men  of  piety  and  truth,  as  choice  vines,  to  build  the  towers  of 
a  poweiful  ministry  in  the  midst  of  it,  and  to  make  a  win»> 
press  for  the  squeezing  of  malignants. — ^The  main  woiC  of 
the  spirit  of  grace  is  to  negociate  the  treaty  of  a  match  betwixt 
the  Lord  Jesus  and  the  coy  souls  of  men. — It  b  a  spiritiad 
affection  that  hath  the  Holy  Ghost  for  its  father,  feith  for  its 
Aiother,  prayer  for  its  midwife,  the  word  for  its  nurse,  sin- 
cerity for  its  keeper,  and  trembling  for  its  handmaid. — ^After 
some  overtures  of  a  match  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  VIIJ., 

*  Pftpera  of  Accom.  p.  13.  +  Baker'i  MS.  CoUec.  yoL  i.  p.  iMk 

X  Kennet's  Chronicle,  p.  601,  935. 

S  Wood*8  Athens,  vo).  ji.  p.  371.— Calamy*!  Accoiuty  vol*  ij.  p«  78» 
994.^Baker'8  MS.  CoUec.  toI.  i.  p,  8«5, 


AEROWSMITH.  51T 

die  reformed  church  in  this  Idngdom  was  solemnly  married  ta 
Jesus  Christ,  when  the  sceptre  was  swayed  by  Edward  VI, 
That  godly  young  prince  (as  became  the  bridegroom's  friend) 
rejoicing  greatly^  because  of  the  brid^oom's  voice.  The 
famous  nine  and  thirty  articles  of  her  confession  then  framed, 
were  an  evident  sign  of  her  being  with  child,  and  that  a 
thorough  reformation  viras  then  concevcedy  though  but  con-" 
ceived.  Many  and  sore  were  the  breeding  fits  she  conflicted 
with  m  Queen  Mary's  days,  and  such  as  gave  occas^n  to  fear 
she  would  have  miscarried/'* 

In  another  place,  says  Dr.  Grey,  ^*  I  shall  take  the  liberty 
of  adding  a  character  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  from  a  right 
'  reverend  bishop  of  those  times ;"  and  then  cites  his  lordship's 
words  as  follows: — ^^^  You  mayjud^e  of  them,"  says  the 
bishop,  ^'  by  their  compeers,  Goodwm,  Burroughs,  Arrcwh 
tmiihj  and  die  rest  of  their  ignorant,  factious,  and  schismatical 
ministers,  that,  together  widb  those  intruding  mechanics,  (who 
widiout  any  callmg  from  God  or  man,  do  step  from  their 
batcher^*  board,  or  horses'  stable,  into  the  preacher's  pulpit,) 
aie  the  bellows  which  blow  up  this  fire,  that  threatened  the 
deatmction  'of  this  land."f 

The  reproachful  insinuations  of  the  doctor  and  the  learned 
prelate  ace  sufficiently  refuted  from  the  following  account  of 
Dr*  Arrowsmith,  given  by  one  who  appears  to  have  been  well 
acquainted  with  him :— -^^  He  was  a  burning  and  a  shining 
lig$t;  who,  by  his  indefatigable  study  of  the  sublime  m^ste- 
fiei  of  the  gospel,  spent  himself  tp  the  utmost,  to  explicate 
die  daricest  places  of  scripture.  This  he  did  with  a  view  to 
enli^len  others  in  the  knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ.  He  was 
m  holy  and  learned  divine ;  firm  and  zealous  in  his  attach- 
ment to  the  cause  of  Christ,  from  which  no  worldly  allure- 
loent  would  shake  his  faith,  or  move  his  confidence.  He  was 
%  jnan  of  a  thousand.  Those  who  best  knew  him  could 
^  give  testimony  of  his  diligence,  his  zeal,  his  integrity.  His 
|tublic  ministry  discovered  hb  great  dexterity, 'sound  jud^* 
menf^  admirable  learning,  and  indefatigable  labours.  His 
90ul  aspired  after  more  than  his  weak  and  sickly  body  was 
aUe  to  perform.  He  put  fordi  his  energy  beyond  his  strjengtb 
to  do  good."^ 

IBs  Works.— 1.  Tbe  Covenant-avengiii^  Sword  Brandished,  in  a 
Sfltmon  before  the  Honourable  House  of  Commons,  at  their  late 


•  Grey'i  Examination,  ▼ol.  if.  p.  156.  f  IWd.  p.  ^U 

t  Arrawimitb'f  Qod-Mao,  FM.    Edit.  1660. 


SIS  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

•olemn  Fast,  Jui.  d5,  1649-^1643^-3.  England's  EbeB-«ser;  or, 
Stone  of  Help  set  up  in  thaokral  acknowledgment  of  the  Liord's 
having  helped  ns  hitherto,  in  a  Sermon  preached  to  both  Houses  of 
Parliament  at  Christ's  Chnrcb,  London,  March  12,  1645—1646.— 
d.  A  Chain  of  Principles ;  or,  an  Ordinary  Concatenation  of  theolo- 
gical Aphorisms  and  l.xercitafions,  1659.-^  €rod-Man^  1660.^ 
6.  A  Great  Wonder  in  Heaven. — 6.  Tracta  Sacra. 


Peter  Bulkly,  B.  D. — ^Thb  excellent  person  was  born 
at  Odell  in  Bedfordshire,  January  31,  1582,  and  educated  in 
St.  John's  college^  Cambridge^  where  he  was  chosen  fdlow. 
He  had  a  considerable  estate  left  him  by  bis  fother.  Dr.  Ed- 
ward Bulkly/  whom  he  succeeded  in  the  ministry  at  the 
place  of  his  birth.     By  favour  of  the  excellent  Bishop  Wit 
liams,  who  connived  at  his  nonconformity,  as  he  had  done 
at  the  nonconformity  of  his  venerable  father,  he  continiied 
unmolested  upwards  of  twenty  years.     Towards  the  close  of 
this  period,  his  ministry  was  attended  with  wonderful  success 
in  the  conversion  of  souls.     But  infonnation  was  no  sooner 
given  to  Archbishop  Laud  than  he  was  immediately  silenced 
for  nonconformity .t     His  mouth  being  stopped,  and  havmg 
no  further  prospect  of  ministerial  usefiilness  in  his  own  ooim- 
try,  he  sold  his  estate,  and,  in  1635,  went  to  New  England. 
He  took  with  him  a  considerable  number  of  planters,  who^ 
upon  their  arrival,  settled  at  a  place   which  they  cdled 
Concord.     1  here  he  gathered  a  church,  became  its  wortkj 
pastor,  and  expended  a  large  estate,  while  most  of  his 
vants  got  estates  under  him.    It  was  his  custom,  when  any 
had  lived  with  him  a  certain  number  of  years,  to  dismiss  him 
frpm  his  service,  and  fix  him  in  a  comfortable  situation,  and 
so  take  another  in  his  room. 

Mr.  Bulkly  was  author  of  '^  The  Gospel  Covenant  opened," 
of  which  the  pious  Mr.  Shepard  has  given  the  follownMf 
account:  ''The  church  of  God,'*  says  he, ''is  bound  to  bless  God 
for  the  holy,  judicious,  and  learned  labours  of  this  aged,  expe- 
rienced, and  precious  servant  of  Jesus  Christ;  who  hath  taken 
much  pains  to  discover,  in  demonstration  and  evidence  of  the 
Spirit,  the  great  mystery  of  godliness  wrapt  up  in  the  cove* 
nant ;  and  hath  now  fully  opened  many  knotty  questions  con- 
cerning the  same,  which  have  not  been  brought  so  fully  to 
light  until  now."t   T^^  ^oi'l^  passed  through  several  editions, 

*  Dr.  Bulkly  was  a  faithful  miDistpr  of  the  gospH,  and  a  person  of  dii- 
tingoishf  d  eminence.  He  made  additions  to  Foz^s  "  Acts  and  Moflnaieoli 
of  the  Martyrs.**— See  Fox't  Martyrg,  toI.  iii.  p.  861«-863. 

t  Mather*!  Hist,  of  New  Enj.  b.  ill.  p.  98.  t  ^^^^»  P*  ^* 


.      BULKLT-*JACOMB.  319 

WBB  highly  esteemed,  and  was  one  of  die  first  books  published 
in  New  England. 

Mr.  Bulkly  was  twice  nliarried.  By  his  first  wife  he  hadi 
nine  sons  and  two  daughters ;  and  by  his  second  wife,  the 
amiable  daughter  of  Sir  Richard  Chitwood,  he  had  three  sons 
and  one  daughter.  Old  age,  and  its  numerous  infirmities,  at 
length  coming  upon  him,  put  an  end  to  his  zealous  and  useful 
labours.  He  was  afraid  of  out-living  his  work,  and  died 
March  9,  1659>  aged  seventy-seven  years. .  He  was  an 
excellent  scholar,  a  thundering  preacher,  a  judicious  divine^ 
a  strict  observer  of  the  sabbath,  an  exemplary  christian,  and 
one  who  was  esteemed  as  a  father,  a  prophet,  and  a  coun- 
•ellor  in  the  new  commonwealth.*  He  had  three  sons  employed 
in  the  ministry,  Gresham,  Edward,  and  John.  Edward  suc«- 
ceeded  his  father  as  pastor  of  the  church  at  Concord,  where 
he  died.  John,  his  youngest  son,  was  educated,  and. took 
iiis  degrees,  in  Harvard  college;  and,  coming  to  England, 
flatted  in  the  ministry  in  this  country,  but  was  ejected  by  tlw 
act  of  uniformity  in  l662.t 


Samubl  Jacomb,  B.  D. — This  learned  divine  was  bora 
«t  Bnrton-Lazers  in  Leicestershire,  and  educated  in  Queen's 
college,  Cambridge;  of  which,  in  the  year  1648,  he  was 
chosen  fellow.  By  the  religious  instruction  of  his  pious 
parents,  together  with  his  attendance  upon  the  ministry  of 
Mr.  Ludlam,  he  was  brought  under  serious  concern  for  his 
tool  at  a  very  early  period.  Having  resolved  to  employ  him- 
self in  the  mmistry,  he  became  a  hard  student,  a  good  scholar, 
and  an  excellent  divine.  His  preaching  while  at  the  univer- 
•ity  was  much  admired  and  followed  by  the  collegians  and 
omtn.  He  was  possessed  of  popular  talents,  and  was 
appointed  one  of  the  university  preachers  by  the  authority  •of 
me^mrliament. 

;  Mn  Jacomb  continued  at  Cambridge  about  twelve  years. 
Afterifards,  he  removed  to  London,  and  was  chosen  pastor 
at  StrMary  Woolnoth,  in  Lombard-street.  In  this  situation, 
hit  excellent  endowments  were  much  esteemed  and  admired, 
as  wdtt  by  his  brethren  in  the  ministry  as  by  the  people  of 
his  charge.  His  sermons  were  so  demonstrative,  that  tliej 
were  sufiicient  to  convince  an  atheist ;  so  clear,  as  to  enlighten 
the  most  ignorant;  so  awakening,  as  to  rouse  tlie  most  cam- 
less;   so  persuasive,  as  to  charm  the  most  obdurate;   so 

•  Mather's  Hist,  of  New  Sng .  b.  iH.  p.  9t. 
f  Falner's  Noncoo.  Men.  toI'.  ii.  p.  fOO. 


SSO  LIViSS  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

fervent,  as  to  awaken  the  most  formal ;  and  so  discreet^  as  to 
reduce  the  most  fiery  zealot  to  a  proper  temper.  Incoih. 
versation  he  was  grave,  humble,  cheerful,  amble,  serious, 
and  affectionate.*  However,  with  these  exceUent  quidifica- 
tions,  he  did  not  live  fou^  years  after  his  removal  to  LondoiL 
During  his  last  sickness,  he  felt  happily  resigned  to  his 
heavenly  Father's  will.  **  God  is  wise,"  said  he,  ^  Aereibre 
let  him  do  with  me  as  seemeth  him  good.*'  His  comfdaiirt 
/beginning  to  affect  his  head,  and  to  becloud  his  mind,  he  was 
exercised  with  fears,  and  said,  ^*  This  is  the  only  ibiiig  du^ 
troubles  me,  l^st  I  should  lose  my  understanding ;  but  my 
Savioiu-  intercedes  for  me:  he  doth,  he  doth."  His  fean 
were  altogether  groundless.  He  enjoyed  the  perfect  nae  of 
his  mental  powers,  with  solid  peace  and  comfort  to  the  last 
ilis  last  words  were,  There  remaineth  a  rest  for  thepeopkcf 
God,  He  died  in  the  month  of  June,  1639-  He  lived  and 
died  a  nonconformist  to  the  church  of  England.f  And  he 
appears  to  have  been  brother  to  Dr.  Thomas  Jacomb,  the 
ejected  nonconformist.^  Mr.  Jacomb  published,  ^  Moses 
his  Death,  a  Sermon  preached  at  Christ's  Church  in  London, 
at  the  funeral  of  Mr.  Edward  Bright,  Minister  there,**  1657- 
He  was  author  of  two  or  three  other  Sermons.  Mr.  Pktridc 
preached  and  published  his  funeral  sermon,  firom  iriiidi 
part  of  this  brief  memoir  is  collected. 

« 

Thomas  Cawton,  A.  M. — ^This  excellent  divine  wi» 
bom  at  Rainham  in  Norfolk,  in  the  year  1605,  and  educated 
m  Queen's  college,  Cambridge.  lie  was  desirous  of  the 
ministerial  work  from  a  child,  and  was  patronized  and  snp^ 
ported  at  the  university  by  Sir  Roger  Townshend.-  He  maoe 
uncommon  progress  in  the  knowledge  of  the  arts,  the  lai^ 
guages,  and  divinity ;  and  his  piety  was  so  remaricable,  tint  it 
became  a  proverb  in  the  university.  The  profiuie  achelan 
us^d  to  stigmatize  those  who  were  religiously  inclined  ^  as 
poisoned  by  Cawton's  faction,  and  as  becoming  Cawtooiats*'' 
Havii^  continued  seven  years  at  the  university,  he  removed 
to  Ash  well,  about  twelve  miles  from  Cambridge,  to  live  in  die 
house  of  Mr.  Herbert  Palmer,  another  celebrated  puritui. 
His  principal  object  in  this  removal  was  the  study  of  divinity, 
in  which  he  made  a  remarkable  proficiency,  and  occasionally 
assisted  Mr.  Palmer  in  the  exercises  of  die  pulpit.    Affcer- 

♦  Niphols's  Hist,  of  Leicestershire,  vol.  ii.  p.  2T0. 
f  Patrick's  Funeral  Sermon  for  Mr.  Jacomb. 
X  Falmer's  Noocon.  Mem.  vol.  i.  p.  160. 


cAWTON.  an 

ivards;  he  became  domestic  chaplain  to  Sir  William  Annin*, 
of  Orton  in  Nothamptonshire ;  where  he  was  exceedii^ly 
beloved  for  his  piety,  alnlities,  and  faithfulness.  Having  con- 
tinued in  this  situation  four  years,  he,  in  the  year  l6S7, 
became  rector  of  Wivenhoe  in  Essex,*  being  presented  to  the 
living  by  Sir  Roger  Townshend.  When  he  entered  upon 
his  charge  at  Wivenhoe,  it  was  a  place  remarkable  for  drunk- 
enness, swearing,  sabbath-breaking,  stnd  almost  every  other 
scene  of  profaneness ;  but,  by  the  blessing  of  God  upon  hii 
'faithful  labours  and  exemplary  deportment,  it  soon  became 
equally  remarkable  for  sobrie^,  the  observation  of  the  sab-* 
bath,  and  unfeigned  piety.  The  inhabitants  of  the  town 
usually  brought  their  fish  to  sell  on  the  sabbath  day,  when 
they  kept  their  market  near  the  church-doors.  Mr.  Cawton's 
righteous  soul  was  sorely  vexed  with  their  ungodly  ways ;  and, 
by  his  faithful  and  unwearied  endeavours,  the  evil  practice  was 
aboli^ed,  and  a  happy  reformation  followed,  it  is  further 
added,  that  he  was  the  means  of  bringing  great  numbers  to 
.the  saving  knowledge  of  the  gospel ;  and  diat  no  minister  was 
ever  more  beloved  by  his  people.f  He  married  die  daughter 
of  Mr.  William  Jenkin,  the  ejected  nonconformist. 

Mr.  Cawton  having  continued  his  ministerial  labours  at  the 
mbove  place  about  seven  years,  his  healdi  began  visibly  to 
decline,  when  he  was  advised  to  remove  to  some  other  situa- 
tion, particularly  for  a  change  of  air ;  and  receiving,  about 
the  same  time,  an  invitation  to  Bartholomew's  church,  behind 
the  Exchange,  London,  he  removed  to  the  metropolis.  The 
chance  proved  happily  instrumental  in  the  restoration  of  his 
healm,  and  the  means  of  preventing  the  return  of  the  ague. 
In  London,  Sir  Harbottle  Grimstone,  who  lived  in  his  parish, 
was  his  constant  hearer  and  his  very  good  friend.  In  the 
year  1648,  he  united  with  the  London  ministers  in  their 
declaration  against  the  king's  death  :t  and,  the  same  year,  was 
brought  into  trouble  for  his  zeal  in  the  royal  cause.  Being 
invited  by  the  lord  mayor  and  aldermen,  to  preach  at  Mercer's 
chapel,  he  prayed  for  the  royal  family,  especially  for  king 
Charles  H.,  whom  he  considered  as  the  legsu  sovereign :  but 
delivered  nothing  offensive  in  his  sermon.  His  prayer,  how- 
ever, proved  offensive  to  the  ruling  party.  The  day  follow- 
ing, the  council  of  state  issued  a  warrant  to  apprehend  jiim.( 

*  Newconrt*8  Repert.  Eccl.  vol.  ii.  p.  679. 

t  Life  of  Mr.  Cawtoo,  p.  1—^.     Edit.  1602. 

1   Calamy'i  Contin.  toI.  ii.p.  743. 

S  The  warrant,  dated  Arom  Derby-hovse,  February  96»  1648,  wm  tlMi 
ffonowlns:— ^'Tliese  are  to  will  and  require  you  forthwith,  spM  .light 
^*  hereof,  to  make  speedy  repair  aato  any  tech  place.  fihtffft>.ys»  m^l 

VOL.  III.  V  .        . 


928  LIVES  OF  THE  PURITANS. 

Upon  bis  appearance  before  bis  judges,  he  was  chained  witb 
having  proclaimed  the  young  kin^;  and  that,  according  to  die 
existing  laws,  he  was  guilty  of  high  treason.  He  waa,  dieie- 
fore,  required  to*  make  his  humble  submission,  and  to  retract 
what  he  had  uttered,  as  the  indispensable  condition  of  his 
release.  This  Mr.  Cawton  refused  to  do,  saying, ''  If  I  have 
done  any  thing  not  becoming  a  minister  of  the  gospel^  I  liope 
I  should  be  willing  to  recant."  He  was  then  sent  prisoner  ta 
the  Gatehouse,  where  he  continued  about  six  months.  Bot 
the  parliaments  forces  in  Ireland  having  obtained  a  signal 
victoi^,  the  house  of  commons  resolved  that  a  certain  number 
.  of  prisoners,  and  Mr.  Cawton  among  the  rest,  should  be  set 
at  liberty,  as  a  testimony  of  thankfulness  to  God.  He  wai 
accordingly  released,  August  14,  1649-* 

Mr.  Cawton  having  obtained  his  liberty,  returned  to  Us 
fiunily  and  his  flock,  and  continued  for  some  time  in  the 
zealous  and  laborious  observance  of  his  ministerial  duties. 
But  in  the  year  165 1,  being  deeply  concerned  in  Love's  plol^t 
he  fled  to  Holland,  together  with  Mr.  James  Nalton.  iJpoo 
their  arrival,  the  English  church  at  Rotterdam  being  destitnte 
of  a  pastor,  they  were  chosen  co-pastors  to  the  society.  Hr. 
Nalton,  afterwards  one  of  the  ejected  nonconformists^  having 
leave  to  come  back,  returned  home ;  but  Mr.  Cawton  not 
enjoying  the  same  privilege,  remained  at  Rotterdam  to  the 
day  of  his  death.  His  fame,  both  as  a  preacher  and  a 
scholar,  soon  spread  through  the  United  Provinces.  He  shone 
as  a  star  of  the  lirst  mi^nitude,  and  was  highly  esteemed  by 
die  Dutch,  French,  and  English  ministers  in  those  partSb 
He  presently  became  intimately  acquainted  with  the  leanied 
Voetius,  Leusden,  Uchtman,  Hulsius, .  and  others^  highly 
celebrated  for  piety  and  literature.  The  publication  of  those ' 
famous  works,  ^<  Walton's  Polyglot  Bible,'*  and  <<  Castell'i 
Lexicon  Heptaglotton,"  were  greatly  indebted  to  his  cmcou- 
ragement  and  exertions.^     In  the  year  1658,  he  received  a 

**  vDdentaod  Uie  ptnon  of  Mr.  Thomas  Cawton  to  be,  who  pmcbci 
**  before  the  lord  mayor  yesterday  |  and  him  yon  are  to  appnheod,  anA 
*'  briof  into  safe  custody,  before  (he  council  of  sUte,  for  leditioat  presd^ 
**  inf(  I  hereof  you  are  not  to  fail,  and  for  ap  doing  this  ibaU  be  year 
"  sofBcient  warrant."— !:,//•  •/  Mr.  Catotoriy  p.  87. 

*  Life  of  Mr.  Cavi'ton,  p.  S8~4S. 

f  See  Art.  (hristopber  Love. 

t  Palmer's  Noncon.  Mem.  vol.  i.  p.  148. 

V  Ufe  of  Mr.  Cawtoo,  p.  48— 66.— The  former  of  these  learMd  ivorks 
was  printed  in  six  volumes  folio,  and  was  the  first  book  pablltbed'  ia 
£ni;land  by  subscription.  The  latter  cost  the  au